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Purpose :

The purpose of this assignment is to provide you with an understanding of the rationale for planning in the travel and tourism industry.

You have started work as a trainee manager for Tourism Concern. Your manager has asked you to research a country where there are issues from the impacts of tourism.

Discuss the following on your chosen country (Philippines or UK)

•How stakeholders can benefit from planning of tourism developments
•The advantages and disadvantages of public/private sector tourism planning partnerships

Purpose of this assignment:

This assignment will allow you to explore the different approaches to tourism planning and development. You will explore planning in terms of sustainability.

You have started work as a trainee manager for Tourism Concern. Your manager has asked you to research the different approaches to tourism planning and development and present your findings in a report to be given to the Tourism Concern management team at the end of May.

You must produce a report to include the following:

•Analysis of the features of tourism development planning at different levels
•Evaluation of the significance of interactive planning systems and processes in tourism developments
•Evaluation of the different methods available to measure tourist impact

You must also include in your report the below:

•Justification of the introduction of the concept of sustainability in tourism development
•Analysis of the factors that may prevent/hinder sustainable tourism development
•Analysis of the different stages in planning for sustainability

Understand different approaches to tourism planning and development

Part 1

Stakeholders benefits from planning of tourism development 

The term stakeholders in tourism development basically include different types of players. They are national government, trade unions of tourism employees, tourism education and training centers, local population, tourism establishment and enterprises including their association, local government, travellers, and other judicial and other persons having stake in tourism development including non-governmental organizations specializing in tourism directly involved in tourism projects and the supply of tourism services (Mowforth & Munt, 2015).   

There are some benefits for stakeholders from planning of tourism development are:

  1. Tourism associations- The relationship in movement and tourism can get benefit from the arrangement which encourage them to plan their exercise for advancing the place by cultivating the unity in the business of movement.     
  2. Financial institution- it is an important role for tourism sector to great extent. The arrangements can assists the organizations with investigating and get the benefit at the same time. Tourism can achieve the short and long economic, environmental and social cultural with the help of plan to determine the factors.
  3. Business organization- The plan gives the information and details of all visitors which help them to set their strategic to attract more people across the world of organization like hotels or tour agencies.
  4. Cultural power and cultural empowerment- Most of the tourist enjoy by the meeting of local people and learning from the traditional cultural. Language is also important essential for this effort (Sharpley & Telfer, 2015). Sustainable tourism program is consider as  important value for the community participation, at the same time, traditional community feel greater as interest shown by outsiders.

In the tourism business, there are models where association courses of action are extremely convincing for the achievement of tourism arranging and improvement. Since the private sector area is worried about the arrangement of administrations, the settling of land-utilize clashes and the definition and usage of improvement strategies, and the private division is mainly worried about benefit, organizations between the private and open part on different issues can profit goals.

The advantage in tourism is:

  1. It provides the jobs for locals. Tourism can give genuinely necessary work to individuals to all need staffing (Smith, 2014).
  2. For infrastructure it provides the incentive for investment as well as finding their local medicals or education facility.
  3. It brings money. This is probably the primary favorable position of tourism and the motivation behind why it has been advanced such a great amount as of late in creating nations particularly (Ivanovich, 2015). Regardless of whether in creating or created nations, the wage produced can make up a huge extent of the national salary.
  4. It increases the profit for general places. It gives the chance to locality to show itself off and raise the profit in the world.

The disadvantages in tourism are:

  1. The lack of respect for local traditions and cultural for not following the basic cultural power or empowerment.
  2. The jobs which are provided by the tourism are at low levels mostly.
  3. Tourism jobs are most of the time is seasonably and do not provide the extra benefits to the people.
  4. Most of the tourism industry in UK is owned by the foreign companies in which they make major profits and leaving local business with little benefits (Nunkoo, 2015).
  5. Tourism can cause environment damage with population and fire forests.

Task 1

Features of tourism development planning 

While building up the tourism arranging it is expected to perceive the distinctive levels that are related inside the tourism area (Sharpley & Telfer, 2015). The attributes of the considerable number of associations are should have been distinguished before starting the advancement procedure of the arranging framework. It is need to analyses the features in the following ways:

International level- The association working in the worldwide level like Organization for financial Cooperation and Development (OECD) is having an expectation to upgrade the monetary and social welfare of the general population over the world and particularly to the creating goals. International transportation services are one of the integral features that will aid in the tourism development planning that to at international level. The movement and scheduling of tours and tourists al over the globe will be managed by making use of international Air Transportation Associations. There are various other associations which will aid in the development process of tourism such as International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and World Tourism Organization (WTO).

National level- Tourism operation in a country, support the private as well as public organizations at the national level. They introduce the incentive to support tourism industry by implementing different strategic at different levels. The tourism expert of Costsaver works with every one of the associations at the national level for to help them for leading the business effectively.  Tourism policies, developing and maintain infrastructure facilities, on domestic level will be considered as a point in the development planning of tourism. Moreover regional connections of the tour routes and destinations should also be developed for this planning process.


The features for regional for Costsaver are more particular with accentuation in points of interest that includes neighborhood networks (Sub Regional). The local key arrangement is identified with urban communities and particular goal, for instance London, Kent, Edinburg, and Giant Causeway and so on. For example, Visit London is an official site with everything that visitor need to know to design the trek, the site incorporates lodgings, attractions, transport data and substantially more. While at national level association are arranging arrangements, enactment and framework at territorial level have accentuation in area, showcasing, media publicizing and leaflet to advance the particular goal or fascination.

Stakeholders benefits from planning of tourism development


Sub Regional additionally needs to work near provincial and national level of organization. Sub territorial key arrangement frequently depends on worldwide body to advance and secure the goal and fascination. The ward has points of interest plan the must incorporate, water supply, sanitation, sorts of administrations offer, number of settlement, offices and availabilities, attractions that can be normal, social or manmade and so on. Common and social are attractions that typically include UNESCO and WTO, while man-made fascination every now and again gets the help from national association and government. The diverse levels are free however are altogether identified with one another with the end goal to accomplish a reasonable arrangement and create goal with certainty.

The negative impact on the communities of Costsaver can restrict the tourism plan with the active involvement of the stakeholders (Boniface, Cooper & Cooper, 2016). The insufficiency to meet the ecological benchmark can be distinguished promptly which will make the arrangement maintainable for the future and will likewise pull in more vacationer over the world. Interactive planning involves the stakeholders for the planning processes. It is a continuous process; it does not start or stop.  

There are different processes of tourism development are:

  • Assessment of tourist demand and supply- To gather all the information in one way and on the potential available for desirable growth. While investigating the tourism the main problem can be lack of information.
  • Objective setting- The objective for the tourism must be sub set off overall objective for the economy, its nations, people and the social structure within an area. The growth of tourism increased the standard of living, employments levels, and opportunities for intellectual growth in an area or country.
  • Strict monitoring of the policies and practices that are established by the government authorities should be done.
  • Tourism arrivals should be measured by the local authorities so as to forward it to the national level.
  • For informing the planning process various surveys and evaluation events can be organized and the same should be shared with the local authorities.      

Apart from this, there are more process is territorial planning, basic infrastructure, financial planning, human resources planning, administrative structure, marketing promotion, time factor.

  • Triple bottom line: It is also known as TBL framework and it is mainly used for maintaining sustainable environmental practices. The investigation of socio-biological tourism-based frameworks requires new, subjectively extraordinary assessment plots that empower a combined appraisal of environmental, social, and financial factors using fitting pointers identified with the biological system benefit idea.
  • Economic impact model: Although, this method is used for evaluating the change in specific areas to the entire globe. The primary purpose of this model is to determine the changes which occurred in business profits, revenues or in jobs. In this context, this is used as the evaluation tool for determining impact over tourism as Nature-constructed tourism is emphatically needy with respect to the nature of the earth more than some other type of tourism (Vellas, 2016). Natural quality and honesty of resources must be kept up, to ensure they stay attractive to visitors and in addition to occupants.
  • STEM model: This model explains majors like Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. With regards to the majors, the nature of recreational experience by vacationers likewise should be kept up, and this is constructed not just with respect to the nature of regular habitat, yet in addition on the levels and the idea of cooperation’s between gatherings of clients and occupants and their impression of ecological quality.
  • Brutland report: The mission of this commission is to unite the countries to pursue sustainable development together.  This commission monitors the impact of tourism over environment and implements relevant policies and rules to save the natural habitat.
  • Cambridge Economic impact model: This model is used for measuring the economic impact of tourism in a particular region. With regards to this, volume and value of tourism is evaluated as it is considered as the essential element for developing policies, rules and regulations to manage tourism.   

Sustainability in tourism development

To define the concept of sustainability in tourism, firstly there is a need to understand what tourism is basically or to establish how it is different from travel. Tourism basically is an activity which comprises of people travel to different places where they not have their personal home, they have to rent a place to live for certain amount of time, explore the places of attractions in that particular area and then after exploring the place to fullest, they have to travel back home. The purpose in not basically to remunerate nay particular activity in that area. This draws the line of difference between tourism and travel (Waligo, Clarke & Hawkins, 2015). Thus it is different from travel. Travel is basically to move from one place to another, it just comprises of reaching the destination. On the other hand, tourism involves stay and many other activities apart from just dislocation from one place to another. The basic element which lacks in travel, are the stay and exploring that particular area. Thus tourism involves other elements and various activities which are interlinked in a chain to one another. There is choice of destination, one have to travel up there and have to plan their stay at that particular destination. There is sequence of preparation which waits around the corner after that. The preparation phase includes booking the tickets and packing of goods needed back there. There have to be a proper planning to wrap up for the stay at the temporary home and all these are linked in a chain to one another. In other words it can be said that it is a temporary migration from one place to another for a certain amount of time (Richards, 2016). The entire process of tourism consists of transportation from one place to another which involves the need of goods and services, food and drinks; travel and stay to the selected destination. There have to be provision of infrastructure in order to facilitate the same. This is a complex process which starts at the time tourists leave their home and ends at the point when they boars back at their home. The arrangement of all these goods for an extraordinary travel experience is the concept of sustainability in tourism. One such company which champions in this complex process is CostSaver in UK. It provides the tourists with a larger than life experience.

Advantages and disadvantages of public and private sector tourism planning

Tourism drives an enormous amount of revenue but at the same time there are certain things which hinder this process. Sometimes it has a negative impact on natural and socio-cultural environment of the particular destination. This impact varies with different tourists and how they impact the particular region.

Environmental aspects:

Tourist activities impact the ecological balance of that particular destination. It is an important aspect to protect the natural heritage of the particular area. Tourist affects the local and regional life of the particular area. It affects the global environment of the place in the long run.

Socio-cultural impacts:

Tourism affects the cultural balance and development of a particular area. Sometimes it leads to abandonment of the cultural roots of the communities. Some societies majorly reject any changes caused due to tourism activities (Mason, 2015). They affect the structure of the communities and on a larger level the family relations prevailing in that particular area.

Socio-economic aspects:

No doubt that the tourism industry contributes to the economy of the region. It can be seen through the course of the history that the rich countries are mainly benefited due to tourism. Poor countries are not aware of its benefits. Sometimes there are several losses in the local business of that particular region. Host countries are affected a lot economically.

Below presented are some more factors that are hindering sustainable tourism:

Wrongdoing and brutality inside the general public are huge obstructions to the accomplishment of reasonable improvement, as it influences social prosperity as well as monetary advancement. Jamaica's high frequency of wrongdoing has brought about loss of speculations, notwithstanding direct consequences for segments, for example, tourism from which the nation gets the majority of its outside trade income. In spite of the fact that the general number of violations revealed diminished possibly in 2001 contrasted and earlier years, there were increments in real wrongdoings in the island. Of developing concern has been the way that latest episodes of viciousness have been relational in nature and this makes it harder to control.

Another factor is security. This is an essential worry of travellers of different types. Wellbeing turns out to be especially essential when heading out abroad and to under create nations. Boundless political agitation can cause even the most courageous traveler to abstain from visiting unsteady nations. Flare-up of transmittable sicknesses can likewise block tourism businesses, particularly in light of the fact that coming back to home nations can be troublesome amid episodes. For example, swine influenza and H1N1 prevented numerous individuals from voyaging abroad. Locally, the wrongdoing rate of traveler zones, particularly activity wellbeing and occurrences of negligible robbery, contrarily influence the tourism business. For amusement stops, the security record can likewise be a negative factor.

Various steps involved in the planning of sustainable tourism are listed below:

Preparation: the very first stage is preparation. There is a need to analyze the client interest and then plan the rest of the trip according to that. Reservations are to be made and the client then chooses the tourism company.

Journey:  Next part is journey; it has to be arranged by the tourism company. It involves dislocation from the tourist’s home to the destination.  The mode of transportation can be decided by the client (Benur & Bramwell, 2015).

Stay: It is one of the most important parts and should be decided by the tourism company with great care. It involves accommodation and food. Here the services of the companies are tested. The company should provide an extra ordinary experience in this regard. Various activities are included in this only such as guides, cultural activities etc.

Journey back home: This involves transportation from the destination back to the home. Here the company can get its review as it is the last step in the process.


Benur, A. M., & Bramwell, B. (2015) Tourism product development and product diversification in destinations. Tourism Management, 50, 213-224.

Boniface, B., Cooper, R., & Cooper, C. (2016) Worldwide destinations: The geography of travel and tourism. Routledge.

Ivanovich, M. (2015) The role of tribal authorities in rural tourism development in South Africa: the case of the Kingdom of the Rain Queen. African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance, 21(Supplement 2), 37-54.

Mason, P. (2015) Tourism impacts, planning and management. New York: Routledge.

Mowforth, M., & Munt, I. (2015) Tourism and sustainability: Development, globalisation and new tourism in the third world. Routledge.

Nunkoo, R. (2015) Tourism development and trust in local government. Tourism Management, 46, 623-634.

Richards, G. (2016) Cultural tourism. In Archaeological Displays and the Public (pp. 1-11). Routledge.

Sharpley, R., & Telfer, D. J. (2015) Tourism and development in the developing world. Routledge.

Sharpley, R., & Telfer, D. J. (2015) Tourism and development in the developing world. Routledge.

Smith, S. L. (2014) Tourism analysis: A handbook. Routledge.

Vellas, F. (2016). The international marketing of travel and tourism: A strategic approach. Macmillan International Higher Education.

Waligo, V., Clarke, J., & Hawkins, R. (2015) Embedding stakeholders in sustainable tourism strategies. Annals of Tourism Research, 55, 90-93.

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