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Case 1: IBM-GSA Tender Process Mistake

Part 1 - Doing Ethics Technique

1.In December 1999, IBM-GSA was one of three tenderers for the IT outsourcing contract for the Departments of Health, Aged Care and the Health Insurance Commission (the Health Group), along with CSC and EDS. During the tender process, IBM-GSA was supplied with computer disks containing critical information relating to final pricing of their rival tenderers. IBM-GSA subsequently revised its tender after the due deadline and the minister announced they were the successful bidder.

At the time, the Office of Asset Sales and Information Technology Outsourcing (OASITO) described giving IBM-GSA details of their rival’s bids as an ‘inadvertent error’. The minister dismissed the Opposition's call for an immediate halt to the tender process. Three years later, the minister, now retired, admitted that the $350 million tender should have been cancelled. He told the Audit Office in September 2002:
“When the disc containing all three bids was delivered to IBM GSA in error my reaction on being informed directly by OASITO was to cancel the tender. I could not see that a tender process with integrity could continue. At the conclusion of the tender I was both disappointed and annoyed at the limited role of the Probity Auditor and the absence of a separate report on the issue.”

Not only did the tender continue, with IBM-GSA being awarded the contract, but the minister's claim that the Probity Auditor’s role was limited was contradicted by evidence provided by OASITO to a Senate Estimates hearing on 8 February 2000. OASITO representatives told Senate Estimates that the management of the tender:

“…was conducted in accordance with the advice from both the probity auditor and our legal advisers engaged for the initiative. All parties concurred at the time that the process could continue unchanged [OASITO] briefed the probity auditor in person [who] immediately came back to us with a proposed course of action…We engaged the probity auditor to participate in all of our discussions to make sure that he fully witnessed the nature of the discussions…and he was happy that we had delivered the messages in accordance with his proposed course of action.”

2.Anna is a young ambitious programmer working for a small company developing software for web based services in the health area, with a focus on support to remote aboriginal communities. To further her career Anna undertakes additional tertiary study, with support from her manager, Brian. This study includes topics covering computer ethics, and issues relating to the impact of ICT on different communities. On her current project, Anna develops a new user interface, which has a strong focus on accessibility for remote communities, especially considering the type of technology likely to be used. She also pays special attention to the use of cultural images in the interface, to avoid those which may be distressing or offensive to aboriginal users. The new system is a great success and Anna’s contribution is recognised by her company, through an Employee of the Month Award. The company also receives a national business award for its contribution to the positive use of ICT in aboriginal communities. Brian takes all of the credit for this, and Anna receives no acknowledgement for her efforts.

3.Andrew, a highly qualified and experienced software developer, has just started work with a government health department on a project that has been underway for about 9 months. He is replacing a novice developer who has decided to move on to a new project with another organisation. Even though the current system is incomplete, it has is being used with 'live' data. On analysing what's been done so far, Andrew discovers that the system is poorly designed and is riddled with bugs due to the former developer's lack of expertise, and that the choice of technologies are incompatible with the department's infrastructure, leading to corruptions and loss of financial data on a daily basis. In fact, much of Andrew's time is initially spent unsuccessfully attempting to recover corrupted data. His vast experience leads him to the conclusion that the system is so unstable that it will eventually corrupt beyond repair and that all its data will become unrecoverable. He therefore advises the supervisor of his findings and recommends that the system be redeveloped using appropriate technologies and quality control measures. He indicates that the entire redevelopment effort will take less than 6 weeks. The supervisor rejects Andrew's recommendation, stating that their IT Department will not agree to a change in technology, and directs Andrew to complete the project using the existing technologies. What should Andrew do?

Case 1: IBM-GSA Tender Process Mistake

In December 1999, IBM-GSA was one of three tenderers for the IT outsourcing contract for the Departments of Health, Aged Care and the Health Insurance Commission (the Health Group), along with CSC and EDS. During the tender process, IBM-GSA was supplied with computer disks containing critical information relating to final pricing of their rival tenderers. IBM-GSA subsequently revised its tender after the due deadline and the minister announced they were the successful bidder.

At the time, the Office of Asset Sales and Information Technology Outsourcing (OASITO) described giving IBM-GSA details of their rival’s bids as an ‘inadvertent error’. The minister dismissed the Opposition's call for an immediate halt to the tender process. Three years later, the minister, now retired, admitted that the $350 million tender should have been cancelled. He told the Audit Office in September 2002:

“When the disc containing all three bids was delivered to IBM GSA in error my reaction on being informed directly by OASITO was to cancel the tender. I could not see that a tender process with integrity could continue. At the conclusion of the tender I was both disappointed and annoyed at the limited role of the Probity Auditor and the absence of a separate report on the issue.”

Not only did the tender continue, with IBM-GSA being awarded the contract, but the minister's claim that the Probity Auditor’s role was limited was contradicted by evidence provided by OASITO to a Senate Estimates hearing on 8 February 2000. OASITO representatives told Senate Estimates that the management of the tender:

“…was conducted in accordance with the advice from both the probity auditor and our legal advisers engaged for the initiative. All parties concurred at the time that the process could continue unchanged [OASITO] briefed the probity auditor in person [who] immediately came back to us with a proposed course of action…We engaged the probity auditor to participate in all of our discussions to make sure that he fully witnessed the nature of the discussions…and he was happy that we had delivered the messages by his proposed course of action.”

Q1. What's going on?  (2 marks)

The primary concern which is found in the situation is that IBM – GSA had changed their last valuing of the delicate after accepting the estimating of the subtle from other association. The other association in this setting were the division of wellbeing, medical coverage commission and the matured care. A plate was given to the IBM-GSA identifying with the all the estimating which was included in the idea.

Q2. What are the facts?  (2 marks)

The primary concern which is found in the situation is that IBM – GSA had changed their last valuing of the delicate in the wake of accepting the estimating of the subtle from other association. The other association in this setting were the branch of wellbeing, medical coverage commission and the matured care. A circle was given to the IBM-GSA identifying with the all the evaluating which was included in the idea.

Case 2: Lack of Employee Recognition

Q3. What are the issues (non-ethical)?  (2 marks)

The principal point which is confronted is that the giving over of the estimating to the association before the vent of the delicate. This is mainly an issue because of the factor that it is especially untrustworthy to give over the tricky answer to other association.

Q4. Who is affected?  (2 marks)

The other association who top of the delicate are straightforwardly in charge of the occasion. This is because of the factor that a significant portion of the association tends to accomplish a standard which is identified with the angle. This can straightforwardly hamper the general working of the association.

Q5. What are the ethical issues and implications?  (3 marks)

The moral ramifications which are significantly observed are in the area of the accomplishing of the standard of the association. A portion of the association tends to achieve a measure of working by methods for putting a delicate into the frame.

Q6. What can be done about it?  (3 marks)

The primary concern which should be possible in this setting is that the delicate ought to be given to the association who is lawfully substantial for accomplishing the subtle.

Q7. What are the options?  (3 marks)

The principal alternative is to disregard the statement of the association and give the delicate to a portion of the association who merit the subtle.

Q8. Which option is best - and why?  (3 marks)

The best choice is put the various delicate into examination so it can be given to association who straightforwardly should get the delicate.

Q2)

Anna is a young, ambitious programmer working for a small company developing software for web based services in the health area, with a focus on support to remote aboriginal communities. To further her career, Anna undertakes additional tertiary study, with help from her manager, Brian. This study includes topics covering computer ethics, and issues relating to the impact of ICT on different communities. On her current project, Anna develops a new user interface, which has a strong focus on accessibility for remote communities, especially considering the type of technology likely to be used. She also pays special attention to the use of cultural images in the interface, to avoid those who may be distressing or offensive to aboriginal users. The new system is a great success, and Anna’s contribution is recognised by her company, through an Employee of the Month Award. The company also receives a national business award for its contribution to the positive use of ICT in aboriginal communities. Brian takes all of the credit for this, and Anna gets no acknowledgement for her efforts.

Q1. What's going on?  (2 marks)

The primary concern which is appeared in the situation is that a youthful, aggressive developer is working for a little creating programming association for the part of an electronic administration with a focal point of supporting remote native groups.

Q2. What are the facts?  (2 marks)

The principle actuality which is found in the situation is that Anna is hoping to embrace further tertiary examinations with the help of the administrator, Brian.

Case 3: Poorly Designed and Unstable System

Q3. What are the issues (non-ethical)?  (2 marks)

The first moral perspective which is found in the situation is that the preparation of the tertiary examination was led by her with the assistance of the director.

Q4. Who is affected?  (2 marks)

The first influenced territory in this situation is alternate specialists of the association who did not get an opportunity to exhibit their enthusiasm for the field.

Q5. What are the ethical issues and implications?  (3 marks)

The moral issue which is found for the situation study can be considered in a zone which signifies that alternate labourers can't enjoy into the distinctive movement of the association because of the prioritisation of Anna by the chief.

Q6. What can be done about it?  (3 marks)

The primary concern which should be possible in this setting is that other representative ought to be given an equivalent shot with the goal that they can specifically improve their abilities and turn into a piece of the association and help them to exceed expectations in the various zone of the field.

Q7. What are the options?  (3 marks)

The principle alternative which can be expressed here is that the supervisor can likewise help different individuals with the goal that they can enjoy the diverse movement of the association. This would be specially helpful for the association with the intent that they can without much of a stretch enjoy the different action of the association.

Q8. Which option is best - and why?  (3 marks)

The best alternative in this setting can be in the field of upgrading the individual aptitudes of the worker who are included in the different activities of the association. The director in this setting ought to have a part to play which would make a mindset of the representative with the goal that they can propel their abilities in various areas.

Q3)

Andrew, a highly qualified and experienced software developer, has just started work with a government health department on a project that has been underway for about nine months. He is replacing a novice developer who has decided to move on to a new project with another organisation. Even though the current system is incomplete, it has is being used with 'live' data. On analysing what's been done so far, Andrew discovers that the system is poorly designed and is riddled with bugs due to the former developer's lack of expertise, and that the choice of technologies are incompatible with the department's infrastructure, leading to corruptions and loss of financial data on a daily basis. In fact, much of Andrew's time is initially spent unsuccessfully attempting to recover corrupted data. His vast experience leads him to the conclusion that the system is so unstable that it will eventually corrupt beyond repair and that all its data will become unrecoverable. He, therefore, advises the supervisor of his findings and recommends that the system is redeveloped using appropriate technologies and quality control measures. He indicates that the entire redevelopment effort will take less than six weeks. The supervisor rejects Andrew's recommendation, stating that their IT Department will not agree to a change in technology, and directs Andrew to complete the project using the existing techniques. What should Andrew do?

Analysis

Q1. What's going on?  (2 marks)

The primary concern which is found in perspective is that a framework which isn't finished is being actualized with live information. It can be seen that the frame isn't particularly secured and would be straightforward including the loss of the report.

Q2. What are the facts?  (2 marks)

The principle actuality which is seen is in the division of the situation is that a framework would is deficient as per the engineers is bolster with the live information. There can be distinctive sorts of the issue which can be found in this setting which would be centred around the loss of the security of the data.

Q3. What are the issues (non-ethical)?  (2 marks)

The primary concern which is seen that a framework which isn't appropriately tried and finished can't be encouraged by live information. This is significantly done because of the movement of the designers.

Q4. Who is affected?  (2 marks)

The influenced zone because of the occasion is the general population whose information is put away in the framework. They would be straightforwardly changed because the data can comprise of various sorts of information which might be close to home.

Q5. What are the ethical issues and implications?  (3 marks)

The primary moral problem which is found for the situation is that when live information is nourished into an unsecured framework, it could straightforwardly influence the general usefulness of the information which would be included into the idea.

Q6. What can be done about it?  (3 marks)

The primary concern which should be possible in this setting is that the framework ought to be secured variously. Security ought to be executed in the segment of the working in the usefulness of the procedure which is included in the angle.

Q7. What are the options?  (3 marks)

The principle alternative ought to be to secure the framework before influencing the structure to sustain with live information. This would be painful in a route by which the information would be obtained and would keep the framework additionally secured.

Q8. Which option is best - and why?  (3 marks)

The primary choice is finished the procedure of encryption in the information and after that helping the framework to be created and afterwards encouraging the structure with live data.

Q4)

According to Sisela Bok (2003) whistle blowing concerns an individual who makes revelations meant to call to attention to negligence, abuses or dangers that threatens public interest. Essay topic: Whistle blowing is an unethical activity and employees undertaking such behaviour should lose their jobs.

Answer:

Introduction

In this perspective, it is mulled over that the angle which is identified with the shriek blowing is a deceptive practice. The principle truth which is seen the instance of the shriek blowing is that the individual from the association attempt to entertain themselves into various movement of the association which can be considered as deceptive. The unscrupulous principle issue which is seen is that occasionally the pivotal information of the association might be spilt which can straightforwardly affect the general working of the association. It can be expressed here that the data of the association can be viewed as particularly essential. So it can be shown here that the information ought to be kept secured constantly. The influenced region in this setting is the association.

Conclusion

Ethical issue

Now and again extremely vital data of the association are spilt by a large number of the representative which are especially dishonest movement which can hamper the general usefulness of the association. The primary moral issue which is seen is that diverse movement of the association which frame an essential of the task if goes into the hand of other association, it can influence the general working of the association. The primary concern which ought to be done is to think about that the moral data of the association are kept secured with the goal that it doesn't go into the hand of someone else.

Conclusion

 The fundamental alternative can be execute security angle in the information and other indispensable data of the association. The best choice is to execute security suggestion into the arrangement of the working of the association. This would be useful in a way which would be specifically upgrading the working of the association.

Q5)

Penetration testing is also known as ethical hacking. Distinguish white, grey and black hat hackers, from the professional, ethical hacker. In your answer state the extent to which ethical hackers might be the same as or different to white hat hackers.

Answer:

Introduction

The primary concern which is found in the situation is that how the part of the moral hacking is done in a various position and to what broaden ethical programmers may be same or diverse to white cap programmers. The principle reality which is contemplated in the case is whether the viewpoint which is identified with the unscrupulous part of the hacking and how they would be executed into the diverse situation.

Ethical issue

The principle issue which is seen is that the programmers can without much of a stretch enjoy into the distinctive part of the information of the framework. The information can be particularly imperative. The influenced region are the ordinary citizens whose information are included into the situation. The information can be utilized by various means by the programmers. The dark cap programmers can utilize the information in an insightful way however then again the white programmer can straightforwardly enjoy into various deceptive movement.

Conclusion

The principle moral issue which is seen is the spillage of the information of the client or the client and utilization of the data for individual utilize.

The primary concern which should be possible is the securing of the data from the programmers. The primary usefulness which ought to be executed is that untrustworthy movement is impossible on the info. The fundamental choices are limit the programmers from getting revelled into the information so they would not get the entrance to the knowledge of the framework and utilize the data for individual pick up. The primary concern which ought to be done is that the information ought to be kept secured and additionally the framework ought to have the vital methods for securing the information.

Q6)

Decision-making assisted by algorithms developed by machine learning is increasingly determining our lives. Can transparency contribute to restoring accountability for such systems? Arguments for and against include issues such as the loss of privacy when data sets become public, the perverse effects of disclosure of the very algorithms themselves (which can lead to ‘gaming the system’), the potential loss of competitive edge, and the limited gains in answerability to be expected since sophisticated algorithms are inherently non-transparent. It is concluded that transparency is certainly useful, but only up to a point: extending it to the public at large is normally not to be advised. Do you agree?

Answer:

Introduction

There are lots of security because of the part of the basic leadership in the segment of the calculation improvement in the area of the basic leadership. This is specifically included into the part of the basic leadership for framework. The primary reality which is seen is that because of the factor of basic leadership help by the calculation there can be suggestion in the division of the security of the information. In the greater part of the cases it can be seen that the information ought to be secured in various way with the goal that the protection part of the information of the individual client is kept secured.

Ethical issue

The fundamental issue which is seen is the dispatch of the individual information which is spared in the framework. Once in a while it can be expressed that the individual information which are spared in the framework are especially vital for the association. Then again the calculation would be included into the basic leadership viewpoint. The primary region which would be influenced would be the general population who might be included into the procedure. It can be significantly observed that framework would be straightforwardly settling on basic leadership with the assistance of calculation because of which the information would be uncovered. The principle moral issue which is seen is the presentation of the individual information and the primary ramifications which is seen is in the area of the use of information for various kinds of deceptive movement.

Conclusion

The security part of the information ought to be contemplated while settling on choice with the assistance of calculation required into the idea. The primary alternative is actualize distinctive kinds of programming's which would be specifically securing the framework and helping them to accomplish a more prominent arrangement of usefulness. The best choice would be keep the information of the client secured by methods for executing encryption into the procedure which would protect the information from gate crashers.

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"Ethical Issues In IT: Case Studies And Analysis." My Assignment Help, 2020, https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/ce2t2-it-ethics/ethics-technique-and-ethical-theory.html.

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[Accessed 26 February 2024].

My Assignment Help. 'Ethical Issues In IT: Case Studies And Analysis' (My Assignment Help, 2020) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/ce2t2-it-ethics/ethics-technique-and-ethical-theory.html> accessed 26 February 2024.

My Assignment Help. Ethical Issues In IT: Case Studies And Analysis [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2020 [cited 26 February 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/ce2t2-it-ethics/ethics-technique-and-ethical-theory.html.

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