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1.What are some of the harnessing stormwater elements existing in coastal reservoirs?

2 What are floodwaters and their impacts on the coastal reservoirs and development?

3.What are some of the mitigation plans put in place to tackle the floodwaters in coastal reservoirs?

4.How does the climate Change impacts on the Coastal Reservoirs?

5.What are some of the key parameters in the Coastal Reservoirs Concepts and their importance in the area?

6.Does feasibility study and analysis have impacts on the coastal reservoirs and floodwaters?

7.How do they assist in controlling the parameters which threats the coastal reservoirs?

8.What are some of the pollutions and contaminations which threat the coastal reservoirs and their imminent control measures?

Harnessing stormwater elements in coastal reservoirs

Water shortage in the recent days, is a fundamental phenomenon which is evident worldwide more so for the unsullied water reserves. Arefiev et al. (2015) noted that clean water crisis continues to be vital issue and if not probably tackled then 66% of the overall world population will be prone to the treat by 2025. Moreover, the waters stored in the aquifers are currently utilized before they are even complemented by the nature and this poses a threat as the source provides almost a third of the water which is utilized worldwide. Thus, the water scarcity has raised concerns and draw attentions not only in the native countries but across the worldwide as a whole. For instance, areas such the Southwest and the Midwest located in the United States of America and the Australia Continents are currently faced by the water scarcity and crisis. Moreover, Australia as a country has continued to experience decline in the amount of rainfall as well as runoff they receive in the area as a result of the allocating water for the purposes of irrigation over the past years. Thus, Billa et al. (2006) recorded a proposal for the purposes of increasing and managing the existing fresh water in Australia using various concepts such as desalination, plants, dams as well as the detention processes. This is because people continue to experience water scarcity and crisis on daily basis. Even in the 6th Word Water debate, various concerns on the mitigation plans regarding the water use emerged and various proposals on it were tabled (Lai et al. 2015). Therefore, this analysis tries to evaluate the coastal reservoirs as new strategy and recommendation to remedy the water crisis in Australia. In fact, coastal reservoirs in this study mainly appraised in terms of the effectiveness as well as compared with the other existing sustainable and water methods in the area. This analysis mainly based on the fact that the new coastal reservoirs techniques utilize the rainfall and flood concepts and their functionality mainly relies on the future climatic trends across the board (Kog, 2001).

Over the past decades and the recent day, the need for water has continued to be a vital element and important aspect in the community. Water is an essential commodity not only for human consumption but also for other biotic lives such as the aquatic. Moreover, population growth have continued to deplete the existing water reservoirs in various parts of the world and therefore reducing the water capacity worldwide. Therefore, various studies have been conducted to explore and appraise the mechanism of addressing this key and fundamental basic requirement. It is in this line that, this literature review have been designed to evaluate the overall coastal reservoirs, in terms of the overall concept, the floodwaters and storm waters, the design the aspect, as well as the how it can be improved to prove sustainable water to people living along the coastal shores in Australia (Loucks, Moore and Zeng 2011 p.1800).

Floodwaters and their impacts on coastal reservoirs and development

Yang and Ferguson (2010), noted that most parts of Australia are dry in terms of the amount of the rainfall they received however; the coastal areas do receive higher rainfall amounts annually. In most cases, the amount of waters which drains into the sea from rivers is approximated to be 279,000GL but the overall utilization of the sea water is about 21,000GL. This amount is water is obtained from the runoff and thus, demarcates the lowest amount in comparison to other places worldwide. Moreover, there is a large amount of water which flows from various rivers into the ocean and this can actually be captured using the coastal reservoirs and later only be utilized for various activities in the country. Some of the activities in which this water can be used include agriculture, industries as well as residential houses. Yang and Ferguson (2010) also established that a number of Australians fleet have embarked on settling along the coastlines and the rivers banks as the water in this areas seem to have endless supply. Therefore, the current population who are living along the coastlines and river banks is established to be about 65% and this analysis, is for the five cities in the country. These cities mainly include Sydney, Melbourne, Perth, Brisbane, and Adelaide. In essence, most people have opted to settle in these regions as a result of the lack of clean water for daily use in their native areas.

Over the past decades, Australia as a country has been subjected to the climate change and this aspect has tend account for the fluctuations in the amount of rainfall and storm waters recorded along the coastal shores more so from the rivers.  Moreover, these effects have indicated that there is variation in the amount of rainfall and thus, the current amount of water recorded from the storm water is longer equivalent to the initial amount which the area used to receive before. Although, the climate changes is a genuine concern but the major problem is that the issue related to the low levels of water comes a result of lacking a proper channel and mechanism of handling the existing flood waters in terms of the capturing and storage. In fact, from the past analysis , it is clear and evidential that water is mainly capture at the upstream sections in the iconic dams and this have tend to be a relied way over the centuries. Although, the mechanism of relying waters in the upstream dams in Australia has captured various attention and have been used decisively but still the overall amount of water which the country receives is marked to be at lowest level with reference to the international standards (Smith 2011).  

Mitigation plans for floodwaters in coastal reservoirs

Grant et al. (2013) indicated that Australian reservoirs have continued to record low level of waters in terms of the overall stored water in the systems. Moreover, the ever increasing rainfall amounts resulting from the climate change have continued to demarcate the inland reservoirs unfit and reducing their viability. The study conducted by Grant et al. (2013) also noted that yearly, large amount of water in terms of gigalitres is actually lost into the ocean and at this point this water is longer available for use more so for the inland populations.  The main cause of this is that the floods and runoffs mostly are depicted in large volumes and therefore, inland reservoirs can longer accommodate the large amounts resulting into the increased ocean volumes as the water flows into various rivers which eventually drain them into the sea (Stewart et al. 2008). Thus, the large amount of water wasted into the sea calls for an action plan in terms of the dam designs which can offer a solution to the current water crisis in the country. Thus, as time goes by the next generation will have any alternative but to fetch water from them the steam bottoms and these refers to the coastal reservoirs.

Yang and Lin (2011 p.45-56), defined coastal reservoir as a paramount freshwater reservoir existing at the sea where there is a river mouth and it has a sustainable annual flow. Preferably, natural coastal reservoir is also known as coastal reservoir due the continual river flushing. Moreover, the coastal reservoir is often closer the sea with reference to siltation and thus, it is converted into makeable freshwater water lake. The primary requirement for a coastal reservoir is impermeable barrier and this must exist between the freshwater and the salt water. However, the impermeable layer need not be strong since the overall pressure on all the sides tend to be uniform in comparison to the inland dams which are stronger (Yang and Ferguson 2010).  

Thus, the requirements in line with the impermeable lay tend to lower and save the cost associated with the dam construction. Yang and Lin (2011 p.45-56) established that there different countries which have embarked and applied the coastal reservoirs systems and these countries include China, South Korea, Singapore as well as Hong Kong . In fact, most projects on the coastal reservoirs in the mentioned countries have been successful. In this case, the analysis on the viability and potentiality of the coastal reservoirs are discussed decisively in terms of the amount of water they supply to the population in various capital cities across the country (Takeoka 2014).  Therefore, the diagram below indicates the coastal dam reservoirs as well as the various features which it has in terms of the design criteria. Some of features which the coastal softy dam has include linkage pipelines, water overflow gates, softy barrier, brackish barrier, solid barrier as well as seabed. All the named features are thus, depicted as shown in the diagram below

Impact of climate change on coastal reservoirs

Location of the coastal reservoirs forms a fundamental and key determinant in terms of the quality of the water obtained from the dam. In essence, this parameter tends to be imminence in some situation and thus, calling for a mild mechanism for treating the obtained coastal reservoir water.  Therefore, it is important that the water scheme be integrated with other elements to improve the quality of water obtained. Sometimes the brackish water is fed into other treatment and desalination plants and this increases the volume of freshwater yields. This process is coast effective as it reduces all the incur capitals associated with the technologies. Also, another mechanism used to increase the quality of water is through pumping of the brackish water to the inland reservoirs as an isolation method and this saves on all the losses which the company and the country could have incurred if they used the local treatment method (Yang and Lin 2011 p.50).  

Yang et al. (2013) noted that there are three main areas of application where coastal reservoirs are applied and these mainly include the irrigation, the domestic as well as the industrial aspect. Moreover, the main coastal reservoirs utilized in the domestic and irrigation purposes include Marina Barrage, Sihwa, Qingcaosha, Plover Cove as well as Yuhuan. Different quality of water tends to dictate the function and purpose of the coastal reservoir in the areas. For instance, there two coastal reservoirs in china and they include the Chenhang Reservoir and the Baogang Reservoir. Although, this reservoirs lies besides one another they serve two different purposes and these include providing the water for domestic use and industrial use in the Baoshan Steel Company respectively.  Thus, the analysis for the two dams at the coastal shore mainly shown in the diagram below

showing the two different purposes performed by the Chenhang Reservoir and the Baogang Reservoir

The overall coastal reservoir construction mainly constructed using either the makeable primary or the secondary barriers or both the two elements combined. In most cases, the primary barrier is often higher and stronger and thus, depicted at above the wave and tide heights in the ocean with reference to the unwanted water.  Moreover, the strong primary barriers can offer barricade which in turn resists imported forces coming from the waves as well as the tidal actions. On the other hand, the secondary barrier is a mere skirt suspension and thus, it marked as a floating barrier (Tran and Shaw 2007 p.280). This skirt often weighted against the ballast which is used in the fixing and always extends to the reservoir floor with respect to the coastal shore of the ocean. Also, the secondary barrier can actually be moved with reference to the chain and the anchor systems. Therefore, the purpose of the existing buffer area in the analysis is to allow for the separation of the fresh water from that which is contaminated.  Hence, the analysis on the three aspects such as the fresh water, the unwanted and the buffer zone which include both the primary and the secondary barriers mainly discussed as shown in the diagram below

Key parameters and their importance in coastal reservoirs concepts

Showing the three main parameters such as the fresh water, buffer zone and the unwanted water

Lai et al. (2015 p.80) established that there are two mechanism of filling the reservoir and this two channels are gate system and the conventional catchment system. Gate system mainly associated with the fresh water and the water that is used in this process mainly comes from the flood times (Thomas 2015).

 On the other hand, conventional catchment entails the correct positioning of the catchment end in manner that the reservoir will be feed by the overall catchment inflow. Thus, the coastal reservoir needs to be designed in manner that the adaption of the process can be situated in any location without blocking all the rivers and lakes around the coastal shore. Furthermore, the analysis needs to take into considerations all the aspects pertaining the environmental flows in the areas (Weichselgartner 2011 p.65).

Zuider Zee located in Netherlands was the first coastal reservoir to be built, and this reservoir is named Ijsselmeer and has carrying capacity of about 1240 km2 in terms of area coverage. In fact, the dam was built at a time when most people only opted for enclosing the sea area in order to get land for settlement and the water which was coming from the project was just a fringe benefit to them. However, in the late 20th as well as early 21st century, most reservoirs emerged and the construction mainly aimed at controlling the floods, and also diluting the high salt water in the seas. Thus, the potable reservoirs types are used in countries such as Hong Kong, China, Singapore as well as South Korea (Wang et al. 2018 p.200).

Conversely, there many coastal reservoirs which have emerged in the present days and the analysis on the various dams mainly summarized in the table (Wong 2010 p.130).

The table above indicates that large catchment area tends to accommodate huge water amount in terms of the collection and the storage. The Qingcaosha dam is the longest reservoirs worldwide and it has a carrying capacity of about 7GL and thus, this dam is capable of supplying water to the Shanghai residents whose population is established to be 11 million (Zong  and Chen 2011 p.170). This population is actually equivalent to half the population of the Australians. On the other hand, Plover Cove Reservoir was specific designed and built for the purposes of providing drinking water and this is the second largest dam in Hong Kong as far the coastal reservoir is concerned. In fact, it is estimated to be about 28 meters, and thus, term as the largest dam in Hong Kong.

Feasibility study and analysis impact on coastal reservoirs and floodwaters

Levy (2005) noted that the water capacity of this dam mainly estimated at about 230,000,000 m3, and the volume of water is equivalent 230 billion bottles.  From the case analysis, it is clear that Singapore records higher amount of rainfall however; on half or little of the stormwater is available for use as most of the waters obtain runs into the sea. In fact, the population growth and rapid economic development is what has actually increased the overall portable water demand in the country. In essence, the Singapore developed the marina barricade since the water supplied cannot match the outlined water demand for the people in the area (Levy, Hartmann, and Asgary 2007 p.347).

According to Zhang et al. (2012) indicated that coastal flooding is a phenomenon which occurs whenever the dry and low-lying land has been flooded by the overall seawater. Moreover, the overall coastal flooding extension is a functionality of the inland elevation in terms overall coastal land prone to the flooding as a result of its topography. Therefore, seawater tends to inundate the different paths in line with the land and some of the inundations which can be recorded in the process include direct, overtopping at the barrier as well as breaching barriers. The three inundations in line with the coastal flooding mainly discussed as follows

First and foremost, direct inundation is the flooding phenomena which occur whenever the sea height has exceeded the overall land elevation and this mainly happens as a result of lacking proper wave builds in the natural barriers. Secondly, the swelling conditions also results into the overtopping barrier and this barrier can also results as either human engineered or as natural phenomena. In fact, overtopping aspect mainly affected by the opening stretches at the coastal region as a result of the high and storm tides existing in the areas. Thus, the water in this kind of barrier tends to overflow once the waves have exceeded the barrier heights in the flood form.  

On the other hand, breaching can be defined as the barrier which results from the overall wave breakdown which tends to all the extension of seawater into the inland.  

Notably, coastal flooding mainly depicted as a natural occurring phenomena but the overall human influence on the norm cannot be underestimated. In fact, the human influence tends to impact on it greatly and thus, must be taken into consideration as well. Some of the human influence in the process are actually exacerbated and do have imminent impacts on the coastal flooding. Moreover, the process of extracting the groundwater near the coastal zones results into the hastened subsidence of the land in the area and also increases the risks associated with the flooding.

Controlling parameters that threaten coastal reservoirs

Over the past decades, Australia has experienced intensive water scarcity more so in the Southeast Queensland area. Yang (2015) conducted and appraised a report on how to control and mitigate the problem in the areas using the various aspects such the inland reservoir, wastewater recycle system, reuse as well as desalination. Yang (2015) noted in this feasibility study that there are some of the mitigation measure which the public do not actual accept due to the millennium drought but are actually important and essential in ensuring that water supply is secured. Although both the government and the public are the readily accepting the proposals and alternatives, it is important involve them and educate them on the importance of this water sources and recommended actions as mechanism of responding the urgent needs arising from the future demands.

Yang (2015) analyzed the conditions associated with supply-coastal reservoirs and established that the natural conditions of the norm are the key and vital aspects when it comes to water supply in the region. Additionally, all the phenomena associated with the ecosystem, construction, sustainability, environmental impacts as well as greenhouse gases and emission need to be considered when designing the long term recommendations for the water supply in the area. Thus, the appraisal established that the regional water demands meet the entire coastal reservoir requirement in terms of the sustainability and the cost-effective aspects. Also, the feasibility study established that the proposed strategies for eliminating the overall desalination in the area are viable and important (Messner and Meyer 2016 p.150).

YANG (2010) noted that coastal zoning is an essential and important aspect not only for the escalation of the environmental problem but also for the development of the territory in the area. YANG (2010) evaluated the coastal zoning in terms of the social aspect and established that the element is actually important when it comes to the overall economic development. In addition, YANG (2010) also demarcated that the actions to minimize and prevent the various negative consequences associated with the landslide development and coastal region is viably important in terms of the coastal zoning and management. Therefore, the overall territorial management and development in line with the coastal zone is essential as it helps in maintaining the dynamic balance for the ecological state and the economic development process of the overall environment (Ng, Corlett  and Tan 2011).

In the recent days, the overall quality of water existing in the on-land dams is much higher in comparison to water which is coming from alternative sources excluding the groundwater. However, the study conducted by Yang et al (2013) noted that ground waters are often less susceptible to the overall pollution as compared to the surface water in return. Thus, it is difficult to prevent and protect the surface water from the different contaminations and pollutions such as chemicals and waterborne diseases more so the ones entering the upstream and the runoff discharge (Jonkman and Kelman 2005 p.97).

Pollution and contamination control measures for coastal reservoirs

Therefore, the quality of the surface tends to fluctuates from time to time and thus inconsistent.  For example, the amount of existing precipitations in the water tends to influence the over temperature and turbidity of the surface water.  Thus, the surface water will actually require intensive treatment which is not economical as compared to the groundwater making the groundwater more suitable for utilization. This is because ground water will require less treatment and also cost efficient in the long run. Moreover, surface water mainly depends on rainfalls and their construction requires more intensive analysis in terms of the topography as well as the geological aspects.

In line with civil engineering aspect, there are various experimental analysis which this research taken into consideration. In fact, the design described a mitigation plan and the overall site sketch showing the various elements which must be taken keen of in the analysis. Also, the outline regarding the plan, front view and elevation for the coastal reservoirs are appraised in terms of the civil works in the process. Furthermore, the qualitative analysis and quantitative evaluations are also conducted with an aim of establishing all the standards requirements and measurements to be used in the design one (Gin, Ramaswam and Gopalakrishnan 2011 p.915).

The key considerations are conducted for the formworks, the foundation layers, and the overall compartments as well as for the various materials to be used in the process such the steel, concrete and strength requirements. Thus, this experimental analysis mainly carried out to explore and establish that the materials used in the process complies with all the set criteria (Galelli et al. 2012 p.512).

On the other hand, statistical analysis is also conducted with an aim of assisting in the overall refining and modeling of the obtained data from the qualitative analysis. This will therefore be used in conducting appropriate adjustments through the approximating the values and this can be done with respect to the relationship obtained from the graph. Moreover, in this research work fractional designs will also be included and these elements include control variables set at different levels and this can be used in exploring both the objectives and the goals of the projects as well as extra costs which can be incurred in the process (Few 2003 p.58). The analysis takes into consideration both the technology and the specifications of construction materials and these parameters are thus, ascertained decisively. This research has indicated that both the fractional and statistical data shows some consistency in terms of the data obtained from the analysis. Also, the design process established that all the variables in line with the updates on the technical, economic, regulatory as well as contractual standards are ascertained in the process.

Douglas et al. (2008 p. 187) noted that the elements and specifications on the maintenance, construction inspection as well as edifice and design for all the works to be carried out in the site are also appraised and established using these criteria. Thus, the research process demarcates that the methodology employed in the process is actually suitable and viable for all the process to be undertaken in the coastal reservoirs. Also, the measures and monitoring of all the process is another key and essential aspect which was appraised using the technique and it is established that the element too complies with the set standards (Hilton and Manning 2005 p.312).

The literature planner for this study have been designed and developed in a table forma mainly as shown in the table below

Title of Article

Authors

Publication

Type

Year Published

 research question

literature Review

Finding

gap

Principles of floodplain management. In Defence from Floods and Floodplain Management

Thomas, F. H

Springer, Dordrecht

journal

2015

Floodplains

Concept of Floodplain

Satisfied

None

Towards an integrated approach of disaster and environment management

 Tran, P. and  Shaw, R.

journal

2007

Environmental Hazards

Environmental Hazards

Conventional and holistic urban stormwater management in coastal cities

Wang et al.

journal

2018

Comparison on stormwater

a case study of the practice in Hong Kong and Singapore

Disaster mitigation: the concept of vulnerability revisited

Weichselgartner, J

journal

2011

Disaster Prevention and Management

Mitigation of Foods

Recreation in the coastal areas of Singapore

 Wong, P. P.

Springer, Dordrecht

journal

2010

coastal concept

coastal zoning

Water resources available in Australian's coastal zones and its development by coastal reservoirs

YANG, S. Q

journal

2010

water supply

water supply and resuse

A preliminary feasibility study for a backup water supply-coastal reservoir in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

Yang, S. Q.

journal

2015

Feasibility Study on coastal reservoirs

feasibility study

Coastal reservoirs can harness stormwater

Yang, S. Q. and Ferguson, S

journal

2010

Coastal reservoirs can harness stormwater

Coastal reservoirs can harness stormwater

Coastal reservoir by soft-dam and its possible applications.

Yang, S. Q. and  Lin, P

journal

2011

Coastal reservoir

Coastal reservoir by soft-dam and its possible applications

Coastal reservoir strategy and its applications.

Yang et al.

InTech.

journal

2013

Coastal reservoir strategy and its applications

Coastal reservoir strategy and its applications

Flood disaster monitoring and evaluation in China.

 Zhang et al.

journal

2012

Flood disaster monitoring

Flood disaster

The 1998 flood on the Yangtze, China.

Zong, Y. and Chen, X.

journal

2011

 Natural Hazards

 Hazards

Bank protection on storage reservoirs for municipal coastal areas.

Arefiev et al.

journal

2015

protection on storage reservoirs

storage reservoirs

 Comprehensive planning and the role of SDSS in flood disaster management in Malaysia.

Billa et al.

journal

2006

 flood disaster management

flood disaster management

The effects of urbanization on coastal habitats and the potential for ecological engineering

Lai et al

2015

potential for ecological engineering

coastal habitats

The coastal environment and human health: microbial indicators, pathogens, sentinels and reservoirs

Stewart et al.

BioMed Central

journal

2008

pollution

pollution

Eutrophication of freshwater and coastal marine ecosystems a global problem.

 Smith, V. H

2011

freshwater and coastal marine

freshwater and coastal marine

Fundamental concepts of exchange and transport time scales in a coastal sea.

Takeoka,

2014

coastal sea

coastal sea

Adapting urban water systems to a changing climate: Lessons from the millennium drought in southeast Australia

Grant et al.

2013

urban water system

changing climate

Multiple criteria decision making and decision support systems for flood risk management

 Levy, J. K

2005

flood risk management

flood risk management

Mind map is the diagrammatic flow chat which will be used to conduct the research on the coastal reservoirs and the in the designing of the mitigation plan for the overall process. It gives the summary of the concept plan for the proposal in terms of outlining the major research problem which is the water crisis in the Australia continent. Furthermore, the norm also assists in designing and coming up with a decisive tool for gathering all the literatures and developing the planners for the research. Sampling techniques such evaluating the flooding waters , the existing inland reservoirs, the level of pollution and the volumes of fresh water in the country can also be conducted using this concept. Ethical matters are also raised in this concept mind map and various analysis on the standards evaluated preferably using this analogy.

Some of the aspects to consider in this include water acts, environmental policy and acts, human rights and overall engineering specifications and requirements. The propriety and the approaches to be employed in the data collection such the surveys, observations, administering questionnaires are also include in this concept and explored imminently. Finally, the tool is used to draw conclusions based on the established findings and necessary action plan outlined and sketched in terms of the costs of implementations and remedies. Therefore, the diagram below shows the outline and analysis of the mind map to be used in this research (Calbet et al. 2016 p.34).

References

Arefiev, N., Badenko, V., Nikonorov, A., Terleev, V., & Volkova, Y. 2015. Bank protection on storage reservoirs for municipal coastal areas. Procedia engineering, 117, 20-25.

Billa, L., Shattri, M., Rodzi Mahmud, A., & Halim Ghazali, A. 2006. Comprehensive planning and the role of SDSS in flood disaster management in Malaysia. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, 15(2), 233-240.

Birkland, T. A., Burby, R. J., Conrad, D., Cortner, H., and  Michener, W. K. 2013. River ecology and flood hazard mitigation. Natural Hazards Review, 4(1), 46-54.

Calbet, A., Schmoker, C., Russo, F., Trottet, A., Mahjoub, M. S., Larsen, O., ... and Drillet, G. 2016. Non-proportional bioaccumulation of trace metals and metalloids in the planktonic food web of two Singapore coastal marine inlets with contrasting water residence times. Science of The Total Environment, 560, 284-294.

Douglas, I., Alam, K., Maghenda, M., Mcdonnell, Y., McLean, L., and Campbell, J. 2008. Unjust waters: climate change, flooding and the urban poor in Africa. Environment and urbanization, 20(1), 187-205.

Few, R. 2003. Flooding, vulnerability and coping strategies: local responses to a global threat. Progress in Development Studies, 3(1), 43-58.

Galelli, S., Goedbloed, A., Schwanenberg, D., and van Overloop, P. J. 2012. Optimal real-time operation of multipurpose urban reservoirs: Case study in Singapore. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 140(4), 511-523.

Gin, K. Y. H., Ramaswamy, U., and Gopalakrishnan, A. P. 2011. Comparison of nutrient limitation in freshwater and estuarine reservoirs in tropical urban Singapore. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 137(10), 913-919.

Grant, S.B., Fletcher, T.D., Feldman, D., Saphores, J.D., Cook, P.L., Stewardson, M., Low, K., Burry, K. and Hamilton, A.J., 2013. Adapting urban water systems to a changing climate: Lessons from the millennium drought in southeast Australia.

Hilton, M. J., and  Manning, S. S. 2005. Conversion of Coastal Habitats* in Singapore: Indications of Unsustainable Development. Environmental Conservation, 22(4), 307-322.

Jonkman, S. N and Kelman, I. 2005. An analysis of the causes and circumstances of flood disaster deaths. Disasters, 29(1), 75-97.

Kog, Y. C. (2001). Natural resource management and environmental security in Southeast Asia: a case study of clean water supplies to Singapore.

Lai, S., Loke, L. H., Hilton, M. J., Bouma, T. J. and Todd, P. A. 2015. The effects of urbanisation on coastal habitats and the potential for ecological engineering: A Singapore case study. Ocean & Coastal Management, 103, 78-85.

Lai, S., Loke, L. H., Hilton, M. J., Bouma, T. J., and Todd, P. A. 2015 The effects of urbanisation on coastal habitats and the potential for ecological engineering: A Singapore case study. Ocean and Coastal Management, 103, 78-85.

Levy, J. K. 2005. Multiple criteria decision making and decision support systems for flood risk management. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, 19(6), 438-447.

Levy, J. K., Hartmann, J., Li, K. W., An, Y. and Asgary, A. (2007). Multi?criteria decision support systems for flood hazard mitigation and emergency response in urban watersheds. JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 43(2), 346-358.

Levy, J. K., Hartmann, J., Li, K. W., An, Y., and Asgary, A. 2007.  Multi?criteria decision support systems for flood hazard mitigation and emergency response in urban watersheds. JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 43(2), 346-358.

Loucks, R. G., Moore, B. T., and Zeng, H. 2011. On-shelf lower Miocene Oakville sediment-dispersal patterns within a three-dimensional sequence-stratigraphic architectural framework and implications for deep-water reservoirs in the central coastal area of Texas. AAPG bulletin, 95(10), 1795-1817.

Mancini, E. A., Benson, D. J., Hart, B. S., Balch, R. S., Parcell, W. C., and Panetta, B. J. 2011. Appleton field case study (eastern Gulf coastal plain): Field development model for Upper Jurassic microbial reef reservoirs associated with paleotopographic basement structures. AAPG bulletin, 84(11), 1699-1717.

Messner, F., and Meyer, V. 2016. Flood damage, vulnerability and risk perception–challenges for flood damage research. In Flood risk management: hazards, vulnerability and mitigation measures (pp. 149-167). Springer, Dordrecht.

Ng, P. K., Corlett, R., and Tan, H. T. (Eds.). 2011. Singapore biodiversity: an encyclopedia of the natural environment and sustainable development. Editions Didier Millet.

Ng, T. H., and Tan, H. H. 2010. The introduction, origin and life?history attributes of the non?native cichlid Etroplus suratensis in the coastal waters of Singapore. Journal of Fish Biology, 76(9), 2238-2260.

Smith, V. H. 2011. Eutrophication of freshwater and coastal marine ecosystems a global problem. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 10(2), 126-139.

Stewart, J. R., Gast, R. J., Fujioka, R. S., Solo-Gabriele, H. M., Meschke, J. S., Amaral-Zettler, L. A and  Sinigalliano, C. D. 2008, November. The coastal environment and human health: microbial indicators, pathogens, sentinels and reservoirs. In Environmental Health (Vol. 7, No. 2, p. S3). BioMed Central.

Takeoka, H. 2014. Fundamental concepts of exchange and transport time scales in a coastal sea. Continental Shelf Research, 3(3), 311-326.

Thomas, F. H. 2015. Principles of floodplain management. In Defence from Floods and Floodplain Management (pp. 257-270). Springer, Dordrecht.

Tran, P. and  Shaw, R. 2007. Towards an integrated approach of disaster and environment management: A case study of Thua Thien Hue province, central Viet Nam. Environmental Hazards, 7(4), 271-282.

Wang, M., Zhang, D. Q., Adhityan, A., Ng, W. J., Dong, J. W., & Tan, S. K. (2018). Conventional and holistic urban stormwater management in coastal cities: a case study of the practice in Hong Kong and Singapore. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 34(2), 192-212.

Weichselgartner, J. 2011. Disaster mitigation: the concept of vulnerability revisited. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, 10(2), 85-95.

Wong, P. P. 2010. Recreation in the coastal areas of Singapore. In Recreational Uses of Coastal Areas (pp. 53-62). Springer, Dordrecht.

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