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Justification for the use of Digital Forensic Methodology

This assignment is based on the following case. Please read it carefully:

Building Finance Pty Ltd is a leading consumer finance company in Australia. Building Finance employs more than 1,000 employees and the company serves more than 3 million customers in Australia. The company offers a range of services including personal loans, car loans, credit cards, personal insurance, and interest-free retail finance.

Building Finance has invested heavily in information technology for supporting its business operations and achieving competitive advantages over its competitors. Major investments were made by the company in the early 2000s but management has lost focus in updating the networks and application infrastructure that supports the business operation in recent years. The network environment between all of Building Finance offices is flat and relatively unrestricted. Users from one office can access systems and servers from another office. Workstations and servers are typically Microsoft Windowsbased. Firewalls and network segmentation are implemented poorly throughout the environment. Intrusion detection and logging exist on systems but they are not effectively used.

Last night, a team leader from Brisbane office has contacted the Information Security Office urgently at Building Finance head office with some concerns regarding the office computer system. He suspects that someone has compromised a few computers in the office building including his computer.

He noted that a few new features of finance management software have been introduced to the computer system. In addition, several files containing customer personal information have been modified from some of the office computers.

The Information Security Officer, specifically investigative and forensic capabilities, are housed at the head office in Sydney and are responsible for investigating similar issues that occur in all offices. The Information Security Office takes this suspicion seriously. A team of digital forensic investigators is formed to investigate this suspicion at the Brisbane office. Apart from reviewing paper-based company documents, the team is tasked to undertake digital forensic analysis of the network and computer systems at the Brisbane office. This involves conducting a network analysis, gathering digital evidence from servers, PCs and e-mail accounts, conducting a cloud investigation, as well as a social media investigation if needed.


Your task is to prepare a computer forensics investigation plan to enable a systematic collection of evidence and subsequent forensic analysis of the electronic and digital data. This plan should detail the following:

1- Justify why the use of the digital forensic methodology and approach is warranted including appropriate procedures for the Company’s investigation.

2- Describe the resources required to conduct a digital forensic investigation, including skill sets and the required software and hardware for the forensics team members.

3- Outline an approach for data/evidence identification and acquisition that should occur in order to be able to identify and review the digital evidence.

4- Outline an approach and steps to be taken during the analysis phase. In particular, explain what would be involved in the network, servers, PCs, e-mail, cloud and social media investigations.

5- Develop relevant security policies for the Company.

6- Provide recommendations to the Company for dealing with similar future problems.

Justification for the use of Digital Forensic Methodology

Computerized scientific examination includes police investigative bodies and exceptional arraignment for digital wrongdoing that lead examination based on Law on criminal method, Law on fighting digital wrongdoing, Law on electronic correspondence, Law on assurance of data and data frameworks, Law on advanced confirmation, Law on electronic mark and Law on electronic trade. General procedure of authority computerized legal examination, based on "well ordered" model involves 4 stages. In evident instances of digital wrongdoing, at the phase of preparatory examination and hunt, investigative bodies gather proof of sensible uncertainty and put in a claim against the presume who can likewise be obscure person. Based on police discoveries, the prosecutor gives a warrant to examination from investigative judge and starts official examination. In light of a legitimate court arrange, suspicious computer or correspondence framework can be brief reallocated; that is, physical picture of the hard plate or memory substance of IT framework and gadgets with the end goal of measurable obtaining and information examination can be taken.

Nelson, Phillips and Steuart (2014) stated that as advanced forensic end up being more unpreventable in today’s society, governments and private substances consider the need to realize control structures. Order, methodologies and tenets are rapidly being made by parliaments and sheets with a ultimate objective to keep these bad behaviors from spiraling wild. Progressed lawful sciences and, to some extent, e-disclosure have transformed into a key bit of the execution segments used as a piece of taking care of these cybercrimes. The quick headway of mechanized contraptions has essentially influenced the progressed lawful sciences gather with cutting edge bad behaviors growing likewise as fast. Court methodology worldwide are by and by encountering different circumstances where despite their fixation and starting, there is some sort of automated affirm included. Ordinary cases including drug trafficking, killings, blackmail and a stack of others as of now depend seriously on a few information/data living on a propelled device (Halboob et al. 2016). Propelled wrongdoing scene examination show challenges, as the affirmation picked up is normally special in connection to various types of confirmation acquired in other "criminological" examinations. The essential differentiations fuse the way that mechanized affirmation can without a lot of an extend be imitated and controlled by work drive required with the examination (Lewis 2017), maliciously or unexpectedly. This paper will recognize some essential issues as for the use of the electronic quantifiable strategy to pick up the propelled affirmation to be used to convict or vindicate individuals reprimanded for such bad behaviors. It will present a multidimensional approach joining the true blue, particular, moral and educational estimations of modernized criminology to shape a consolidated framework and logic for examinations including propelled affirmation. The objective of these plans is to convey a response for issues enveloping mechanized demonstrate securing and resulting presentation in court and outlines rules for making this kind of affirmation more generous when shown in court.

Resources Required for Digital Forensic Investigation

Negative consideration, mischief to corporate reputation and loss of liberality, legitimate and regulatory endorsements and hostile effect on the principle issue – are generally possible aftereffects of an affiliation's failure to manage the risk of unlawful expense shirking. Various establishments go up against the trial of watching out for the peril of unlawful expense evasion on various fronts (Montasari et al. 2015). The test is significantly more important for complex associations that work in a couple of lines of business and geologies, and associations that have broadened errands through a merger or getting as they face distinctive true blue and authoritative necessities, vernaculars, IT systems and business social orders. With controllers grasping stricter headings on cash related trades and enhancing their necessity attempts, associations are defying extended versatile quality on customer unmistakable evidence and checking programs. Using our settled strategy and going along with it with our bent and perception of the regulatory condition, we give an entire extent of Anti-Money Laundering organizations: Review/develop an against tax avoidance (AML) structure, due eagerness and cautioning to consistence advancement cautioning and systems compromise.

A fundamental edge to stimulate duty and straightforwardness inside an affiliation is a framework to enable all individuals to voice worries inside in a skilled and effective way when they discover information, which they trust, exhibits honest to goodness carelessness. Completing a laborer whistle blowing hotline gives your delegates a voice to secretly report workplace concerns and engages you to recognize and revise issues before they hurt your business and its reputation. Building Finance Pty Ltd Tip-offs Anonymous can go about as a snag for deceitful direct that could incite mishaps. It is also ended up being among the best ways to deal with recognizes distortion according to the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE). Additionally, the proximity of a whistle blowing helpline can bolster staff certainty by engaging regards, for instance, place stock in, respectability, openness, dependability and straightforwardness (Cho 2015). Building Finance Pty Ltd's Tip-offs Anonymous is a free and private whistle blowing office that allows visitors to bring a stress up with respect to a scene of terrible conduct, blackmail or misleading behavior inside the workplace, while taking care of anonymity.

With banks standing up to expanded authoritative and open examination in various countries, using advanced examination to help recognize potential awful conduct sooner may be an imperative and operational goal. Advancement has made new streets for banks to balance or recognize deception a similar number of the markers of coercion are concealed inside the bank's operational data. An adroit data examination gadget can mine through this data and recognize covered associations and alerts. This will enable banks to proactively perceive potential tricky trades beforehand they show themselves months or years down the line. Examination can empower banks to refine the way they play out the sort of watching that will empower them to recognize and perceive potential blackmail before the dispatch of a formal examination by controllers (Leelasankar et al. 2018). Banks should utilize the results of danger evaluations to center around their examination tries and alter their checking structures for reliable change. They should then reshape their coercion distinguishing proof undertakings using advanced examination and related instruments, programming and applications to get oversight that is more powerful. These methods can help update distortion counteractive action, and additionally indicate controllers a wander wide feeling of obligation with respect to approving an effective against blackmail strategy. Our proposals to specific keeping cash clients will depend on the perils they stand up to and the state of their steady watching strategy and development.

Approach for Data/Evidence Identification and Acquisition

The present business condition produces tremendous measures of data and information. Nevertheless, a few billions of dollars are lost every year in view of deception, budgetary screw up or other trouble making, for instance, information deletion, plan encroachment or unapproved get to, et cetera. Business examinations and cases logically rely upon this data to help describe the whole story. The best approach to directing such tremendous volumes is changing the assortment of data into imperative information.

  • Understand material legitimate necessities and methodologies • Secure and accumulate demonstrate in a path unsurprising with principles of reasonableness • Analyze the affirmation with trusted and endorsed contraptions
  • Present the confirmation legitimately We have the best in class logical and quantifiable advancement labs masterminded in working environments that component an assortment of development and gadgets to help lawful imaging, examination, electronic exposure and electronic data irregularity distinguishing proof (Kizza 2017). It can assemble, defend and procure data from computer systems including hard drives, advantageous media, servers, propelled cell phones and go down media. Our computer logical organizations include: • Forensic imaging and examination • Forensic examination organizations
  • Computer legitimate scene response
  • Training in computer quantifiable
  • Legal business advising

Hypothesis banks either endeavoring to raise capital for their clients, through open or private commitments, or provoking clients on potential trades, or a private esteem theorist placing assets into an association generally require an objective picture and perception of the establishments of the social events included. Such information can help with easing reputational, genuine, or business perils concerning thought about trades. So also as strict unfriendly to tax avoidance controls have made it essential for fiscal associations to sharpen "know your customer" due resourcefulness, the need to "know your dealer" accept a tantamount part in directing coercion and managerial peril for associations. We give objective and exact information on individuals and substances for clients that search for exhaustive learning with respect to due energy, case support, and coercion and business examinations. Our Business Intelligence (BI) bunch has experienced explore specialists who have dominance to gather material information from open records, purchased in databases, press and media sources (Liu 2016). Work zone look at is supplemented by a carried out field examination bunch that has a strong framework all through the country to endeavor establishment examinations of subjects, recognizing beyond reconciliation condition, undisclosed associations and affiliations or deciding issues, for instance, any prior budgetary, true blue, authoritative or criminal issues or associations with dealt with bad behavior.

The upward example in regulatory against corruption exercises all around has suggested that Indian money related foundations need to ensure their consistence programs are solid and attempted. This will restrict chances of prosecution and basic fines under Indian laws, and additionally under the more stringent overall bearings like U.S. Remote Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) and the UK Bribery Act (UKBA). Looked with these managerial and definitive needs, cash related establishments should now set themselves up against pollution risks and consider fitting peril organization systems, methodologies and strategies to ease the threat of fixes being paid, clearly or roundabout. Our unfriendly to pollution specialists have helped a bit of the world's driving associations and associations investigate the risks rising up out of against degradation institution

Approach for Analysis Phase

Additionally controlling of benefits and external shipper induced fakes are overwhelming in the corporate dealing with a record area. Likewise, the introduction of advancement for web and adaptable dealing with a record are inciting fresher sorts of fakes like phishing, account takeover, hacking and cloning. Any response to deception in this way, should be fast and convincing (Ravi et al. 2016). The RBI round dated September 2009 anticipated that banks would investigate 'immense regard fakes' with the help of gifted work for inside remedial movement against the staff and external genuine arraignment of the fraudsters and their abettors. On account of investigating a colossal scale cash related clarification distortion, laborer indecency, securing blackmail, contamination or general accounting abnormalities, our budgetary coercion investigative gathering has wide inclusion in dealing with the inflexibly prevalent and complex salaried bad behavior in the money related organizations industry.

Examination Conducted an examination to perceive the quantum of incident to a couple of cash related foundations on account of distraction of admission credit conveyances by a borrower. Our examination of the trades helped in the ID of various round trades, misleading and sporadic trades inciting the redirection of advantages. We moreover perceived a couple of abnormalities in approving and seeing of workplaces and assessed the hardship to the cash related associations. Against pay off and degradation Appointed by a fundamental association in India to review their exercises for consistence with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA). As a noteworthy part of the assignment, we recognized a couple of high risk/sporadic trades including government specialists and contract workers. The overview revelations also revealed tricky charging by an impermanent laborer for nebulous vision experts. Blackmail chance organization Appointed by a primary multinational bank for driving an all around review of the bank's wealth organization front end process. We recognized process weakness which could provoke mis-offering, distortion and managerial encroachment and prescribed changes to the technique to enhance the control condition.

Following a fundamental review, we displayed a positive report of our disclosures. Following up on our recommendations, the client attracted us to help them in strengthening their caution clearing techniques; including setting up their specialists and working up a self-ruling Quality Assurance (QA) work (Harichandran et al. 2016). Business learning Appointed by a social affair of credit authority banks to finish cash related declaration examination, asset following and recognizing the improvement of benefits for perceived borrower associations. We coordinated field examination, source enquiries and work region dares to find nearness, nature of business and associations of the borrowers with picked substances and recognized undeterred assets. The results from the field examinations moreover exhibited that the borrowers had involved the advantages for place assets into arrive wanders. We secured quantifiable pictures of computers of different suspects and drove modernized logical recovery strategies. This supported in recognizing chronicles and pictures related to the execution of false development and unapproved trades. The gathering assisted with uncovering sensible verification that helped fill the missing associations, unavoidably allowing the law usage association to record the charge sheet inside the stipulated time and moreover drew out a couple of shortcomings in server outline settings that could help future fraudsters.

Development of Security Policies

Nowadays, computer advancement is used at an astoundingly high degree in each piece of our lives. This is generally in light of the way that it has made our lives less complex in a couple of ways. Particularly, it has given current society an imperative asset, which is the accelerating of techniques through significantly extended benefit and efficiency. Moreover, access to any kind of information is staggeringly advanced. Regardless, could this enhanced access to information go about as an increased edged sword in the usage of computer advancement? Shockingly, computer advancement can in like manner be used as a piece of demand to perform exploitative and some of the time even unlawful activities as well. These activities constitute information security scenes. Information security is portrayed as protecting information and information systems from unapproved get the opportunity to, use, exposure, aggravation, adjustment, or pulverization (Tang 2016). The already specified exploitative activities are attacks that expect to harm information security gathering of three (CIA), which is Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability of computer data and systems. It is a dreary fact of current society that the amount of information security strikes is extending essentially reliably. In this way, there is an uncommon prerequisite for information security experts that can oblige these ambushes. Information security authorities' sensible field is called Computer Forensics. Specifically, computer criminology is described as the show that merges segments of law and programming designing to accumulate and separate data from computer structures, frameworks, remote correspondences, and limit contraptions in a way that is adequate as affirmation in a court (US-CERT, 2008). Inside this proposition computer lawful sciences with respect to cash related infringement is asked about. Specifically, the occasion of Enron shock is the cash related bad behavior that it is examined here. The Enron shock (October 2001) has been depicted as the greatest dissatisfaction ever of free undertaking and its fold influenced monetary masters to lose a ton of money and laborers to lose their livelihoods, their restorative assurances and their retirement finances as well. Government examination about the shock, which continued going pretty much five years, contemplated that Enron's authorities misrepresented its expecting profits by a couple of associations and moreover control of its cash related clarifications was.

Other than the cash related bad behavior degree of the humiliation, it can be considered as a computer helped bad behavior likewise, on account of the colossal measure of inculpatory propelled evidence that was found. Particularly, Enron related propelled evidence was around 31 terabytes and the Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory (RCFL) in Houston set it up. Several years after the shock, a particular bit of this propelled affirmation was made straightforwardly open for legitimate research. This part was the Enron email dataset, which was posted on the web by William Cohen, an educator at Carnegie Mellon University (Tang 2016). It should be communicated that the Enron email dataset is a to an awesome degree broad dataset that contains the messages exchanged by Enron's specialists in the midst of 1997-2002. Continuously, after it was uninhibitedly open, a couple of specialists reviewed this dataset to give messages' game plan, quantifiable examination, casual association examination and discernment and substance mining of the messages. In 2005, Jitesh Shetty and Jafar Adibi cleaned the dataset from duplicate messages and made a MySQL database for the dataset remembering the ultimate objective to quantifiably dismember it and get a casual group from it. This database is in like manner uninhibitedly open and it is used as a piece of this theory in order to perform dataset examination. Presently it is basic to state the key focuses of this proposition. Thusly, in this theory, the beforehand said database is secretly secured and taken care of remembering the ultimate objective to give some essential results about the Enron email dataset. Thus, concerning the examination part of the dataset, one objective is to take a gander at the dataset and give some pleasing quantifiable examination comes to fruition, so that the dataset will be significantly comprehended. Similarly, another objective is to demonstrate a casual group view of the dataset remembering the ultimate objective to grasp the scattering of the framework. Logically, the powerful accomplishment of these objectives will be used as the purpose behind achieving the essential target of this piece. Particularly, the essential goal of this proposition is to make a computer wrongdoing scene examination approach that can be seen as the foundation while looking at incredibly broad datasets, like the Enron email dataset.

Recommendations for Dealing with Similar Future Problems

The computer wrongdoing scene examination portion incorporates computer criminology definition, targets, process, benchmarks, systems and over the long haul its criticalness. Also, propelled infringement region joins electronic bad behavior definition and arrange and the sorts of cutting edge data and automated demonstrate. Moreover, money related bad behaviors section consolidates budgetary bad behavior definition and its orders. Finally, the occurrence of Enron zone is included the outline of the shock, the rising of the association, its headways and accomplishment keys, the fold of the association and the clarifications for it, the administration examination on the humiliation, ex-laborers sentiments and pay to setbacks. In movement, part Problem Definition is appeared. Issue definition joins three sections, which are The Enron email dataset, Related work on email examination and Dissertation's worry definition. The key zone depicts the Enron email dataset and its criticalness. The second section shows a bit of the past work on email examination. An extensive part of this work displayed used the Enron email dataset in their examination. Finally the third fragment records the headways used as a piece of this paper and depicts the issues that are gone up against while analyzing the Enron email dataset. The accompanying segment, is Contribution and it joins the execution part of the article. It includes three fragments, which are Methodology and advances, Statistical examination, and Social framework portrayal. The essential section portrays all around the methodology and the advancements used before the examination part of the paper. The second section depicts the genuine examination of the Enron email dataset and the developments that are used. In this fragment some trademark figures are presented as well. The third fragment presents the relational association portrayal of the Enron email dataset. Furthermore, the headways and the expressing that are used as a piece of this part are totally delineated.

The wire of computer development in current life has extended the gainfulness and the efficiency in a couple of parts of it. In any case, computer advancement isn't simply used as an obliging contraption that enhances customary approachs. In corrupt hands, it can be used as a criminal gadget as well. Particularly, specific capable punks abuse its handling power and its accessibility to information, with a particular true objective to perform, stow away or encourage unlawful or exploitative activities (Baggili and Breitinger 2015). Nowadays, the amount of information security events is extending the world over. As ought to be clear in the figure underneath, USA is the genuine focal point of criminals' strikes. In this manner, remembering the ultimate objective to arraign law breakers related with computer related scenes, experts must have the ability to apply correct and tried and true lawful sciences frameworks.

Immediately, it should be portrayed what criminology is. Generally, in word references criminology is portrayed as the route toward using legitimate data for social occasion, analyzing, and acquainting affirmation with the courts. Rodney McKemmish showed one of the primary definitions about computer criminology in 1999. He recommended that Forensic Computing is the path toward perceiving, sparing, separating and indicating mechanized demonstrate in a way that is truly sufficient. The Information Security and Forensics Society (ISFS) proposed a more specific definition about computer criminology in 2004. As showed by ISFS, Computer Forensics is the investigation of securing, sparing and recording confirmation from cutting edge electronic amassing contraptions, for instance, computers, PDAs, modernized cameras, mobile phones, and distinctive memory storing devices


computer or propelled criminology is a tolerably new consistent domain and there are a couple of definitions written to demonstrate it. It should be communicated that at first there was a capability among computer and propelled wrongdoing scene examination. The past suggested demonstrate picked up from a computer, while the last joined the wrongdoing scene examination of all modernized development. This capability is showed up in the figure underneath. Amid the time the importance of computer wrongdoing scene examination broadened, yet a couple of individuals still consider it a branch of electronic criminology science. Everything considered, computer and electronic legitimate sciences take after comparative guidelines and systems concerning propelled confirmation and in this way others, including this composition, consider them tantamount.


Baggili, I. and Breitinger, F., 2015, March. Data sources for advancing cyber forensics: What the social world has to offer. In 2015 AAAI Spring Symposium Series.

Cho, G.S., 2015, July. NTFS Directory Index Analysis for Computer Forensics. In Innovative Mobile and Internet Services in Ubiquitous Computing (IMIS), 2015 9th International Conference on (pp. 441-446). IEEE.

Halboob, W., Mahmod, R., Abulaish, M., Abbas, H. and Saleem, K., 2015, April. Data warehousing based computer forensics investigation framework. In Information Technology-New Generations (ITNG), 2015 12th International Conference on (pp. 163-168). IEEE.

Harichandran, V.S., Breitinger, F., Baggili, I. and Marrington, A., 2016. A cyber forensics needs analysis survey: Revisiting the domain's needs a decade later. Computers & Security, 57, pp.1-13.

Kizza, J.M., 2017. Computer and network forensics. In Guide to Computer Network Security (pp. 303-329). Springer, Cham.

Leelasankar, K., Chellappan, C. and Sivasankar, P., 2018. Successful Computer Forensics Analysis on the Cyber Attack Botnet. In Handbook of Research on Network Forensics and Analysis Techniques (pp. 266-281). IGI Global.

Lewis, B., 2017. NIST Offers Free Software to Help Agencies Test Computer Forensics Tools.

Liu, J., 2016, September. Ten-Year Synthesis Review: A Baccalaureate Program in Computer Forensics. In Proceedings of the 17th Annual Conference on Information Technology Education (pp. 121-126). ACM.

Montasari, R., Peltola, P. and Evans, D., 2015, September. Integrated computer forensics investigation process model (ICFIPM) for computer crime investigations. In International Conference on Global Security, Safety, and Sustainability (pp. 83-95). Springer, Cham.

Nelson, B., Phillips, A. and Steuart, C., 2014. Guide to computer forensics and investigations. Cengage Learning.

Ravi, S., Zeeshan, G.A., Guru, R.S. and MVIT, B., 2016. Application of Data Hiding In Audio-Image Using Anti Forensics Technique for Authentication and Data Security. International Journal of Engineering Science, 2690.

Tang, L., 2016, January. The work about the cybercrime and computer forensics course. In SHS Web of Conferences (Vol. 25). EDP Sciences.

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