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The Shared History of Robotics and Artificial Intelligence

Robotics and artificial intelligence share a common history of cooperation and scientific discussion, as well as a relatively extensive history of interaction. Both artificial intelligence and robotics evolved around the same time (the 1950s), with no clear distinction between them at the time. Robots as well as robotics are inevitably led by the "smart machine" concept. One could argue that not every machine is robotic, and artificial intelligence certainly covers virtual agents (i.e., agents who aren't physically embodied in a machine). On the other hand, many problems technically, and the solutions required for designing robots, are not dealt with the research of artificial intelligence [4]. In the 70's, a field clear separation can be seen, when industrial automation focused more on robotics, while robots were used in artificial intelligence in a demonstration that in everyday environments, machines could still act. Robotics was later dismissed as a preferable testbed for artificial intelligence due to challenges faced in the development of systems of robotics capable of acting in unconstrained settings.

Robotics research, on the other hand, has resulted in the production of increasingly sophisticated industrial robots. In the '90s, when robots began to re-populate the laboratories of AI and those of robotics, they addressed specifically environments that were less-controlled. The competition of robots began in particular: they played a role that was major in the re-establishment of the relationship that was strict between robotics and AI, which is the development that is most promising at the European level and national context. To summarize, the distinction between Artificial Intelligence and Robotics studies is difficult to define, although the challenges that must be discussed in order to create intelligent robots are identified by the community of research, as well as robot development is once again regarded as a prototypical scenario of the system of AI.  This project therefore has created an autonomous AI based robotic system which has been tested to check the main aspects of robotics and AI.

The main aim of this project is to design and develop an effective and efficient AI based autonomous robotic system which makes use of Artificial Intelligence in movement. The purpose of this project is to analyze on the integration of Artificial Intelligence on Robotics. The effects of AI in robotics is also discussed. From the above aim, there following are the objectives;

  1. To carry out on the feasibility study on the most used robotic science which has been integrated with Artificial Intelligence.
  2. To investigate the methods under which the robotic system can be designed and implemented.
  3. To develop an AI based robotic system using reliable components for the demonstration of robotics and Artificial Intelligence.
  4. To test and evaluate the system created and check if the AI aspect has been executed well. 

Robots were used mainly in factories until recently for the process of automating production. Much debate was in the 70s due to the factory robot’s appearance and employment influence. There was concern about mass unemployment. Despite the fact that this did not happen, robots have improved the way things are done in many factories. This paper examines how the application of robotics beyond the industry will affect our lives in the near future. The robots application in a more complicated and unstructured outside environment, that is, the automating of countless human traits such as caring for the sick, car driving, love making, and people being killed, is now referred to as "new robotics." Due to this, emerging robotics aims to automate everything from love to war. The sectors of the military and the industry of cars are particularly strong, specifically the drivers behind the development of the emerging technologies of information. This is how they have always been. The automobile industry gained the lead after the advent of industrial robots and car robotization.

The Distinction between Artificial Intelligence and Robotics

Artificial intelligence was pioneered by the military, primarily in the United States, and is now driven by computers and the Internet. Robots, in particular, make use of current Infrastructural development, meaning that this connectivity will keep improving technically in the future. Due to robots, the Internet now has "senses, hands, and feet."As a result, the new robot is rarely a stand-alone unit. To understand the possibilities and limitations of modern robotics, it's important to understand that robots are generally supported by networks of technological advancement, such as the Internet, and are so referred to as connected robots. Two long-term ambitions of engineering are driving the development of new robotics. For example, there's the dream of engineering of creating an acting and movable machine in sophisticated and unstructured settings. Second, there is the ambition of creating machines competent in social behavior and moral decision-making. The "strong AI" viewpoint holds that this could be technologically feasible within a very few years (AI: artificial intelligence). It is quite unlikely that this will occur. Simultaneously, the "strong AI" viewpoint dominates the media and has a significant impact on IT research policy and funding. It is undeniable that this technology will have a significant impact on the many practices investigated. Many issues that are sensitive societally and politically are now on the public and political agenda as a result of this. As per Peter Singer, "the greatest revolution inside the military services since the atom bomb," the army's robotization is "the biggest transformation within the military forces since the atom bomb." Automobile robotization seems to be creating significant technological and cultural developments in the area of mobility.

The development of automobile robots is described by the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) as a "progressive revolutionary development." The police might benefit from an increase in the usual range of surveillance technology applications due to robots. Tele-care is made possible by home automation and robots, which will revolutionize health-care practice in the coming future. Finally, we note that "simple" technologies like robotis technologies have given the industry of entertainment a new face in recent years: consider Wii or Kinect. In the coming years, we will continue to be presented with gadgets and technology.

New robotics gives us a wide range of opportunities for improving human existence, but it also poses lots of new societal and ethical concerns. The discussion over applying robotics to some far-flung battlegrounds is attractive now, but the use of care robots is only getting started. The Rathenau Instituut explored the social meaning of robotics in Europe and the United States in 2011 and 2012, motivated by the introduction of new robots, by examining robotics advancements in five application areas: the home, health care, traffic, law enforcement, and the army. A complete literature review was conducted for this study with the purpose of identifying the most relevant papers on robots from the five application areas and ethics related. The primary ethical challenges and the most significant results from the literature are presented for every application area, with an emphasis on the 3 key questions:

  • What is currently possible in terms of new robotic technologies, as well as what will be possible in the medium and long term?
  • what does the new robotics raise on ethical questions in short and long term?
  • What regulatory challenges do these ethical concerns raise? In other words, what issues should politicians and policymakers discuss publicly or place on the agenda?

Designing an AI Based Autonomous Robotic System

Based on the findings of our literature analysis, this paper first covers the above questions in the following 5 sections, which deal with the home, health care, traffic, the police, and the army, in that order. 

The methodology which has been used in this project is the waterfall methodology udner the SDLC software development cycle. The waterfall technique is a progressive development technique that flows among all stages like a waterfall (for instance, analysis, designing, development, and testing) with every phase wrapping up completely before beginning the next phase [14].

The waterfall methodology is based on the assumption that all requirements of the project can be upfront collected and comprehended. The project manager makes every effort to fully comprehend the requirements of the project sponsor. Requirements are written and contained in a document that is single, and are utilized to outline every project stage, including the risks, costs, estimates, success metrics, dependencies, and completion timelines.

To develop technology solutions to the issues stated in product specifications, computer scientists use cases, frameworks, and analytical algorithms. First, a higher-level or logical design is created, which details the project's aim and scope, as well as the general traffic flow of each component & integration points. Then, with the assistance of particular hardware and software technologies, it is transformed into a physical layout.

When the design has been completed, the technological implementation starts. This could be the shortest step in the waterfall model because substantial research and design has been performed. Programmers write code that is based on project requirements and specifications, with some testing and implementation mixed. If considerable changes are required at this phase, the design process may need to be restarted.

Before an item can be supplied to customers, it must be tested to ensure that it is error-free and that all requirements have been met, resulting in a great user experience. The testing team will take the design documents, personas, and user case scenarios from the product manager to construct their test cases.

After software has been published to the industry or to users, it enters the maintenance stage. A team will be developed to oversee updating and the implementation of advanced application systems as problems are detected and client requests for modifications are made. 

System analysis is always regarded as a very broader term which is based on the requirement analysis as well as the object analysis. The system which is being designed and implemented has got the following requirements;

  1. The system has the Artificial Intelligence attributes which showcases the artificial intelligence aspect.
  2. The system is robotics based hence makes use of the external components for the construction of the movable autonomous robotic car.
  3. The system is efficient enough to sense the presence of obstacles as it moves. 

The system design critically checks on the conceptual solution which fulfills the requirements rather than the development.   

Raspberry Pi 3 ( Model B+ )

  • Micro SD card 64GB
  • Adapter HDMI 90 Degree Angle
  • Battery DURACELL AA4
  • Raspberry pi camera
  • Smart Robot 4 Weel Car Chassis Kit For Arduino    

Critical evaluation of the system was done using testing method where the system was tested. The following are the testing results;

Test case

Description

Expected Results

Actual Results

Pass/Fail

Test for AI

The artificial intelligence aspect is tested in the project

The robot developed makes use of AI in motion for detecting obstacles and learning the path and routes.

The car moves checking and making decisions when it gets closer to the obstacles

Pass

Test for obstacle recognition

Move the car on a closed room and check what happens when the car gets closer to the obstacle.

The robot detects the obstacle and changes direction

The robot detects the obstacle and changes direction

Pass

Test for Movable robots

Test of the robot is moving from one place to another

The robot is able to move from one pace to another

The movement of the robot is efficient

Pass

Conclusion

This project report was concluded with a disclaimer: the paper presentation views are those of research on AI using an intelligent agent model of robotics, and no effort was made to provide a survey that is comprehensive. Some of the issues addressed in this study have been addressed by robotics researchers recently, although the paper may not fully explain the robots' view on AI.

References

[1]"Fourth international symposium on robotics and artificial intelligence in building construction", Artificial Intelligence, vol. 32, no. 1, p. 147, 2012. Available: 10.1016/0004-3702(87)90065-8.

[2]T. Knasel, "Artificial intelligence in manufacturing: Forecasts for the use of artificial intelligence in the USA", Robotics, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 357-362, 2017. Available: 10.1016/0167-8493(86)90009-4.

[3]S. Fok and E. Ong, "A high school project on artificial intelligence in robotics", Artificial Intelligence in Engineering, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 61-70, 2018. Available: 10.1016/0954-1810(95)00016-x.

[4]T. Christaller, "Cognitive robotics: a new approach to artificial intelligence", Artificial Life and Robotics, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 221-224, 2019. Available: 10.1007/bf02481184.

[5]N. Nilsson, "Robotics and artificial intelligence", Journal of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, vol. 9, no. 2-3, pp. 337-338, 2012. Available: 10.1080/095281397147158.

[6]"Roles of robotics in education using artificial intelligence", International Journal of Recent Trends in Engineering and Research, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 171-174, 2018. Available: 10.23883/ijrter.2018.4224.eam7n.

[7]K. Rajan and A. Saffiotti, "Towards a science of integrated AI and Robotics", Artificial Intelligence, vol. 247, pp. 1-9, 2017. Available: 10.1016/j.artint.2017.03.003.

[8]"Robotics and Artificial Intelligence | Department of ...". [Online]. Available: https://cse.umn.edu/cs/robotics-AI. [Accessed: 2022].

[9]"Artificial Intelligence in Robotics - GeeksforGeeks". [Online]. Available: https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/artificial-intelligence-in-robotics/. [Accessed: 2022].

[10]"Robotics and Artificial Intelligence - Javatpoint". [Online]. Available: https://www.javatpoint.com/robotics-and-artificial-intelligence. [Accessed: 2022].

[11]"Artificial Intelligence & Robotics - American Bar Association". [Online]. Available: https://www.americanbar.org/groups/departments_offices/abacle/nat_institutes/artificial-intelligence-robotics/. [Accessed: 2022].

[12]"Robotics and artificial intelligence in healthcare during ...". [Online]. Available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8493645/. [Accessed: 2022].

[13]"(PDF) Artificial Intelligence and Robotics". [Online]. Available: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/351764612_Artificial_Intelligence_and_Robotics. [Accessed: 2022].

[14]"(PDF) Artificial Intelligence and Robotics.". [Online]. Available: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/220672741_Artificial_Intelligence_and
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