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History of Forest Reservoirs of Canada and China


Compare the Policy and Legislation to reserve in Canada and China focus on six reserves.

In the year 1972, Stockholm, Sweden witnessed the first general concern of the global society regarding the environmental changes and its reservation as it hosted the very first United Nations Conference on the Human Environment with 113 delegates around the globe and two state heads (Douguédroit, Annick and Sébastien). The impact of this program was such that the United Nations Environment Program was introduced and the primary objective decided was – developed and developing nations should focus their financial budgets so that sustainable environments can be maintained (Xu et al.). In 1992, the UN Conference on Environment and Development or UNCED ‘The Earth Summit’ was organized in Rio de Janeiro and the topic of discussion was using sustainable forest resources for the development and preservation of forest reserves. Furthermore, the UN also dedicated one of its sustainable developmental goals for 2020 and according to it, the goal 15th was dedicated for the life on land and decided to manage forests, combat with desertification and to halt biodiversity loss and forest reserves (Zheng, Heran and Shixiong). Hence, it was understood that the world is concerned for the 80% of animals, plants and insects that are dependent on the forest and those 1.6 billion of people, who are dependent on these forest reserves for their growth and livelihood. This leads to the formation of wildlife reserves and protected lands throughout the world to achieve the objectives of maintaining and protecting wildlife in the ecosystem as well as entertaining human. As different wildlife has diverse habitats that need different ways for protection, policies and legislation are also formed to support different reserves (Douguédroit, Annick and Sébastien).

As the world progresses, there is shift in mindset of people has been observed regarding nature and its components. This developing world provided each individual with fundamental needs of life hence, the shift from fundamental to sustainable needs lead them to think about nature and its components (Ramcilovic-Suominen et al.). People are now more focused to create an environment which is pure and healthy and to sustain that they started advocating protection of wildlife and forests. the protected area is defined as a geographical outline which is maintained, protected and recognized through legal means so that effective and long-term conservation of the ecosystem, its nature, its animals and cultural values can be can be achieved (Sparovek et al.). However, to protect these protected lands from illegal or unpleasant activities of human, the formation and implementation of legislation and protective acts was important for the protection and sustainable maintenance of forest reserves around the world (Ramcilovic-Suominen, Sabaheta and Christian).

Chinese Forest Reserves

The primary aim of this project is to understand the history of infrastructure and characteristics of forest reservoirs of Canada and China as these two countries are diligently focused on this major concern of UN sustainable development goals. Furthermore the project will compare the governmental norms and policies for effective and sustainable maintenance of forest reserves of the two countries so that the comparison can help to understand the implications of the policies. Finally, this project will provide a list of recommendations regarding legislation sand policies so that implementation of those can upgrade the protection policies of these countries and they are able to develop better reserves in the near future.

To fulfill the aims of the project, several objectives need to be completed. Those objectives are:

  • The first objective will be understanding the forest reserves of the two country and for this purpose three forest reserves form each country has been selected. These forest reserves are: Yancheng Red-crowned Crane Nature Reserve, Anhui Alligator Reserve and Sichuan wolong national nature reserve of China and wood buffalo National Park, Jasper National Park, Race Rock Ecological Reserve of Canada.
  • the second objective will be comparing the plants, animals and other natural resources related legislations of these forest reserves of both the countries so that the state of the forests can be understood and the level of protection needed for the development can be under stood.
  • The third objective will be conducting literature review of forest reserve related polices used worldwide and critically compare that with both these countries policies so that positive and negatives of the legislations used by China and Canada can be understood.
  • Provide a set of recommendations regarding these policies and legislations so that implementation of that helps to upgrade the protection related norms of both these countries.

China’s forest reserves

History and background

As the Chinese economy started increasing, the focus of Chinese government started shifting towards protecting nature and its resources as the government understood that tourism will be the biggest way to generate revenue in the next that is twenty first century (Li, Wen-Yao and Da-Wen). In the Chinese history, the development of Chinese nature reserves can be divided into three stages, create, stagnation and rapid developmental stages. The first stage stagnation lasted from 1950s to 1980s when the government understood the value of nature and natural resources and started spreading the awareness among the countrymen so that the killing of wild animals can be stopped (He et al.). At this stage, the government did not have any legislation regarding animal protection and due to which the primary reserves created by the government were destroyed by local population (Harwood). On the other hand, government continued its awareness campaigns regarding reservation of wildlife and forests so that the rest reserves can be protected. But from 1967 to 1976, China’s legal system destroyed and hence, all the work of nature reserves was stopped, although there are some policies promulgated during the period (Zhou et al.).

The second phase of forest reservation continued the struggle period of Chinese government as the second stage lasted from 1980s to 2000s. During this period the Chinese delegation attended the Earth Summit 1992 in Rio de Janeiro and focused its concentration on animals and plant species that are on the verge of extinction (He et al.). The biggest step the government took during this period was developing and implementing an animal protection legislation in 1989. The government also took help from different global organizations regarding protection of animals and biosphere and in the course the Chinese Academy of Science established the People’s Republic of China National Commission for Man and Biosphere and joined the International Man and the Biosphere Reserve Network in 1993. The Chinese National Commission for man and biosphere also contributed to the project by providing proper information to other animal and forest related departs formed in this stage such as forestry department and ministry of agriculture so that these departments can do a better job in protecting wild animals (Li, Wen-Yao and Da-Wen).

Canadian Forest Reserves

The third stage, the rapid development stage started after 2000 as Chinese government developed forest reserves in tremendous pace. This is determined as 50 natural reserves in 1980s becomes 5000 protected areas and more than 2000 natural reserves by the end of 2003 (Harwood). The area of the nature reserves is about 13% of the Chinese total area. Further In 2016, the Chinese government republished the Law on the protection of wildlife with some prominent changes to the old legislation. In this new law, the content provided information about the ways using which, the population can contribute to protect wildlife and some general idea on finding or manage wildlife reserves (Zhou et al.).

Development of present forest reserves

The present Chinese nature reserves have experienced five stages such as creation, stagnation, restoration of growth, comprehensive planning and rapid growth. Other than these each reserve has been created using scientific planning and construction and intensive operation and management (Wang et al.). The first three stages of development followed the idea of rescue and protection and according to that planning followed by construction leads to gradual improvement in the future. However, maximum of the forest reserves in China are not developed after scientific planning and construction due to which, the effectiveness of the protection of the reserves has a big deviation. The fourth and fifth stage of development was about the standardization of planning and management according to which, using modern technology all the background data of the forest reserves were collected and possible changes in the construction were made (Liu et al.).

Type of forest reserves

Based on the purpose, requirements and the conditions of present reserves, the Chinese forest reserves can be divided in to six different types:

1) a. strict nature reserve, b. Wilderness protection.

2) National park.

3) Natural monument.

4) Habitat and species management.

5) terrestrial/marine landscape protection and

6) Ecological function reserve/resource protection site (Liu et al.).

Further, depending on the functional areas, the government divided forest reserves into three sections such as core area, test area and buffer area. Core area is the well preserved natural ecosystem or key habitats where the rare and endangered animals are protected. This place is prohibited for general entry and if any organization or individual wants to conduct any scientific research, a proper authorization will be provided by the government (Liu et al.). On the other hand, buffer area is the place where scientific research is allowed to conduct but tourism or production activities are not allowed as per the legislation. Finally the test area where the government allows to do educational activities, scientific research, visit and tourism activities, but these activities also need though the corresponding legal process (Wang et al.).

Comparison of Governmental Norms and Policies

Canada’s forest reserves

History and background

The Canadian history regarding forest and nature reserves is rich as the practice started from 1873 when the government of Canada started separating the public lands from the resourceful lands using interior dominion land branches. However the forestry in Canada started from the British government and according to (Šamonil et al.), the Canadian government currently helps to protect more than 2.8 million acres of land full of natural resources and animals across the country. However, due to the effect of World War 2, maximum of the wildlife sanctuaries and reserves were abolished and many species become endangered. The government further focused on preparing legislation and policies so that more endangered or threatened species of birds and other wildlife animals can be preserved (Lankia et al.). Each Canadian believes that forest and nature is a part of their culture, heritage, economy and environment. Further to protect that the government implemented sustainable forest management, strict policies and legislations and spread awareness among the countrymen so that their support can help this project to attain success (Rohner et al.).

The reason behind these practices implemented by Canadian government was their understanding about the fact that these forest resources and natural biodiversity are helpful for the sustainable growth and development of the Canadian economy and community (Šamonil et al.). Further according to Lankia et al., Canada occupies more than 9 percent of global forest hence, by protecting the ecosystem the government aimed to contribute in maintaining the global environment. The current practice is such that Canada is the leader in sustainable forest management and has also collaborated with other countries and organizations to adapt to their framework to monitor and report different changes in these reserves due to climate change (Rohner et al.).

Development to present forest reserves

  Wild animals are an integral part of Canadian heritage, as the second largest country in the world, Canada has a very large land area with a small population. This makes Canada a country, which owns large natural ecosystems (Venier et al.). There are only few countries in the world with such forest percentage and hence, the Canadian government is focused to protect the forest and its ecosystem. After attending the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, the Canadian government focused into scientific planning and management of forest reserves (Stambouli et al.). The current forest reserves criteria and indicators help the organizations and individuals, who use forest resources for their production and business related matters to clarify different issues related to trade and environment and the environmental credentials of Canadian government. Further, as a founding member of Montreal process, the Canadian government also collaborated with other organizations to promote the growth and development of nature reserves indicators and criteria that are currently used around the world (Venier et al.).

Recommendations for Legislation and Policies

Type of nature reserves in Canada

Unlike China, there are mainly two types of protected lands in Canada, forest conservation and forest protection lands. Forest conservation is an array of activities, approaches and tools that has been applied by the Canadian government to achieve the biodiversity objectives. These activities and objectives are backed by policies and legislations and protects animals and plant species of these area (Treitz et al.). The governmental conservational approach is seen as the provincial guidelines for the companies that are operating on that land and make them follow three norms (Rohner et al.). These are such as the organization has to make sure they will not disturb one section of forest that is habitat of most of the wild animals, they will retain the trees that are used by wildlife while harvesting in that area, and thirdly they will not harm any wild animal while meeting their purpose. Forest protection refers to the formation of parks and land sections and protect them from population and industries using legislations (Treitz et al.). The prime purpose of the formation is to protect the ecosystem and preserve the wildlife acquiring those sections. Further it provides a network for wildlife movement from one protected area to another. These areas mainly contain historic sites and national parks including wildlife habitats and rare plant species (Rohner et al.).


Effective conservation biodiversity can be achieved through proper legal system. The government of China understood the fact after the drastic loss of biodiversity since the year 1970s due to several human actions and hence the focus shifted from preventive to protective action (xu et al.). The Chinese constitution article 26 is dedicated to the fact that state bears all the rights to protect its environment, and take action against deforestation, pollution and animal hunting. The environment related acts has been presented in tabular form.

Criminal Law 1997

The actions such as hunting, selling or transporting animal parts stipulated as an illegal crime action.

The Environmental Protection Law 1979, revised 1989

The government should establish natural reserves to protect ecosystem, water sites, and habitats for endangered animals and plants

The forest law 1984, revised 1998

Forest compensation benefit fund will be created and that fund will be used for forest development and management.

The marine environment protection law 1982

It stipulated that marine ecosystem should be protected and the reserves should be established in important coastal and marine ecosystem.

The grassland law 1985

According to it, the government should take effective steps to protect the grassland, vegetation and rare endangered plants

The water pollution law, 1984 revised 1986

The government should take necessary steps to protect the water ecosystem

The air pollution law 1987, revised 1995

The government should protect the atmospheric ecosystem.

Wild animals conservation law 1988

Sales and purchasing of wild animals, hunting becomes prohibited and the government form teams to protect them.

The fishery law 1986

Fishing of rare and endangered water animals are prohibited and according to this law, the government can take any action if any individual are caught in such act.

The Import and Export Animal and Plant Quarantine Law 1991

To protect the endangered species so that they are not killed for such trade and business


As a federal state, the government of Canada owns each forest reserves and natural resources under its jurisdiction and further if any deliberate action of countrymen harms the balance of ecosystem, there are lawful provisions (Hessing, Melody and Summerville). The laws are divided according to provinces and territories so that regulations and enforcement becomes easier. These laws are important in different actions such as while timber harvesting, while wildlife habitat protection, land use, practices to regrow the forests and so on. The laws are being presented in tabular format.

Species at risk act 2002

It provides legal protection to endangered species and states that the Canadian government is committed to conserve biological diversity

Fisheries act 1985

Protects all the water land and states that without governmental permission fishing or harvesting are not permitted.

Migratory birds convention act 1994

This act was implemented for the protection and conservation of migratory birds and their nests

Plant protection act 1990

This act helps the government to protect plants, agriculture and forestry from human or natural disasters

Convention on biological diversity

This international convention, where Canadian government took part, is about changes in biodiversity and the ways to sustain the rich diverse areas around the world.

Species at Risk Act 2002

To protect the endangered species so that they can be provided with natural habitat.

International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

This international convention ensures that the trade in specimens of animals and plants does not threaten their existence or survival.

Forestry act 1985

The government will review all the research, related to protection, management and usage of forest resources. 

National parks act 2000

The government is determined to protect the national parks, its biotic and abiotic components so that ecosystem can be maintained.

First nation land management act 1999

This law provides the government with power to seek information about the way it will be used or managed by the owner.



The Chinese government, over the course of past years has developed a legal system for the successful implementation of laws and regulations regarding conservation of biodiversity and natural reserves (Yu, Wenxuan and Czarnezki). The first system they established was system for environmental impact assessment. The rule regarding the protection of surrounding of under-construction protected lands was proposed in 1986 (Zomer et al.). As per this regulation, any capital construction project having effect on environment and biodiversity has to follow the environmental impact assessment. The second system they implemented was regarding nature reserve system and according to this the government should pay proper attention to formation and management of natural reserves (Zinda and Aloysius). All the legislations such as forest law, environment protection law, marine environment protection law, grassland related law and the regulation of natural reserves assisted the government of china with legal basis to protect the natural reserves of china (Mackelworth). The government formed, evaluated and implemented different rules regarding establishment, management and construction of reserves were created by the government and its bureaucrats and due to that by the end of 1995, the government was able to create 799 natural reserves across the country (Zinda and Aloysius).

The third system the government implemented was regarding the licensing system and it was comprised with license for forest logging according to the forest law, fishing related license according to the fishery law, and land use license according to the land law (Yu, Wenxuan and Czarnezki). Furthermore, the government also started proving license to wild animal conservation by some private organization in the country using the implementation of newly formed aquatic wild animal conservation and terrestrial wild animal conservation law (Zomer et al.). Finally the fourth system was implemented by the government and it was the quarantine system, which was established to prevent the illegal transportation of animal and plant related products. Further it helped to restrict the outbreak of disease or pest or pathogens from other bio diversities (Mackelworth). 


As 94 percent of Canadian forest were on public lands, hence the responsibility of protecting and preserving the forest and resources was not only endured by the government but also by the population located at the vicinity (Gustafsson et al.). The legal system of Canada regarding nature reserves and protected areas was depended on the international union for conservation of nature according to which, different level of national guidelines applied to those protected lands to implement necessary restrictions. Protected areas are a big part of Canada’s national forest conservation strategy (Rohner et al.). Hence according to this, the federal law system restricted several acts such as industrialization, harvesting, mining, hydroelectric project development and banned these activities in 95% of the protected areas. Further, using national park and provincial park system and with the help of national parks act, the government has created strategies to create, manage and protect wildlife and rare plant species present in those areas (Andrew et al.). Further, the government has also focused protecting the environment of nearby countries ecosystem so that pests and pathogen transferred from those conservations do not harm the plant and animal species of Canada, therefore joining International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora and Convention on biological diversity was a wise and important step by the Canadian government. Furthermore, to enable sustainable development and management in this sector, the government has enabled several scientific researches to incorporate new regulation and sections into legislation and policies and upgrade the forest’s management plans (Andrew et al.).


Yancheng Red-Crowned Crane Nature Reserve

This nature reserve is one of the most important reserves in china, as it is the home for some of the rare bird species. This nature reserve was founded in 1984 with an area of 453,000 HA. The location of this reserve is on the edge of yellow sea making it as an important place for immigration of migratory birds from north-east Asia and Australia (Yancheng). The reason behind this rich biological resource is the presence of rivers, swamps and wetlands and due to this more than 3 million migratory shore birds migrates through Yancheng and more than 20,000 waterfowls visit the reserve (Su and Hongfei). Therefore, to maintain biodiversity conservation Yancheng reserve plays an important role in china. The government also understood the importance of this bio reserve for maintaining biodiversity and listed this reserve as a national nature reserve in 1992 (Yancheng).

Anhui Alligator Reserve

Alligator sinensis is a species of alligator that is only found in china. In the year 1979, it was found that only few of these alligators are present in the wild, hence, to protect these alligators, inside the Anhui province the Anhui alligator farm was developed (UNESCO.ORG). Further, the local public and the government of Anhui province expanded the reserves focus from alligator to maintaining a surrounding sustainable for alligator breeding and development (1982) (Zhao et al.).  Later in 1988, the Chinese government listed it as a national reserve and afterwards, the Anhui Alligator Reserve and the Anhui Alligator sinensis breeding research center started working together as an organization. This increases the importance of the reserve in Anhui province and the government stared probing funds to continue the research for the development of this bio-reserve (UNESCO.ORG).

Sichuan wolong national nature reserve

The Sichuan wolong national nature reserve is situated in the Sichuan province and it was established in 1963 with 20,000 hectares. This place is a home of around 4000 different species including the highly endangered giant pandas (Sichuan wolong national nature reserve). Furthermore, other animals including snow leopards, red pandas, white lipped dear and snow monkeys are also found in this protected land (Liu e al.). The importance of this national park can be properly determined from the fact that more than 200,000 visitors visited this ark before the devastating earthquake of 2008. The most important association this park had in the year 1980, when the China Conservation and Research Center collaborated with this national park to research on extinction of giant pandas and created strategies to protect this endangered species (Sichuan wolong national nature reserve).

Wood Buffalo National Park

This is the largest national park in Canada, located in the Northeastern Alberta and Northwest Territories. This national park was established in 1922 to protect the world’s largest herd of free roaming wood bison. The importance of this national park can be understood from the fact that UNESCO has declared it as World Heritage Site in 2013 (Wood Buffalo National Park). Further the Royal Astronomical Society has also designated it as Canada’s newest and world’s largest dark sky preserve. This designation was given to the national park as it not only protected bison but also protected the night ecology and provided protection to bats, nighthawks and owls. Most importantly, the visitors are able to see northern lights that made them curious about the place (Reimer et al.).

Jasper National Park

The jasper national park, established in 1907, is the largest national park in the Canadian Rockies and a part of UNESCO'S Canadian Rocky Mountain Park’s World Heritage Site. This is the second largest dry sky preserve in the world as the designation was provided by the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada in 2011 (Jasper National Park). This led people to understand the fact that protecting night sky is important and for the purpose, the government took initiative to educate, the citizens using special programs throughout the fall and winter months to highlight the importance of the Dark Sky status (Chavardès, Raphaël and Lori).

Race Rock Ecological Reserve of Canada

This ecological reserve was established by British Columbia parks ministry in the eastern entrance of the Strait of Juan de Fuca in the Salish Sea. Primarily it was a marine science project for the students of Pearson College under the supervision of their teachers Garry Fletcher and Marks McAvity in the year 1978 (Race Rock Ecological Reserve ). However, as per its biodiversity and ecological importance, it was included as a nature reserve in 1980 and by the end of 1998, the Canadian government included it as a marine protected area (Augustine, Skye and  Dearden).

Critical discussion of china’s nature reserve related policies

Despite of being one of the biggest biologically diverse nation in the world, the Chinese ecology has faced tremendous loss of biodiversity. The primary reason behind this are China’s huge population and the concentration of the government to obtain economic success (Zheng, Heran and Shixiong).  The government has used different approaches to conserve the biodiversity however those approaches were centralized and did not includ local participation and hence a lack of coordination between national administrators and local communities for the benefit from forest resources was observed that made these approaches inappropriate and inefficient. Zheng and Cao described the challenges and loopholes in the Chinese legislation regarding the conservation and protection of biodiversity (Li et al.).

The first national law of Chinese government to protect the biodiversity was developed in 1956 and named as Natural Forest Nature Reserve Construction. However after the formation of the people’s republic of china, the government itself ran programs related to exploitation of natural resources, to earn economic and sustainable development that led people with the opportunity that they burned forest and exploited each diverse land for the benefit of the economy (He et al.). As the china progresses to UN environmental conference 1972, a cultural revolution occurred in the country, that lead to formation of some temporary regulations regarding forest conservation. As the government started facing problems related to environmental conservation, they started making laws and regulations effectively. However the centralized approach led to temporary success and a list of permanent loss. The recently created nature reserves did not have any strict bureaucrat for scrutiny or critical evaluation and hence, maximum of the governmental environmental projects failed (Li et al.). Furthermore according to the green evolution act, the Chinese government focused completely on afforestation for the removal of desserts and planted exotic pioneer trees in the northern region desert of china which is a natural desert. The government forgot the scientific fact that those trees are unable to grow in a region which does not provide their natural habitat for growth (Xu et al.).

Further, there are several internal and external challenges of the government and officials also made the legislation weaker to control such nature reserves in China. The previous regulation regarding natural reserves in china stated that Government will only be responsible for the sustainable management of the natural reserves in china and all other departments surrounding the reserve such as forestry, agriculture, land and water resources will be governed by the team of nature resource (Watson et al.). However the government has changed the provision and now it will look for all the details and manage each process solely and hence all the natural reserves started protesting the step as conflict and overlap of responsibility enhanced. Furthermore, there are several other factors such as transferring responsibilities to local governments, law related to forest tenured reforms, extensive usage of natural resources and entrance of tourisms in places where endangered species habitat is present provides the details of loopholes of Chinese legislation regarding nature reserves in china (Zheng, Heran, and Shixiong).

Critical discussion of Canada’s nature reserve related policies

As majority of the Canadian surface is covered with forests and biologically diverse area, the entire Canadian economy and socio economic, social and international relations depends on the forest and from the resources of forest (Nepstad et al.). Hence, the government focused on different frameworks for formation of legislations and policies. The prime aim of these policies are to understand the actual value of every natural resources and depending on the use of it modifying policies so that public can acquire to changeable laws effectively (Brukas, Vilis and Ola). Prior to creating or modification of each legislation, the officials used to recognize the problem and proposed a solution to the problem further they asked the concerned authority to choose one solution and evaluated to solution by monitoring the effects. This process was one of the brilliant move by the Canadian government as no legislation is perfect hence modification or upgradation with the help of public representatives enforces trust among the population (Beaudoin et al).

However the lack in Canadian system was not related to legislation but was related to the planning, framework and implementation of interventions for natural reserves. The forest management team of Canada was not being able to perform correctly as they were unable to undertake an approach that will provide all the details about the land owner’s priority and short and long-term requirements economic needs and trade of economic and environmental resources. This was important as maximum of Canadian forests are public property (Hicke et al.). Further it was determined by researchers that the national fisheries act, forestry act, plant protection act were not properly scrutinized despite of having an improved governmental body that upgraded each law. In recent times, the industries and local bodies are being accused of utilizing the forest resources for their own development illegally. Furthermore, the government did not focus on climate change and its consequences while preparing laws and legislations (Beaudoin et al.). Therefore, maximum of the endangered animals progressed to the verge of extinction. Neglecting climate also became major issue for the development. Finally, the Canadian governments act regarding isolation and natural habitat became failure as the locations where all these national parks were situated, population started growing and all the protection related acts were failed as local population started invading those protected areas (Brukas, Vilis and Ola). Hence, due to the large population and feasible wildlife preservation acts, the Canadian government has started losing its reach in maintaining forest reserves and for reinforcement of the legislations proper scrutiny and upgradation of acts are necessary. Extensive public participation and forest management practices should also be included for the effectiveness of the policies (Nepstad et al.).

Method and material

The studied area of this report was regarding the Canadian as well as Chinese natural reserves. Therefore the study focused different natural reserves of both the countries. The assignment used different official websites and documents available over internet for the analysis, critical appraisal of the legislations and discussion. The table below shows the official websites from where the details about the six nature reserves of the china and Canada respectively were taken.


Yancheng Red-Crowned Crane Nature Reserve

Anhui Alligator Reserve

Sichuan wolong national nature reserve


Wood Buffalo National Park

Jasper National Park

Race Rock Ecological Reserve of Canada

Furthermore, after collecting information regarding all these natural reserves, the project collected informations regarding legislations of china and Canada to protect its natural reserves and selected all the legislations related to natural reserves in the discussion (Johansson et al.). Afterwards, for the comparison between these two acts, the regulations of both the countries reserve related acts were described. Furthermore, a literature review was included so that the analysis becomes critical and the positive and negative points of both these countries laws and policies can be highlighted. For the comparison purpose, the methods were used such as hardware or analysis of the physical format of the legislations and software or analysis of the content of the legislations Ratio). Hence, using both these approaches the primary objective of this assignment was to find out the effect of government produced legislations on common people, their businesses, society, environment and development. Further, comparison between their policies let the assignment with a clear idea that norms related to forest and nature reserves also affected the society, socio=economic status of communities and economy of the country as maximum portion of both these countries are forest and local population uses forest resources to fulfill their fundamental needs (Johansson et al.).  

After comparing both the country’s laws and policies regarding it was found that, both the country lacks in regulation and upgradation of their policies related to forest reserves (Nachmany et al.). As China once used its forests as resources and exploited them for the economic development by permitting its citizens to utilize them for their own benefit, modification of such norm will take strict scrutiny and harsh implementation of strict laws. Hence the government should reinforce their legislations with appointing honest and trustworthy bureaucrats in those natural reserves (Cashore, Benjamin and Michael). The official can use government policies and awareness programs to make the local population understand the effectiveness of such reserves in their life. Another shortcoming of Chinese and Canadian legislation was regarding sustainable management and using inappropriate processes for the afforestation in areas of northern china desserts. Instead of pine trees, the government should use local desert forest for the green movement in that area, so that those plants can acquire the environment easily. Furthermore, the government should strictly modify the legislation related to animal transportation as there are many instances where the different organizations are found in illegal delivery of rare and endangered animals (Cashore, Benjamin and Michael). Furthermore, the local rural communities sometimes hunt wild animals for their food, hence, those locals should also be excluded from the forest vicinity so that wild animals can grow in their natural habitat (Nachmany et al.).

Further, there is a set of recommendations that should be followed by both the governments so that clarity, transparency and consistency can be brought in the forest reserve legislations.

  1. Both the government should focus on making policies prior to laws. It is important as a clear and coherent policy helps to develop a clear approach and implementation process and using legislations as an instrument, the policies are implemented properly. For example, Ecuador used such policy for the development of their forest related laws (Hicke et al.).
  2. The governments should focus on promoting clarity and understanding. This will help to include the populations in the governmental policy. Government’s awareness program, proper distribution authorities among national state and local authority and providing each of the official with a draft of the legislation and seeking their feedback will help the government to successfully upgrade and implement forest related acts (He et al.).
  3. Participatory law making can be used as alternative for strict laws. allowing each stakeholder, starting from government and its officials to local public to contribute in law-making will help to create a transparent that will easily acknowledged by the public (Beaudoin et al.).
  4. The government should make sure that the laws they are implementing has enough space for incorporation of all the stakeholders so that the laws and regulations can be applied to a wide array of population.
  5. Furthermore the law should be realistic, easy to grasp and understand by the officials and stakeholders so that they can approach the local population for their contribution in the development of forest reserves(Liu et al.).
  6. The government should focus on consistent development and upgradation of policies so that newer challenges put accessed by internal and external factors or climate can be addressed.
  7. The government should focus on decentralization of authorities so that local government and authorities can also take art in the protection of the nature reserves. Further the government should use modify land acts, public property acts, trade regulations so that industries and businesses around these nature reserves can be regulated (Xu et al.).


As the world is approaching success and development, exploitation of nature and its resources has started showing side effects. Therefore, the world has become protective for nature and its resources. The UN has involved nature and its reserves as one of the sustainable development goals for 2020. However, two important nations of world, china and Canada had started thinking about nature and its resources protection since the last century. China and Canada both have largest section of forests within their circumference and hence, they have utilized those areas for their growth and development. This assignment involved 6 nature reserves from Canada and China and discussed their specifications and type of policies applied in those forest reserves. As the prime aim of this assignment was to compare the rules, regulations and laws related to forest reserves of China and Canada, all the laws and their purpose was provided in the assignment. However, from the literature review, it was found that, all the policies in both these countries are not properly regulated and scrutinized, due to which people started utilizing those resources for the benefit for their industry or businesses. Therefore, the assignment provided a set of recommendations application of which will provide the governments with opportunity to develop their legislations and incorporate new sections so that effective utilization of legislations can be done.


Andrew, Margaret E., Michael A. Wulder, and Jeffrey A. Cardille. "Protected areas in boreal Canada: a baseline and considerations for the continued development of a representative and effective reserve network." Environmental Reviews 22.2 (2014): 135-160.

Andrew, Margaret E., Michael A. Wulder, and Nicholas C. Coops. "Identification of de facto protected areas in boreal Canada." Biological Conservation 146.1 (2012): 97-107.

Augustine, Skye, and Philip Dearden. "Changing paradigms in marine and coastal conservation: A case study of clam gardens in the Southern Gulf Islands, Canada." The Canadian Geographer/Le Géographe Canadien 58.3 (2014): 305-314.

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