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Question:

Discuss about the Cultured Landscape for Designing Environment.

Articulation of concept plan took Millennium Parklands ten years but as a result of articulation, increase in intercontinental interest has been displayed in major urban parklands. The main aim of this review is to provide the recommendation concerning improvement that could be made in alignment with forthcoming administration path of Parklands with the original concept plan.

Home bush, Sydney, and waterways were assumed to comprise of mangrove wetlands, water path, surroundings of forest before the European settlers in that area              

The waterway which is currently the Millennium Parklands were occupied by the quarry, ammunitions industry in the past and biggest part of the site was being used as a dumping site for industrial left-over (Alberti, 2010). Australians decided to protect natural surroundings after the society opinion concerning local land and culture. Dumping of rubbish in Wetlands stopped after the landfills started demanding for licensing and need for remediation ascended after Sydney won the 2000 summer Olympic Games. Sydney proposal to host Olympic Games included an assurance to ecological sustainability in all schemes relating to games like sporting amenities, housing, and landscape designs (Bradshaw, 2012).

The plan was needed to address problems affecting ecological strategies through developing practical plans to help them in bringing the strategies into exercise. The guidelines were put into law after winning to host games by Sydney and this made Sydney Olympic Park Environmental Guidelines to be a necessity of Sydney Olympic Park administration. The Millennium Parklands provided an opportunity to express the sentiments and landscape customs in European that helps in the organization of the urban parklands in most of Australia (Brebbia, 2012).

The plan was unique in many ways because it involves not only planning but also people’s experiences in the parklands. Lowlands, elevated landforms and walls, and rooms were the three unifying themes the physical plans was grounded on. In the year 2002, there was a new plan updated from the one of 1997 and the new program included educational tours as well as research and development (Bull, 2014). The diagram below shows the Park’s main features:

A team of professional from different organization amounting to 15 applied benchmark advisors for preservation and park administration review. This was a brave plan because it is embracing new technologies like stormwater and solar energy hence making technologies extensively suitable and those who participate in the review of the plan drew a conclusion that parklands have achieved victory past what they expected (Burton, 2014).

Concept plan and evolution of Millennium Parklands

There will be the operative phrase for the numerous programs taking place in the parklands as a result of landscape situation. 

The concept plan help in promoting interaction between humans and surroundings, promoting environmental learning to school children when carrying out their curriculum activities, healing ill-treated and degraded landscapes by use of creative method (Conference, 2011)

Several observations that were made for the first ten years of Millennium Parkland were; failure to implement drainage system as planned, failure to provide parking slots, some of the roads in the park have been turned to be the main road for trucks servicing new housing expansion. After going through findings, the park made various recommendations to curb the problems that were noticed. These were the future expansion to satisfy the need of park user, beautifying the complex through the progressive furnishing of rooms, acquiring financial resources to enhance future growth and promoting the park through website enhancement (Forman, 2016).

Ecological restoration is an activity carried out to help environment recover its healthiness and sustainability. It tries to return the environment to its normal condition which is difficult because of current limitations and condition makes it grow along the altered route. Restoration signifies commitment in land and resources for a long period of time and a considerate planning because once the decision is made, organized preparation and supervised approach are needed before carrying out environment repossession. In simple terms, Ecological Restoration is simply helping a damaged environment back to its normal condition (Fu, 2015).

There are features which shown when restoration has been done. They include; the repossessed ecosystem seemingly perform its role normally, the environment entails local species, reproducing population can be sustained in the physical surroundings of restored ecology, the repossessed ecosystem can sustain itself at the same level as its reference ecology and lastly, a characteristic of collection species that transpire in referred ecological unit is contained in restored ecosystem (Harvey, 2013).


The expansion of concept plan was developed twenty years ago through debating where many architects felt conflicted by the restoration debate. Architects linked with landscape need to recognize that numerous novel ecosystem is growing on a daily basis. The novel ecosystem concept not only applies in our cities but also to many landscapes that agriculture is being carried out. Architects in landscape state it clearly that their main activity is to state clearly an environmentally concerned with the vision for humans (Higgs, 2010).

Ecological restoration in urbanized areas

Urbanized sectors contain large population per square mile. Buildings and pavement reduce the size of land available for plants and animals. One of the significant structures of cities is the ongoing fragmentation and physical disturbance associated with construction and maintenance of infrastructure. Secondly, urban environment temperatures are very high as opposed to non-urbanized areas. Thirdly, town soil quality is highly variable compared to that of non- urbanized areas. We should understand. The cultural importance of plants growing in the cities because they decorate the city while others are said that affect woman’s menstrual cycle such as Queen Ann’s lace (Hobbs, 2014).

Landscape are classified into three main categories grounded in the history of the land, the vegetation the land is able to support, and their maintenance necessities. First and foremost, the natural leftover landscape which consisted of natural plants growing in natural soil without disturbance.Secondly, the managed and efficient landscape consisting of cemeteries, parks, gardens, etc. are conquered by planted plants grown on a fertile soil having high conservation necessity and lastly the landscapes which were abandoned. Research concerning abandoned landscape explains clearly a given percentage of vegetation occupying a given land in the city. Plants growing in town areas carrying out essential environmental functions.

It is also known emerging ecosystem. It consists of species that have not occurred in formerly within a given biome. The main reason for the existence of new species includes; human effects, predominating urban, indirect and direct human impacts resulting from major changes in the abiotic environment. Novel ecosystem arise from degradation and invasion of natural system

In some cases, main changes in the local environment arise as a result of prevention of growth by new species (Lyle, 2016).

In the past, people were not taking care of the land but as a result of growth in agriculture people more so farmers started caring for the land by ensuring that the land maintains its soil fertility and protecting them from air pollution and local water. It is clear that for humans to survive, they have to associate themselves deeply with the global environment. Before the growth in agriculture, the population of human globally was of the same magnitude but the increase in population growth is caused by the increase in the per-capita use of energy for industries and agriculture in developed countries (MacMahon, 2013).

Natural ecology is easy to recognize because it consists of forest, watershed and a stream and both function of ecology in a natural and urban environment is identical because in natural ecosystem energy from solar is captured by green plants then it flows in the food chain or web to herbivore, carnivores and omnivores. The interaction between ecosystems causes problems, this show when a tree is being cut by the developer it will alter activities going through in the stream. In urban areas, releasing of a variety of waste materials and harmful metals such as lead and carbon dioxide alters the climate and hence interrupts all ecosystem (Marzluff, 2012).  

Observations and Recommendations

There are many cultural idea and morals ideas that affect our view concerning nature and more the land in specific for example Europeans settlers attitude towards land showed that land is a property owned by individual and hence people clashed aggressively with its communal use by Inborn Americans. It is true that other species such as human abuse one another in food chain while other animals such as ants carry other animals then introduce them to their new homes (Neal, 2014).

Mining of coal in Australia enables them to earn a lot from the export hence improving the economy of the country. The mine from Australia is exploited in a high rate more than the renewal rate. Mining of resources caused exploitation of renewable resources such as fish, forest, and topsoil. Australia is faced with environmental problems such as desert and water shortage, their soil contains little nutrients and this is caused by leaching of soil making nutrients level to be renewed by three main processes namely volcanic eruption, advancement of glaciers strip and finally, the crust uplift slowly (Niemelä, 2012).

Low productivity of soils in Australia has brought consequences in other departments such as agriculture, fisheries and foresty hence farmers have to use fertilizer in supplying nutrients to planted vegetation and this raises the cost of participating in farming. In some places despite having low nutrients, they are also affected by high salt available in the soil.  Landowners in Australia 40 years ago replied to the condemnation that they were destroying their land for the future generation (Palmer, 2014).

Australia export shifted from agricultural produce to mineral since it exports gold, coal, and aluminium and it has the world's leading largest reserves of uranium, lead, silver, zinc, titanium. They export their minerals in large markets such as Britain and other Europeans nations. Since its government is less productive, the country's population has reduced to about 20 million as a result of migration and they were also affected by the World War II which largely underpopulated the country compared to Asians their neighbours with a population of 200 million (Woodward, 2013).

There were two farms that are Huls Farm and Gardar Farm which there are located thousands of miles apart. Both of the firms were the largest firms in their districts. they were both located in a beautiful natural setting that attracted tourists and both of firm owners were religious. The huge difference between the two firms was that Huls Farm was possessed by brethren and their spouse while Gardar was owned by bishop living in Greenfield.  Population growth made people adopt strengthened agricultural production such as irrigation, terracing and double-cropping. Conversely, starvation, food shortages and death cause decrease in population (Marzluff, 2012).

Cultural and Moral Perspectives on Land and Nature

Dissimilar societies have diverse degrees of collapsing. The danger of collapsing is raising fear because it has already materialized nations such as Rwanda, and Third World war countries included but the recent difficulties facing surroundings are; adjustment in climate, building up of poisonous chemicals in the atmosphere. The current ecological problems are strongly debatable and risk linked with them are significantly overstated (Bull, 2014).

Phytoremediation is simply used of new equipment in the cleaning of areas polluted with dangerous chemicals. This method also consists of other methods such as constructed wetlands and ground cover plant for decreasing erosion. There are some industrial operations carried out that have negative effects on the environment but in western countries, pollution has been reduced considerably through putting up strict legislation on environment and promoting environmental awareness. This Phytoremediation method applies in both organic and inorganic pollutants (Bradshaw, 2012).

Metabolism of xenobiotic in plants also works in three phases namely; transformation phase where xenobiotics are modified chemically using oxidation to make substances more polar, the second phase is conjugation phase where the transformed xenobiotics are made harmless. In the third phase, Compartmentalization phase whereby xenobiotics that were modified are transferred to numerous cell compartments. According to a green liver concept, the metabolism of TCE is as shown below (Fu, 2015).

The rhizosphere is triggered by the chemical and physical effects in the root of plants on the soil. Microorganism secures a place in plants root zone hence causing degradation of pollutants by tiny organisms in the soil. Plants deposits a lot of hydrocarbons derived photosynthetically into soil surrounding and hence some amount of carbons are lost by rhizodeposition. Population shifts in microbial specific groups are caused by expression of a catabolic gene to the microorganism in the soil caused when plant root exudates.


Some plants specific in nature yield biosurfactants and hence more phytoremediation effective because plants also increase the solubility of PAHS from unsaturated zone. In this article, we also learn that plants growing on contaminated site are exposed to abiotic stress such as chemical stress and secondary impacts such as drought. The technique is operative only that it needs time and has to be personalized with respect to site's need. Despite favourable sites in western countries, developing countries also need to use phytoremediation (Brebbia, 2012).

Phytoremediation is simply used the removing of pollutants from the environment by use of green vegetation. It is divided into numerous areas such as the use of contaminants by plants in removing metals from soil, reduction of contaminants bioavailability by use of plants, removing contaminants from air, volatizing pollutants, absorption of pollutants by use of the green plant's roots and lastly degrading organic contaminants.  Phytoextraction is the use of contaminants to remove metals from the soil, there are two basic developed approaches of phytoextraction which includes; induced phytoextraction and continuous phytoextractions. Induced phytoextraction is demonstrated using the diagram below:                                         

Mining and Environmental Issues in Australia

For instance, vegetation growing in in a place occupied by lead-polluted soil is said to contain is said that the shoot dries up with 0.001% to 0.006% (Brebbia, 2012). The diagram below shows continuous  phytoextraction

The concentration of lead in vegetation is as a result of high heights of EDTA in tissues of plants which move from the roots to shoots where lead metal is likely to be present. Metal chelates are added to the metal ion to enable enhancement of metal ion bioavailability in soil. Metal ions can either be stored or transported to the shoot once the metal ions reach the soil, loading of ions by xylem is facilitated by specific membranes carrying out transportation processes. Through selected varieties of plants and amendments in the soil, there will be an advancement in phytoremediation by adding new important research (Palmer, 2014). 

Conclusion

This research paper talks about the Millennium Parklands, society for ecological restoration, urban ecology, novel ecosystem, human impacts on ecosystem and landscapes, Australia mining, a tale of two farms, phytoremediation of organic contaminants in soil and groundwater, and phytoremediation.

References

Alberti, m. (2010). Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. Sidney: Springer Science & Business Media.

Bradshaw, G. A. (2012). How Landscapes Change: Human Disturbance and Ecosystem Fragmentation in the Americas. Sydney: Springer Science & Business Media.

Brebbia, C. A. (2012). The sustainable city II: urban regeneration and sustainability. Michigan: WIT Press.

Bull, C. (2014). New Conversations With an Old Landscape: Landscape Architecture in Contemporary Australia. Hobart: Images Publishing.

Burton, P. J. (2014). Garry Oak Ecosystem Restoration: Progress and Prognosis: Proceedings of the Third Annual Meeting of the B.C. Chapter of the Society for Ecological Restoration, April 27-28, 2002, University of Victoria. London: University of Minnesota.

Conference, S. f. (2011). Restoration Across Borders 2001 Conference: Society for Ecological Restoration : 13th Annual International Conference, October 4 to 6, 2001, Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada. Canada: Society for Ecological Restoration.

Forman, R. T. (2016). Urban Ecology: Science of Cities. Moscow: Cambridge University Press.

Fu, B. (2015). Landscape Ecology for Sustainable Environment and Culture. Paris: Springer Science & Business Media.

Gaston, K. J. (2014). Urban Ecology. London: Cambridge University Press.

Harvey, S. (2013). The Cultured Landscape: Designing the Environment in the 21st Century. Melbourne: Taylor & Francis.

Higgs, E. (2010). Nature by Design: People, Natural Process, and Ecological Restoration. New York: MIT Press.

Hobbs, R. J. (2014). New Models for Ecosystem Dynamics and Restoration. Sidney: Island Press.

Lyle, J. (2016). Design for Human Ecosystems: Landscape, Land Use, and Natural Resources. Hobart: Joan Woodward.

MacMahon, B. (2013). The Architecture of East Australia: An Architectural History in 432 Individual Presentations. Moscow: Edition Axel Menges.

Marzluff, J. (2012). Urban Ecology: An International Perspective on the Interaction Between Humans and Nature. London: Springer Science & Business Media.

Neal, P. (2014). Urban Villages and the Making of Communities. Toledo: Taylor & Francis.

Niemelä, J. (2012). Urban Ecology: Patterns, Processes, and Applications. Sydney: OUP Oxford.

Palmer, M. A. (2014). Foundations of Restoration Ecology. Perth: Island Press.

Perera, A. H. (2011). Ecology of a Managed Terrestrial Landscape: Patterns and Processes of Forest Landscapes in Ontario. Sidney: UBC Press.

Woodward, G. (2013). Ecosystems in a Human-Modified Landscape: A European Perspective. Perth: Academic Press.

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