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Effectiveness of Walking on Glucose Control in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

Question:

Discuss about the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus.

There is a link to the way in which physical activity is related to the insulin sensitivity. It is also related to the glucose intolerance in individuals and is also responsible for reducing the risks of type 2 diabetes (1). It has been found that the patients with type 2 diabetes are recommended to perform moderate to vigorous aerobic exercises like running or bicycling. It is however seen that the patients find it hard to do high impact exercises due to their impaired intolerance to any forms of physical activity (2). After these considerations it can be said that walking is the best choice and the most popular exercise among the patients with diabetes. This is due to the reason that it requires no specific skills and also has minimal adverse effects (3). In order to understand and assess the impact of the exercise due to the impaired intolerance to the physical activity a proper analysis of the data related to the type two diabetes patients were conducted.

A meta-analysis of the randomized control trial was conducted in order to assess the effect of walking on the glycemic control and other cardio-vascular risk factors in case of the people with type two diabetes. There were 866 participants who were included from 20 randomized control trials and helped in finding support that walking helps to reduce HbA1c among the diabetes patients and also helps to reduce the body mass index and the diastolic blood pressure.

Another study was conducted to examine the effects of regular walking on the biochemical and behavioral aspects in case of the elder people with type 2 diabetes. A randomized design was conducted and used in case of the experimental and the control groups. The experimental group received six months walking exercise program and diet control education program. The regular waling exercise is effective in the daily consumption activity and energy consumption and the decreasing the fasting blood glucose, HbA1c and also the triglyceride level. These analyses were conducted to assess the effectiveness of walking on the glucose control in the patients with type 2 diabetes. Thus this study aims to find out whether brisk walking is helpful in the maintenance of decreasing glucose level in healthy individuals. Thus this study aims to find whether brisk walking is beneficial in the decreasing glucose level in males and females aged 40-65 years who reside in the Pauma Community of Island.

Study on the Elderly Individuals

Blood glucose is basically defined as the concentration of glucose in the blood which is represented in milligrams of glucose per deciliter of blood (4). Normal adult blood glucose levels range from 70 to 115 mg/dl with generally higher levels after 50 years of age. Fasting serum glucose of 126 mg/dl on two or more occasions signifies diabetes mellitus (5).

Walking is characterized by sequential movement or progression in steps. The body mass index is also known as the Quetlet Index is a measure for indicating nutritional status in case of adults. It is defined as a person’s weight in kilograms which is divided by the square of the person’s height in meters (6).

The total number of subjects chosen was 55 in number. The analysis was done on the chosen subjects. The context for the study was the Pauma community. The population of interest consisted of males aged between 40-65 years.

Sampling: The target population is comprised of males aged between 40-65 years who reside in the Pauma community. Then a random sample of 40 was chosen by a method of simple random sample based on the first come first chosen basis. Then they would be divided into two groups which comprised the intervention group and the control group. The intervention group will perform walking for 30 minutes and the second group will be in the waiting list which will not involve any walking group.

The different variables and their types are discussed and mentioned and their nature of role is also discussed. The following table shows these details clearly.

Variable

Type

Role

Level of Units

Measure

Blood glucose

continuous

Primary explanatory

mg/dl

Self- report

Height

continuous

explanatory

metres

Self-report

Weight

continuous

explanatory

kilograms

Self-report

BMI

continuous

explanatory

Self-report

walking

nominal

Primary explanatory

30 minutes walking/ no walking

Self -report

Name

nominal

explanatory

name

Self-report

Age

continuous

explanatory

years

Self-report

Consent

ordinal

explanatory

Yes/no

Self-report

From the data collected from the 40 selected samples, the following conditions of demography can be explained. At first, the distribution of gender will be discussed here. From the figure 3.1, it can be seen clearly that 50.91 percent of the sample are female and 49.09 percent of the sample were male. Thus, from here it can be said that the sample will represent the male and the female population almost equally as there is not much difference in the sample percentages of males and females.

To conduct this research, the following hypotheses have to be tested. The respective research questions, null hypotheses and alternate hypotheses are given as follows:

Is there any significant difference between the blood cholesterol level of the walking and non-walking groups

There is no significant difference between the blood cholesterol level of the walking and non-walking groups

Research Questions and Hypotheses

There is significant difference between the blood cholesterol level of the walking and non-walking groups

To test the above stated hypothesis, independent sample t test has to be run in SPSS. Here, the equality of means of the two groups – walking and non-walking group in terms of the level of cholesterol in the blood. From the results of the t-test, given in table 5, it can be said that the p-value is 0.548, which is more than 0.05, the level of significance at 95% confidence interval. Thus, from here, it can be said that the null hypothesis is accepted. Therefore, there is no significant difference in the blood cholesterol levels of the walking and the non-walking groups.

Is there any significant difference between the height of the people of the walking and non-walking groups

There is no significant difference between the height of the people of the walking and non-walking groups

There is significant difference between the height of the people of the walking and non-walking groups

To test the above stated hypothesis, independent sample t test has to be run in SPSS. Here, the equality of means of the two groups – walking and non-walking group in terms of the height of the respondents. From the results of the t-test, given in table 7, it can be said that the p-value is 0.644, which is more than 0.05, the level of significance at 95% confidence interval. Thus, from here, it can be said that the null hypothesis is accepted. Therefore, there is no significant difference in the heights of the walking and the non-walking groups of the people.

Is there any significant difference between the weight of the people of the walking and non-walking groups

There is no significant difference between the weight of the people of the walking and non-walking groups

There is significant difference between the weight of the people of the walking and non-walking groups

To test the above stated hypothesis, independent sample t test has to be run in SPSS. Here, the equality of means of the two groups – walking and non-walking group in terms of the weight of the respondents. From the results of the t-test, given in table 9, it can be said that the p-value is 0.992, which is more than 0.05, the level of significance at 95% confidence interval. Thus, from here, it can be said that the null hypothesis is accepted. Therefore, there is no significant difference in the weights of the walking and the non-walking groups of the people.

Results of the Independent Sample t Test

Is there any significant difference between the BMI of the people of the walking and non-walking groups

There is no significant difference between the BMI of the people of the walking and non-walking groups

There is significant difference between the BMI of the people of the walking and non-walking groups

To test the above stated hypothesis, independent sample t test has to be run in SPSS. Here, the equality of means of the two groups – walking and non-walking group in terms of the BMI of the respondents. From the results of the t-test, given in table 11, it can be said that the p-value is 0.281, which is more than 0.05, the level of significance at 95% confidence interval. Thus, from here, it can be said that the null hypothesis is accepted. Therefore, there is no significant difference in the BMI of the walking and the non-walking groups of the people.

Is there any significant difference between the Blood sugar level of the males and females of the peoplewho arewalking

There is no significant difference between the Blood sugar level of the males and females of the peoplewho arewalking

There is significant difference between the Blood sugar level of the males and females of the peoplewho arewalking

To test the above stated hypothesis, independent sample t test has to be run in SPSS. Here, the equality of means of the two groups – males and females of the walking group in terms of the blood sugar level of the respondents. From the results of the t-test, given in table 13, it can be said that the p-value is 0.243, which is more than 0.05, the level of significance at 95% confidence interval. Thus, from here, it can be said that the null hypothesis is accepted. Therefore, there is no significant difference in the blood sugar level of the males and the females of the walking groups of the people.

In the light of the collected results it can be clearly conducted that there is no significant difference between the blood sugar levels of the males and females who are walking. In addition to this, it is clearly evident from the previous research questions that there is no significant difference of the BMI of the people of the walking and non-walking groups. There also no significant difference between the blood cholesterol levels, weights or heights of the people belonging to walking as well as non-walking groups. Thus the data clearly state that there is no significant difference between any attributes of the walking and non-walking groups.

It is evident that there should be differences in the blood sugar levels and the BMI of the people belonging to the walking and the non-walking groups. This is not the case according to this research. This may have happened due to the following limitation. The sample size of 30 is too less to interpret properly about all the people of the island. Thus, by increasing the sample size, the results can be obtained differently and more accurately.

References

Kyu HH, Bachman VF, Alexander LT, Mumford JE, Afshin A, Estep K, Veerman JL, Delwiche K, Iannarone ML, Moyer ML, Cercy K. Physical activity and risk of breast cancer, colon cancer, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and ischemic stroke events: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. bmj. 2016 Aug 9;354:i3857.

Colberg SR, Sigal RJ, Yardley JE, Riddell MC, Dunstan DW, Dempsey PC, Horton ES, Castorino K, Tate DF. Physical activity/exercise and diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2016 Nov 1;39(11):2065-79.

American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes—2015 abridged for primary care providers. Clinical diabetes: a publication of the American Diabetes Association. 2015 Apr;33(2):97.

American Diabetes Association. (2014). Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes care, 37(Supplement 1), S81-S90.

Diabetes, C. (2015). Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes I, Complications Research G, Lachin JM, White NH, Hainsworth DP, Sun W, Cleary PA, Nathan DM. Effect of intensive diabetes therapy on the progression of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes: 18 years of follow-up in the DCCT/EDIC. Diabetes, 64(2), 631-42.

Hirsch, J. A., Diez Roux, A. V., Moore, K. A., Evenson, K. R., & Rodriguez, D. A. (2014). Change in walking and body mass index following residential relocation: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. American journal of public health, 104(3), e49-e56.

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My Assignment Help. The Essay On Walking's Impact On Glucose Control In Type 2 Diabetes. [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2019 [cited 22 July 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/diagnosis-and-classification-of-diabetes-mellitus.

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