Get Instant Help From 5000+ Experts For
question

Writing: Get your essay and assignment written from scratch by PhD expert

Rewriting: Paraphrase or rewrite your friend's essay with similar meaning at reduced cost

Editing:Proofread your work by experts and improve grade at Lowest cost

And Improve Your Grades
myassignmenthelp.com
loader
Phone no. Missing!

Enter phone no. to receive critical updates and urgent messages !

Attach file

Error goes here

Files Missing!

Please upload all relevant files for quick & complete assistance.

Guaranteed Higher Grade!
Free Quote
wave

Considerable reserves of onshore hydrocarbon deposits lie under the NT, pilot projects have commenced and there are plans for the larger-scale extraction of this gas; however, several negative side effects associated with these operations have become apparent and the current NT government have imposed a moratorium on hydraulic fracturing.

  • Investigate the potential for the use of hydraulic fracturing in the extraction of onshore deposits of hydrocarbon resources in the NT.
  • Investigate the impact of hydraulic fracturing on existing farming operations, ground water quality, and other activities in the area.
  • Discuss the first two points, including your views on whether or not the imposition of the moratorium of hydraulic fracturing was a good idea.

Potential for the use of Hydraulic Fracturing

Hydraulic fracturing is the process that includes recovering or collecting the natural gas from the deep formations of the shale. It creates some fissures or fractures in the rocks in order to permit the gases to penetrate into the rocks. This is not like drilling. Once the drilling is done in the rocks, the gases are sent through the holes. Previously, Northern Ireland has worked on this process of hydraulic fracturing. In this assignement, it is investigated about the potential of the hyrdaulic fracturing, impacts of the hydraulic fracturing and also analysed whether it is good for the environment.

In the year of 2016, on 3rd december the Government of Northern Territory declared a scientific inquiry into the process of Hydraulic Fracturing in the extraction of onshore deposits of hydrocarbon resources. In the year of 2016, on 14th september the Government of Northern Territory declared a moratorium on Hydraulic fracturing in the extraction of onshore deposits of the hydrocarbon that are present in the reservoirs including to use the fracturing for extraction, manufacturing and Diagnostic Fracture Injection Testing (DFITs). Hydraulic fracturing is a type of method that increases the permeability of the gas and oil formations and this technique improves the quantity of the product that is being extracted. It typically involves the process of inserting the fluid which is prepared using water, proppant and some additives of chemical under heavy pressure into the deep regions to broaden the already existing fractures or to innovate the new fractures within the formation of the target rock  (Lave & Lutz, 2014). It is performed in different heightd or stages in the deep regions like well. It is used to improve the manufacturing of the well. Northern territory areas are highly populated areas so the use of hydraulic fracturing increases the production of the hydrocarbon resources. If the hydraulic fracturing is not practiced then it is not possible economically to improve most of the deposits of the hydrocarbon that is present over the NLC region. It extracts the groundwater, fragments the habitat, increases the traffic in the vehicles and other impacts of potential use. There are some potential impacts with the extracts of Coal Seam gas. Before going for extraction of the Coal Seam gas, it is important to measure the geological factors. This may be the investigation for the potential use of the hydraulic fracturing in NT. From 1969, nearly in 700 wells Hydraulic Fracturing has been performed in the cooper without any issues. Onshore developments of the gas are structured to mitigate the impact on the use of groud and land. A site that is about 2 hectares is needed for the development of well and stimulation. In an analysis it is found that the onshore areas of the Northern Territory is holding about 2 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, which is enough for the country for about 20 decades. The interim report of the Scientific inquiry has pointed out the risks involved in Hydraulic fracturing and also the potential benefits to economy of the country. The report clearly says that the land and water resources management would be quiet critical for NT. The present system of onshore development of gas is not sufficient and it is required to improve the system strongly. The people who are Aboriginal should be protected and informed prior. Energy companies that are situated in the NT tells that the hydraulic fracturing is the safe practice in the country. Gas companies that are located in the Northern Territory also claims that the hydraulic fracturing in NT is a sustainable one and they assure that it will help to improve the economical status of the company. A report in the year of 2014 had outspoken about the potential issues based on the health can occur beacuse of the hydraulic fracturing (Lave & Lutz, 2014).

Hawke's Report on Hydraulic Fracturing

Hawke provides the report on performing the hydraulic fracturing in the Northern Territory. The Government of Northern Territory takes the report of Hawke and it considers 6 key recommendations of Hawke. The important thing that the Government had noted in the report is that, Hawke had told that Hydraulic fracturing can be performed safely and sustainably in the Northern Territory. The report also gives a clear view that the industries are required to licensed properly to perform the fracking process. It is important to analyse the surface's stress and fault distribution. It is found that the hydraulic fracturing can be done safely and in a sustainable manner ("Hawke Report released | AEOL", 2017). By analysis it is found that during 1970, nearly in 30 wells Hydraulic fracturing has been done. The cooper basin that is situated in the northeastern paart of south Australia and southwestern part of the Queensland was one of the Australia's premier oil and gas regions for over 50 years.

The Northern Territory contains the significant supply of the conventional gas. The improvement of the unconventional supply of gas in NT can create incentive for this types of links, this provides a risk for the energy security in NT. The unconventional gas supply is not required for the markets in the North. But it is required for eastern markets. The economic perspective is also one of the important background for hydraulic fracturing. Government thought that the budget spent on other social infrastructure like hospital, schools will be high rather than spending the budget on mining will be less. Apart from the mining process and economic benefits of the extraction of the gas, the businesses that are taken place locally felt that this process reduces the finance capital, social and natural capital ("NT hydraulic fracturing inquiry background and issues paper released for consultation - Knowledge - Clayton Utz", 2017) . A report in the year 2011 which was prepared by Santos by Allen Consulting Group determined that the development of the Coal Seam gas in the Northern Territory would create more employment opportunities to the people and also a report in the year of 2012 had proved that the new projects on oil and gas would provide 103,000 full-time job opprtunities. Considering the economy of the country, it is determined that approximately $1 billion of the Northern territory Government revenues would be earned by developing the onshore gas for next 2 decades. This makes an increase of about $22.4 billion in the gross product of the state Government ("Darwin fracking inquiry hears from key stakeholders", 2017).

Background of the Hydraulic Fracturing

The above diagram shows the various types of accumulations of the petrol and the source of development.

Hydraulic Fracturing Background today, hydraulic fracturing function can be discovered across the United States and all over the world. As the required for fossil fuel and energy rises with the population of human being, oil companies maintain to search for new ways and areas to offer the desired energy resource while creating an expressive profit. Floyd Farris of Stanolind Oil and Gas Company first proposed hydraulic fracturing in pressure treatment and well achieved study conducted in the 1940’s. This research led to the first hydrofrac of an oil together. Stanolind Oil and Gas Corporation execute the first hydraulic fracturing function in Kansas in 1947 and after two years, Halliburton Oil of Well Cementing Company secured the patent with the privileged license to operate hydraulic fracturing on oil wells. Since then, the process has broaden across the nation to regain natural gas and petroleum to be taken and utilized abroad and domestically. Over the period of about sixty-five years, nearly one million oil wells and natural gas have been recycled in hydraulic fracturing to restore the solution for production. With the growth of the recovery and exploration of oil and natural gas has introduce the construction of jobs, growth in energy production, and also growth in economic. Hydraulic fracturing is not a drilling operation per se; rather it is the action of producing or repair fractures in rock evolution deep underground to provoke the process of natural gas through a pipeline and up a well. In order to protect contamination of the water level in which an oil well is drilled through, a steel canal invoke to as exterior casing is lowered into the well preceding the depth of the water level. The well broaden below the surface at a depth of 6,000 -10,000 feet before spanning the kick-off point where it begin to heading horizontally and proceeds into the layer of shale rock. The horizontal portion of the well lies within the formation of shale that is to be damaged. A propagate gun is reduced into the horizontal part of the well where it makes holes in the pipe which is form of steel and the damaging solution collection of sand, water, and a mixture of chemicals is stimulated into the well at a high pressure to make fractures within the formation of shale rock. With that, the fossil fuels available in the shale layer are free to stream through the well and appropriate to the surface where they can be stored for production. The below figure shows an illustration of an operation of typical hydraulic fracturing (Evans, 2012).

Impacts of hydraulic fracturing on existing farming operations, ground water quality, and other activities in the area

The combination of the cracking fluid concoction varies among production industries operating the hydraulic fracturing operation but is usually the similar in condition of the water percentages, chemical compounds, and sand used. Generally, the solution is mixture of 9.5% sand, 90% freshwater and 0.5% other chemical substances. The surface and ground water stimulated underground should not contain impurities, such as salt, synthetic and natural contaminants, to preserve interference with the effective of the chemical supplement in the damaged fluid. The environmental and human health risks depends with these chemical substance are an active force behind those ambitious for more strict organized regulation of hydraulic fracturing functions.

By hydraulic fracturing practices wells are being utilized as more and more for oil production, public attention continues to increase. If a landlord of a nearby hydraulic fracturing functions becomes notices a change in his/her water supply after the action has initiate, of course he/she will consider the water depletion or contamination of the water supply was provoked by the remote oil production. This may or may not be the issue, but unless the individual obtains a appropriate water sample taken earlier to the begin of production or the resulting sample of water has elements of specific mixture known to be utilized by the oil production industry responsible for the remote operation as supplements in the damaging fluid, it is very complicated to create the connection. When attempt to link groundwater contamination to hydraulic fracturing one may consider the purpose to be the construction of fractures within formations of rock in deep underground. However, the possible for groundwater contamination is merely to be induce from cracks in concrete sheath, man-made damages linking to natural damages or old wells within the formation of rock, or wastewater leakage at disposal spot. The danger of these problems occurring is the leakage of methane or chemical supplements discovered in cracking fluid into private /public groundwater resources producing them insecure for humans to drink from or use (Simon, 2014).

The list of dispatched chemicals offered by the Gas Conservation and Wyoming Oil Commission is mixture of twenty-seven other chemical substances known to cause nervous system, sensory organ, kidney, mutagenic, carcinogenic, endocrine, and health hazards when intake in addition to those also produced by di-ammonium peroxidisulphate. Recently, the EPA is organizing research in multiple states to calculate whether or not these noxious element have already contaminated with groundwater resources in certain regions. As discussed, cracking fluid is build-up of approximately 9.5% sand, 90% water and 0.5% chemical supplements. When that quantity of aqueous having chemicals known to carriage risks to human and environmental health is insert underground or disposed of neighbours  home or even open zone, the public is sure to have exception.

Potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on agriculture includes in contamination explosions of soils, flares, spills, and gas leakage pipes are all represents to have bad effects on agricultural soils. One research displays that flaring on gas adversely damage soil fertility; and also causing the soil to become acidic and minimizing contents in soil such as total organic carbon, phosphate, nitrate. Another study represents that methane from pipeline flows altered the oxygen and bacterial mixture of the soil, and changed a plant’s strength to fix nitrogen, to successfully conclude conversion of cellulose, and to prevent enough level of hydration. Next impact is in radioactivity which is naturally acquiring radioactive materials has shared to widely distributed contamination of gas and oil production areas. Contamination may be very high in some cases. Additionally, some shale contains high in Radium226. Radon, Uranium, and other radioactive failing products may be present in soils, the air and even also in drinking water at natural gas sites (Evans, 2012).

The imposition of the Hydraulic Fracturing may be a good idea for the extraction of the natural gas which may be used as a fuel for the future generation. But it is not advisable to spoil the present environment for the future generation. The economic status of the Northern territory can be improved by the use of Hydraulic Fracturing. But it is not advisable that it also affects the health of the human beings. The water and land is terribly polluted because of the adoption of the hydraulic fracturing. The potential for the use of hydraulic fracturing in the early years might be possible because of the strength of the land and pure water, air that was in the early years. But as of now, it cannot be assured that the land resources and water resources are not strong enough to perform the hydraulic fracturing. The air has already been in pollution, so it is recommended to pollute the air again and again. The report of the scientific inquiry also tells that the aboriginal people's habitat has been affected because of the hydraulic fracturing. So the panel says that the hydraulic fracturing can be performed but it should not affect the natural resources of the earth like land, water and habitat of the aboriginal people. So the Government has to take measure to protect the natural resources. Modern practices and recent trends has to be followed to prevent the natural resources. Modern equipment’s has to be used to prevent the water from the contamination (Schätzer & Fries, 2016). They says that the site should be away from the habitat of the human. The panel recommends not to make the site for hydraulic fracturing in the residential land rather than it can be performed in the conservation areas or in some national parks. The arid regions of the northern territory is restricted to perform hydraulic fracturing because it may affect the water resources. The panel strictly prohibit the water contamination. The innovative techniques and modern construction has to be carried out for reducing the risk of the water contamination. The panel also recommends to perform the fracturing during the month of May-October so that the water contamination can be well prevented. Hydraulic fracturing is an immoderate use as the water is obtained and deflected for use. The large quantity of used water comes back as noxious impure water to be saved in disposal wells and ponds rather than to be purified and recycled for future needs. When calculating the impact the action has on water table levels, therefore it must be treated cumulatively over the period of time in which the movement appear in each region. Gas and oil corporations can take profit of recycling water for future need for hydraulic fracturing and other purposes to save money and time in the way of water acquisition and minimize negative impacts the large amount of freshwater extract may have to and groundwater levels and riparian habitats. On other hand, hydraulic fracturing on agriculture is not a good idea. potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on agriculture includes in contamination explosions of soils, flares, spills, and gas leakage pipes are all represents to have bad effects on agricultural soils. One research displays that flaring on gas adversely damage soil fertility and also causing the soil to become acidic and minimizing contents in soil such as total organic carbon, phosphate, nitrate. So, by this hydraulic fracturing is treated as bad idea. In the field of radioactivity which is naturally acquiring radioactive substance has shared to widely distributed contamination of gas and oil production areas so contamination may be very high in some cases. Additionally, some shale contains high in Radium226. Radon, Uranium, and other radioactive failing products may be present in soils, the air and even also in drinking water at natural gas sites. The mixture of chemical substances known to cause kidney disease, nervous system, sensory organ, mutagenic, carcinogenic, endocrine, and health hazards when additional intake to those also produced by di-ammonium peroxidisulphate. By hydraulic fracturing practices wells are being utilized as more and more for oil production. The groundwater contamination is induce from cracks in man-made damages associate with old wells within the formation of rock, or wastewater leakage at disposal spot. The danger of these issues occurring is the leakage of methane or other chemical supplements identified in cracking solution into public groundwater resources producing them insecure for humans to drink from or use.

Aside from the environment hazards, protestor of anti-fracking are frustrated at the possibility that these hydraulic fracturing activities can contaminate drinking water and may cause health hazards as well to the people of the society. Including the accidental leaking of the chemicals to water pipes and drainage underground in case the drilling machines hits or breaks these pipes. There have already been reports that home of some communities are becoming sick due to the activation of drilling actions. Moreover, there have been survey from landlords that there are evidence of chemicals present in their water pipes. And it is unhealthy for workers, there are over 600 carcinogenic chemicals utilized in the composition of the hydraulic fracturing solution and this may harm the health of the workers those who employed in the fracking sites.

Conclusion

The overall analysis describes about the potential for the use of hydraulic fracturing in NT and the impacts of fracking in the ground water. It is concluded that there are few economical benefits for the country by performing the hydraulic fracturing. But to prevent the natural resources, modern practices and recent technologies has to be adopted. The benefits are less as compared to the impacts that affect the environment.

References

Darwin fracking inquiry hears from key stakeholders. (2017). ABC News.

Evans, B. (2012). Northern Territory Emergency Response: Criticism, support and redesign. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 20(3), 103-107. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1584.2012.01265.x

Hawke Report released | AEOL. (2017). Aeol.com.au.

Lave, R., & Lutz, B. (2014). Hydraulic Fracturing: A Critical Physical Geography Review. Geography Compass, 8(10), 739-754. doi:10.1111/gec3.12162

NT hydraulic fracturing inquiry background and issues paper released for consultation - Knowledge - Clayton Utz. (2017). Claytonutz.com.

Schätzer, M., & Fries, T. (2016). Hydraulic fracturing with a simplified fluid model and XFEM. PAMM, 16(1), 167-168. doi:10.1002/pamm.201610072

Simon, J. (2014). Editor's Perspective-An Update on the Hydraulic Fracturing Groundwater Contamination Debate. Remediation Journal, 24(2), 1-9. doi:10.1002/rem.21390

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

My Assignment Help. (2021). Hydraulic Fracturing In The Northern Territory: Potential, Impacts And Environmental Analysis. Retrieved from https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/eng417-sustainability/potential-for-the-use-of-hydraulic-fracturing.html.

"Hydraulic Fracturing In The Northern Territory: Potential, Impacts And Environmental Analysis." My Assignment Help, 2021, https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/eng417-sustainability/potential-for-the-use-of-hydraulic-fracturing.html.

My Assignment Help (2021) Hydraulic Fracturing In The Northern Territory: Potential, Impacts And Environmental Analysis [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/eng417-sustainability/potential-for-the-use-of-hydraulic-fracturing.html
[Accessed 23 February 2024].

My Assignment Help. 'Hydraulic Fracturing In The Northern Territory: Potential, Impacts And Environmental Analysis' (My Assignment Help, 2021) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/eng417-sustainability/potential-for-the-use-of-hydraulic-fracturing.html> accessed 23 February 2024.

My Assignment Help. Hydraulic Fracturing In The Northern Territory: Potential, Impacts And Environmental Analysis [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2021 [cited 23 February 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/eng417-sustainability/potential-for-the-use-of-hydraulic-fracturing.html.

Get instant help from 5000+ experts for
question

Writing: Get your essay and assignment written from scratch by PhD expert

Rewriting: Paraphrase or rewrite your friend's essay with similar meaning at reduced cost

Editing: Proofread your work by experts and improve grade at Lowest cost

loader
250 words
Phone no. Missing!

Enter phone no. to receive critical updates and urgent messages !

Attach file

Error goes here

Files Missing!

Please upload all relevant files for quick & complete assistance.

Other Similar Samples

support
Whatsapp
callback
sales
sales chat
Whatsapp
callback
sales chat
close