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Responsibilities of the Federal Government

Discuss about the Environmental Planning Policies and Politics.

The federal government is always responsible for the conduciveness of national undertakings. This government has the power to change the legislation for the development of the people and society. Australian constitution is very much dependable on that government as the decision taking bench is occupied by this government, so any adverse situation their concern thinking in any issue create a huge importance for the nation. The major responsibilities this government has done for defense section of the country. Defense or the security of the people is the major need for a civilian so the government premiere needs on that issue to take care of their people by providing proper militant in the border area (Hobbs 2016). The next concern of the federal government is foreign affairs, as there are different issues where foreign treaties or agreement has been placed then the intervention from both countries federal government is needed. In case of any issue regarding trade or commerce federal government has implemented some policies or legislation that can develop the revised strategies of business and operations.  In case of a change in currency or growth or decrease in GDP is the concern matter for the federal government as they are taking care of the fiscal or monetary division of Australia as well (Levy 2016). Along with that, in case of immigration, postal services, telecommunications and broadcasting imposed legislation of federal government to their civilians is important and also serve the people need from the government. The Land Act 1994 and the Vegetation Act 1999 is important for freehold and tenure. Most of the social services and pension plans are also taken care by the federal government. The government has taken the initiative to monitor the process of all social services that happened all over the Australia (Davidson and Wibberley 2016). The government largely imposed their legislation over the funding issue; as the funding and finance is the utmost processing for strengthening their monetary structure. Health, education, industrial sector, business-related issue, environmental issue all these are the responsible concerns for the federal government as they ensuring public services and amenities.

All the responsibilities that are listed for the federal government are also applicable for the state government as well. The state government is also responsible for the same aspect that federal government has taken. It is a chaining procedure that federal government has passed through the state government so that the same legislation can be followed by the government for the development of the state (Goedecke and Welsch 2016). The rules are always same so as the tax and transfers processes, thus on any major issue of the involvement state government can take the concern decision from the federal government. Major responsibilities for the state government include conservation for the environment, education systems, schools and college programs, railways, roads, transports and all. The Environment Protection Act 1994 is implemented for that reason.  These are the major section of responsibilities that state government has a concern in and along with the community services in the state, consumer affair, police and provide assistance in the emergency situation (Gupta et al 2016). For the people of Queensland Nature Conservation Act, 1992 is important for that reason to conserve the identification of people. The system of the government has its own constitutional manner which suggests the proper justification for each developmental case that encompasses all the government procedure and listed the revised responsibilities to the people of different states in Australia.

Responsibilities of the State Government

Local government is variable so their legislation and act for the municipalities or council may act separately (Un-Habitat 2016). For instance, Sydney area has divided into 35 cities, shires and local councils. There are some small council and some large rural areas where maximum people have lived, the local government acted over the place to modify the place for the betterment of the people. Public health, electricity problem, water problem, local roads and footpaths, parks and playing grounds, houses and waste disposal is the major concern and responsibilities of the local government (Furlong et al. 2016). The Local Government Act 1993 has established for the functioning of Local government and to strengthen the power of local government to their people. The main concern that local government has to face is the communal service maintenance, there is diverse cultural assimilation is there for the betterment of the local area which is also important to understand the need of the area and to develop the area for the better place in security safety and hygiene (Healey 2016). Most of the cases, the federal government has taken the initiation of doing the most of the responsibilities but for the facilities that general people want is proceed through the state and local government as state or local leaders are nearest to them and people can interact and share their problem regarding their situation (Buitelaar and Bregman 2016).

The key challenges for Brisbane have explored all the master planning and identified the possible themes that need to be highlighted over here. The basic five themes including build form, economics, transport, public realm and social and cultural aspects. In case of best possible transport solution, the growth of city population is the big issue and that makes a challenge for the city. The excess of congestion in the form of hectic travel experience as the police and authority has nothing to do in this rush situation (Data.brisbane.qld.gov.au 2017).

In case of economic development challenges the range of commercial and the retail value measuring is the pricing aspect of the city governance. For an instance, the South Brisbane commercial office marketplace now has the lowest opportunity rates in the built-up city management for that reason the low-quality transport infrastructure and the one-dimensional demographic process has sustained.

In the build form section, the energy efficiency mechanism or the reinforcement of potential existence is the challenge for the building up redevelopment. The felicity or the pedestrian or the resilient basement for the public will be the responsibility of the government. Thus their initiation is the major thing that Brisbane people have demanded from their government. 

Responsibilities of the Local Government

Social culture and the diversified community is the major challenge for the Brisbane city. The city has experienced new cultural assimilation in terms of accumulating the people from the different community and that is the explored reason behind that. The most challenging operation for the government has to develop the vibrant and creative social community for the people where they can establish their livelihood in an ethical manner (Data.brisbane.qld.gov.au 2017).

In an aspect of challenge in bringing Brisbane together the multiple locations for the lifestyle and the leisure for the people is the prime challenge for the government. The government has to make it a lively city and for that reason, they are providing the best facility in terms of accessible venue and planning for the people to deliver the better place to live in.

Urban Planning or development of a site is the big concern for the Federal Government of Australia as they are the prime responsible board form where the bill has to be passed on. There are certain urban policies that provide actual guidance to the land issue and people have to follow the certain thing while they have planned such situations (Salih and Tedla 2016). The Ministry of Infrastructure in 2011 is the established form of Australian Federal Government that provides more productive formation in the Landfilling case. The policies are implemented to protect the environment of Australia as well. For the better building sites, National Urban Policies are implemented for the better action and heritage building in Australia. In the demographical perspective, growths in the urban cities are important concerning point for the government. There are certain guideline principles for the planning (McGuirk, Dowling and Bulkeley 2014). Upgrade of quality in lifestyle is important to process a sustainable condition in the country. Health and safety issue is another concern that planning of an urban area demands and that also interconnected with the other states of people so that cultural assimilation can be imposed in a bigger prospect (McGuirk, Bulkeley and Dowling 2014).

Forgetting an approval for the development of the site first Development Application (DA) has to be placed on the local government (Dowling, McGuirk and Bulkeley 2014). The application includes site plans independent reports, Architectural plans and an ethical statement that local government has made that the site is unassigned by any political influence. 

After this process, Owner’s Consent form is needed for the further development of cites. The form is available from the Department and Planning webpage of the local government (McGuirk et al 2015). Owner consent is needed for taking the lease of that land and all the terms and conditions are needed to be met for the availability of the particular land. 

Key Challenges for Brisbane

A Statement of Environment Effect (SEE) is needed to be covered by the city planners to the local Government. The statement ensures the environmental impact over the locality and makes a proper design to establish cite in an ethical manner (Bellamy and Brown 2013). The SEE will require the existing structure of cite, proper description of the plans, the impact of environment and ensure that it doesn't affect the environment during the developing. Along with this certain identification of environmental harm the policy will mitigate the processes for the better citing and the development (McGuirk, Bulkeley and Dowling 2016).

The next section is the site plan and that includes the proper construction and frameworks designed by the efficient engineers. The construction of retaining wall drains, walkways, driveways, polls, fences, decks are along with that process. The plan is designed by the architect or draftsman (Ruming and Gurran 2014). 

The next section is floor plans that include bedroom design, bathroom design or the designing of doors and windows in the rooms. These planning are also initiated by the proper engineers or architectures.

Elevation and Section of the development are also important for the styling of the property (Bulkeley, McGuirk and Dowling 2016). The shaping of cites is the main criteria of this planning and that encompasses the proper styling of cites.

There is certain Electricity Act that must be included in the citation of the project as the developmental issue is related with that. There are some other specific documents that needed to be submitted from the required end and that ensure the risk mitigation service for the development of cites (Ruming et al 2014). Historical subdivision pattern, heritage impact of the nation and the swage facility are the proper management process that needed to incorporate in the planning so that heritage conservation can be conserved in an ethical way (Gurran and Ruming 2016).

The planning body of Australia takes care about the Land use plan where they ensure the possible proper planning framework for the Australian government. It is a kind of modification that Federal government has done for the betterment of state and nation (Gurran and Ruming 2016). Land Use planning is required for the national level pre and post-disaster planning and safety issues (Head 2014). Environmental changes are not considered from the planning phases and that includes managing projects and creating the sustainable condition of the nation.

Key Consideration for the Development of a Site

The commonwealth Airport Act 1996 was implemented on that issue for the commonwealth planning control in Australia. Planning and formation of the constitution have imposed over the land management principle so the reformation of the city planning is being done in an ethical way (Moloney and Horne 2015). There are certain strategic plans in the urban development processes and that ensure the Land use planning such as the development of 19 federal airports or the preparation of 20 masters planning over the airports is the implemented government control planning that imposed over the nation (Gurran and Ruming 2016).

In the aspect of Brisbane city council, they are one of the largest cities in Australia thus their influence of local government must be strong enough to deal with their people for the development of the state (Rijke et al 2013). There are seven standing committees of the council are found in the Brisbane, City planning committee is one of them. Planning and the development of Brisbane are the concerns motives of that plan that ensure the economic prosperity, quality of life and the healthy ecology of the state people. Southeast Queensland Regional Plan and collaboration of state council for the popper planning in the regional section is the major concern of the planning (Hughes 2013). The plan also considers rejuvenate an under-utilized area of Brisbane as the sections are needed to evolve in the ethical ways so that planning enhancement can be attributed in the proper manner (Bellamy and Brown 2013). Promotion of affordable range of housing is important to upgrade their livelihood. Streamline development of architecture and the growth in the economy is the highlighted aspect of the plan that ensures the consideration of council ad their panning over the project. Property management, rubbish collection, asset management, health control, investment for the betterment of roads, paths, highways are the other concerning responsibilities of the council of Brisbane. Brisbane Vision 2031 is the reformation procedure of Brisbane city the incorporate corporate plan, Annual budget plan and divisional and branch plans of the urban governance of Brisbane (Floyd et al 2014). The urban governance planning of Brisbane and their city responsibilities are encompassed with the well designed subtropical city, vibrant nature of the creative city, the smart and prosperous condition of the city and clean and healthy nature of the city. The proposed income from the Brisbane city council for the development of the city is estimated at 2, 11,392$ at that provide the circulation of all the necessary aspect of the city. There are some Priority Development Area (PDA) to involve the reframing of casinos, resorts and all other sites of the city. The area has covered almost the 26.8 hectors at the south-west corner of the city (Bulkeley, McGuirk and Dowling 2016). There is E-governance planning along with the disaster management planning for the city. It provides SMS alert or detecting the flood map for the better understating of the problem base location in Brisbane. City Artwork project, vibrant laneway programs are the important place marking that Brisbane government has taken initiative for the better formation of the project. Federal government rules and regulations are imposed by the Brisbane city so that a uniform measure of planning has implemented in a proper way (Davidson and Wibberley 2016). Suburban Centre Improvement projects and legal aspect of the planning ensures the imperial presentation on the Brisbane government process. There are some major projects in Brisbane like the economic planning or the environment perspective of the city enhances the development of the conurbation as well (McGuirk, Bulkeley and Dowling 2016). The project will have noteworthy collision on Council communications and possessions and the development will necessitate the planning format to be diverse or overridden to give consequence to the plan.

The concentric zone is the model of analyzing the urban social structure applied over the social groups of people in the urban areas. The model has six zones and each of the zone justified with the several effects of urban living and development (McGuirk, Bulkeley and Dowling 2016). These are the different level of urban versions that implemented over the legislation for the developing determination of the nation.

The zone identifies the central business District as the core where the maximum infrastructure and development of the country imposed on (Davidson and Wibberley 2016). The transitional zone consolidates the commercial and residential manner as most of the residential people lived in that place and commercial transaction also took place in that zone. Working classes residential are accumulating in the residential zone as the independent people are there to circulate their work in an ethical way (Bulkeley, McGuirk and Dowling 2016). Another Residential zone covers up the better quality or the class of people and the last zone for the people who travel for their residence or work on the daily basis are in the commuter zone.

Sector model is a kind of reframe structure of the concentric model. It is also implemented for the city development as the outward development of the model pushes for the growth for the future enhancement of city (Floyd et al 2014). The outward progression of the city development encourages the growth also and this process is also justified for this model.

The centrally located C.B.D. is the most available and creates highest value for the state. The value and the population of a particular place are depending on the space that created by the government for the development of the central places (Bellamy and Brown 2013). Residential segregation is important for conceptualize on civic professions as the people functions and the boundaries of work limit are depending on that (Floyd et al 2014). 

The nuclei model is the construction form of modeling that ensures the establishment of reduced transportation cost of the use of a car for the development of the vehicle. The segmentation has nine sections and that encompasses the Central Business District at the center that means it has the developmental region to focus on (Davidson and Wibberley 2016). It is a move away from of concentric zone of a model and that reflected the complex nature of the urban areas.

There are certain industrial activities that based on the transportation and that provided the lower transportation change in the model. Activities like residential are the management of the park and factory ordering can enhance the quality of the living and that encompasses the model assuring for the Australian city places (Davidson and Wibberley 2016).

In the modern division of state and country finding the nature of these models is quite effective as all the zones are suitability differentiate in every model. They all are interconnected and through the knowledge, process government has taken one of the models for the development of city or nation (Davidson and Wibberley 2016). The planning process of each of the models have comprises of three main elements People, Place, and Process. For the better understanding and the implementation of the model community visioning and collaborate planning is needed for the different stakeholder and linked with the developmental strategies to design the urban planning and empowerment of the proper opportunities (Gurran and Ruming 2016). In the broader perspective managing change and the economic prosperity of the environmental protection are the strategic scheme of the management for the better development of urban areas in Australia.

References

Bellamy, J.A. and Brown, A.J., 2013. Federalism and Regionalism in Australia: New Approaches, New Institutions? (p. 229). ANU Press.

Buitelaar, E. and Bregman, A., 2016. Dutch land development institutions in the face of crisis: trembling pillars in the planners’ paradise. European Planning Studies, 24(7), pp.1281-1294.

Bulkeley, H., McGuirk, P.M. and Dowling, R., 2016. Making a smart city for the smart grid? The urban material politics of actualising smart electricity networks. Environment and Planning A, 48(9), pp.1709-1726.

Data.brisbane.qld.gov.au 2017. GovHack 2017 Challenges Retrived from: https://www.data.brisbane.qld.gov.au/blog/govhack-2017-challenges [Accessed on 10th October  2017]

Davidson, J. and Wibberley, G., 2016. Planning and the Rural Environment: Urban and Regional Planning Series. Elsevier.

Dowling, R., McGuirk, P. and Bulkeley, H., 2014. Retrofitting cities: local governance in Sydney, Australia. Cities, 38, pp.18-24.

Floyd, J., Iaquinto, B.L., Ison, R. and Collins, K., 2014. Managing complexity in Australian urban water governance: transitioning Sydney to a water sensitive city. Futures, 61, pp.1-12.

Furlong, C., De Silva, S., Guthrie, L. and Considine, R., 2016. Developing a water infrastructure planning framework for the complex modern planning environment. Utilities Policy, 38, pp.1-10.

Goedecke, M. and Welsch, J., 2016. Administrative requirements for the integration of environmental concerns and demands of climate change into the planning process. In Sustainable Ho Chi Minh City: Climate Policies for Emerging Mega Cities (pp. 75-88). Springer International Publishing.

Gupta, J., Bergsma, E., Termeer, C.J.A.M., Biesbroek, G.R., van den Brink, M., Jong, P., Klostermann, J.E.M., Meijerink, S. and Nooteboom, S., 2016. The adaptive capacity of institutions in the spatial planning, water, agriculture and nature sectors in the Netherlands. Mitigation and adaptation strategies for global change, 21(6), pp.883-903.

Gurran, N. and Ruming, K., 2016. Less planning, more development? Housing and urban reform discourses in Australia. Journal of Economic Policy Reform, 19(3), pp.262-280.

Head, B., 2014. Managing urban water crises: adaptive policy responses to drought and flood in Southeast Queensland, Australia. Ecology and Society, 19(2).

Healey, P., 2016. The Ashgate research companion to planning theory: conceptual challenges for spatial planning. Routledge.

Hobbs, F.D., 2016. Traffic Planning and Engineering: Pergamon International Library of Science, Technology, Engineering and Social Studies. Elsevier.

Hughes, S., 2013. Authority structures and service reform in multilevel urban governance: The case of wastewater recycling in California and Australia. Urban Affairs Review, 49(3), pp.381-407.

Levy, J.M., 2016. Contemporary urban planning. Taylor & Francis.

McGuirk, P., Bulkeley, H. and Dowling, R., 2014. Practices, programs and projects of urban carbon governance: Perspectives from the Australian city. Geoforum, 52, pp.137-147.

McGuirk, P., Dowling, R. and Bulkeley, H., 2014. Repositioning urban governments? Energy efficiency and Australia’s changing climate and energy governance regimes. Urban Studies, 51(13), pp.2717-2734.

McGuirk, P., Dowling, R., Brennan, C. and Bulkeley, H., 2015. Urban carbon governance experiments: the role of Australian local governments. Geographical research, 53(1), pp.39-52.

McGuirk, P.M., Bulkeley, H. and Dowling, R., 2016. Configuring urban carbon governance: insights from Sydney, Australia. Annals of the American Association of Geographers, 106(1), pp.145-166.

Moloney, S. and Horne, R., 2015. Low carbon urban transitioning: from local experimentation to urban transformation?. Sustainability, 7(3), pp.2437-2453.

Rijke, J., Farrelly, M., Brown, R. and Zevenbergen, C., 2013. Configuring transformative governance to enhance resilient urban water systems. Environmental Science & Policy, 25, pp.62-72.

Ruming, K. and Gurran, N., 2014. Australian planning system reform.

Ruming, K.J., Gurran, N., Maginn, P.J. and Goodman, R., 2014. A national planning agenda? Unpacking the influence of federal urban policy on state planning reform. Australian Planner, 51(2), pp.108-121.

Salih, M.M. and Tedla, S. eds., 2016. Environmental Planning, Policies and Politics in Eastern and Southern Africa. Springer.

Un-Habitat, 2016. Planning sustainable cities: global report on human settlements 2009. Routledge.

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