Hybrid Varieties for Commercial Production of Rosa indica
Most countries rely on the traditional basis of medicines, which can be utilized through plant-based products. Rosa indica is one such plant species that exhibit great non-toxic and pharmacological benefits. The globally used plant Rosa indica is a highly recommended utilized plant for commercial purposes, which has adopted several variations to increase the commercial production and the utilization of the plant. The hybrid verities are among the newly adopted techniques that possess the great diversity of the cut-flower production that can enhance the landscape's beauty uses. The factors or components which are associated with pollination are called pollinators, which can be categorized into diurnal and nocturnal on the basis of the duration of carrying pollination (Mansha et al., 2021).
The fungal diseases are the pathogenic diseases that can decrease the commercial significance of the plants. The paramount importance of Rosa indica is associated with various decorative as well as medicinal contributions. In order to determine the agricultural and medicinal value of Rosa indica, a study was performed related to the randomized complete block designing in the field area of the College of Agriculture. The randomized complete block design is a type of agricultural experiment, which is particularly performed in order to perform the bactericide and the fungicide activity of the plant. The study was carried out by collecting the well-drained leaves sample at a neutral pH. The leaves were then transformed into anti-fungal sprays by utilizing some laboratories techniques and by making three different concentrations (100 ppm, 200 ppm, and 300 ppm). The prepared fungicide is by rose extracts called Antracol, Acrobat, and Myclobutanil. The results concluded that the concentrations which were formulated using 100 ppm resulted in the reduction of lesser fungi (the black spot forming fungi called Diplocarpon rosae). However, the fungicide at 300 ppm showed an effective reduction in the formation of diseases. Moreover, the treatment was followed by 15, 30 and 45 days, in which fungicide possessed a maximum inhibition when treatment was continued for 45 days (Mansha et al., 2021).
The study suggested the evidence of the inhibition activity of the rose compounds against the fungi in three different concentrations, among which the highest inhibition was seen at 300 ppm than 100 ppm.
The methanolic extract from the leaves of rose is very effective in treating microbial diseases by the production of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles are found in the form of the bioactive component of Rosa indica, which are converted into silver nanoparticles by reacting the bioactive components with the silver nitrate. Hence, Rosa indica can exhibit antibacterial as well as antioxidant activity. The antibacterial activity of bioactive components of Rosa indica is associate3d to obstruct DNA replication by inhibiting the DNA replicating enzymes and thus inhibiting the cell division. Furthermore, the multi-drug resistance activity of certain microbes such as streptococcus and staphylococcus species can be reduced or inhibited by the application of natural flavonoids present as the secondary metabolite in leaves extracts of the rose plant. The justification of the case study is determined through the antibiotic assay of silver nanoparticles against bacteria. In order to identify the antibacterial characteristics of the silver nanoparticles, E. coli bacterial colonies are grown on the agar plate. The silver nanoparticles are prepared from the flower extract using biochemical preparation. Finally, the prepared nanoparticle solution is filled in the wells or discs on the fresh plate, onto which cultured bacteria are spread. On incubation for 24 hours, the zone of clearance can be seen near the wells and discs exhibiting the antibiotic assay against bacteria.
Fungicide and Bactericide Activity of Rosa indica
The paper has supported the relevant knowledge of silver nanoparticles from rose to kill the bacteria, which tends to provide insights for further exploration of the uses of silver nanoparticles from rose (Humma et al., 2021).
Pruning is a kind of ecological practice of rose cultivation maintained by farmers to increase longevity and the flowering process of the plants. An experiment was carried in Bandarawela in year 2019 and was performed at the Regional Agriculture Research and Development Centre (RARDC). The experiment showed the results that the average elevation of the plant could reach approximately 1400 meters above sea level with a specific temperature. The purpose of the experiment was to analyze the impact of the environmental factors on the yield of flowering on the plants, which are based on the temperature (ranging from 8-29oC), humidity (m 50 to 70%), soil type (Red Yellow Podsolic), and the annual rainfall (of 1600 mm). The two plants of Rosa indica were taken for this analysis, in which one plant was processed with all the types of necessary components. On the contrary, pruning of another Rosa indica plant was made lacking in all the nutritional factors. The availability of all the nutritional factors supported the healthy growth and performance of the plant, revealing the morphological and yield parameters of the plants. Plants exhibited the health production of the offshoots and increased with the flower attributes in a scientific way. However, another plant recorded stunted and obstructed growth.
The research has shown effective and satisfactory successes over the pruning studies and the determinative analysis of the effects of the biological and environmental factors on flower production. Rose plants greatly responded to the pruning methodology to promote the new growth of the axial position of the plants and terminate the disease arrival (Shyamalee et al., 2021).
The hybrid rosa plant species are highly utilized for the commercial production of the plants in comparison to the natural plants because of the easy production and maintenance of the rose plants. The clonal propagating process is being utilized to determine the morphological diversity of hybrid plants, which can increase by implicating the spontaneous mutants. One such study was carried out in a survey held in Panjab, where several hybrids were collected to show their characteristic features containing the dominancy, such as height, colour, longevity and flourishment. For the performance of the Morphological Diversity Analysis, the solicitation of germplasm of several species of Rosa indica hybrids was done. For the collection, 41 UPOV-Rose (Rosa indica L.) were taken from private nurseries, which were subjected to maintain their germplasm. The principal component analysis (PCA) and the cluster analysis of the plants were supposed to be considered as the dominant that carried the hybrid accessing and the distinguishable traits within the germplasm. The conservation and the mass multiplication of the elite germplasm of plants can be done on the basis of In vitro propagation of the plants. Among the selected stains, all were supposed to contain the efficient establishment of cultures, which makes the use of the plant tissues suitable for commercial production.
Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Silver Nanoparticles from Rosa indica
The followed studies determined further propagation of the plants, which is necessary for the propagation of the plant for future use. Plants exhibited the characteristics features with the desirable lines. Hence, the article supported the relevant studies (Shah et al., 2021).
The study of the paper concludes the significance of the diurnal pollinators over the nocturnal pollinators among the angiosperm flowers in the North-Eastern Himalayas in India. According to the studies, the nocturnal pollinators gain lesser scientific attention (Macgregor et al., 2019). The family of Rosaceae is one of the most abundant plant families that tract most of the pollinators because of the verities of colours and smells in these species. Moths are the general diurnal pollinators of the rose plants that constitute more than 140 kinds of pollinators that carry a sufficient quantity of pollen grains most abundantly to the flowering plants. The reason for the higher pollination activity of moths is associated with the studies that these insects can disperse the pollen grains to a larger distance. On the contrary, the nocturnal pollinators can disperse the pollen grains to a significant distance only. The proof of the research was mediated by collecting two types of moths in three different seasons; permission, monsoon and post-monsoon. The randomly chosen sampling sites were surveyed by considering 2-3 specimens for nocturnal and diurnal moths and were preserved in the standardized technique. The result was seen after one year, showing a higher collection of pollens in the specimen pollinated with the diurnal moths.
The evidence of the study has determined that, unlike the diurnal pollinators, nocturnal pollinators can carry the pollination to the limited plant species only, such as bottle gourd and ridge gourd crops (Singh et al., 2022).
Pruning helps the plant to gain more area for growth by removing the dead or older plant parts. Moreover, the positive effects of pruning can be seen in the favourable geographical areas to maintain the flowering and growth process of the plant, which can be inhibited in unfavourable environmental conditions. The diurnal moths tend to reveal a higher degree of selectivity because of the dispersion of pollen grains to the several species of the plants. The medicinal properties of the plant can be seen most effectively at 300 ppm whereas if the quantity of extract is lesser, the inhibition activity of extract will also reduce.
Humma, Z., Shaheen, S., Meryum, B., Khan, S., Ali, Z., Qureshi, N., & Saleem, M. A. U., (2021). Therapeutic potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized from rosa indica against multi drug resistant bacteria.
Macgregor, C. J., Williams, J. H., Bell, J. R., & Thomas, C. D., (2019). Moth biomass increases and decreases over 50 years in Britain. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 3, 1645–1649.
Mansha, M. Z., Aatif, H. M., Ijaz, M., Habib, A., Mansoor, M. Z., Ikram, K., & Khalid, I., (2021). Impact of various fungicides against black spot severity and incidence caused by diplocarpon rosae. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 30(9), 10841-10848.
Shah, M. H., Ur Rahman, R., Mahmood, A., Usman, M., & Bibi, S., (2021). Morphological characterization, multivariate analysis and micropropagation of hybrid rose (Rosa indica l.) germplasm. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 58(1).
Shyamalee, K. R., Srikrishnah, S., Somachandra, K. P., & Sutharsan, S., (2021). Effect of pruning height on growth and cut flower production of rose (Rosa hybrida L.) variety ‘White Success’. Agrieast, 15(2), 12-22.
Singh, N., Lenka, R., Chatterjee, P., & Mitra, D., (2022). Settling moths are the vital component of pollination in Himalayan ecosystem of North-East India, pollen transfer network approach revealed. Scientific Reports, 12(1), 1-11.
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