The current price of ordinary shares in BHP is $51.36 (BHP Ltd, 2018) and of CBA is $70.77(CBA, 2018)
According to the study of Macro axis, BHP Billiton Company is taken as less risky an entity as an investment in this company will result into higher returns as this attracts a lot of investors towards thus entity which further increases the share price of the BHP shares (Damodaran, 2018). The efficiency of the firm is identified with the help of Sharpe ratio which is of 0.24 which, in turn, shows the return generated for per unit of risk for the previous 1 month.
According to the leading news article, Commonwealth Bank of Australia is proved as less risky and more valuable investment for its investment. This theory is explained with the help of beta of an entity as the existing beta of CBA is of 0.63 (Commonwealth bank of Australia’s market risk, 2017). The beta shows the efficiency of an entity as this less volatile as compared to all other stock indexes lies in the market (Cheng and Li, 2018). Ann investor will get its principal along with the higher returns by investing the share of this company (Hoepner and et al., 2018). With this action of the company, the share price of the firm will get higher which arouses the interest of all other investors (Kim, Kim, Kim and Bang, 2018).
The current financial position of the Australian Federal government is stable as due to the introduction of new policies by the government will result into greater savings and higher cash flow balance for the year 2016-17 (Bedi, 2018). The budget will improve to get a budget limit of $1.7 Billion which results in balancing the budget to get rid of all the difficulties (Australian Federal government position, 2018).
The Australian government is keeping all it’s spending under the control which in return will induce the overall gross domestic product of the overall economy of Australia (Hugo, Isenring Sinclair and Agarwal, 2018).
Expectation theory tests the Australian yield curve by showing expected short-term rates as according to this theory yield of two year period is considered as one year bond of current as well as the future period (Adorno, 2018). This theory says that declining state of above yield curve shows the short-term rates to decline in the future.
Market segmentation theory states the shape of the above yield curve that the above yield curve is the humped curve as the middle part of the above curve is showing higher rates as compared to the starting and ending part (Cooke, Freisthler and Mulholland, 2018).
b) Influence of movements in the fiscal position identified above to influence the yield curve
Increasing spending in the budget of Australian government will reduce the cash rate which will results in the declination in the yield curve as it is related to the cash rate (Wellmann and Trück, 2018). Due to increasing cash outflows, the cash balance will get affected which shows negative influence of the changes in the fiscal position on the overall yield curve.
3. Description of the movements in the target cash rate from 2001 to 2017 influence of movements in the cash rate on the value of the Australian dollar in the foreign exchange market
Movement of cash rate from 2001 to 2017 is the most fluctuating position observed in the above line chart as the cash rate initially starts with higher rate then gets increases and then decline shows that cash rate is highly affected by the external market factors affecting the overall performance of an entity (Chen, Zhang, Tam and Wu, 2018).
The changes take places in the cash rates will directly affect the Australian dollar traded in the foreign exchange market. Increase in the cash rate will also increase the value of an Australian Dollar which allows investors to invest in the Australian economy to boost up its overall returns (Influence of ash rate on the Australian dollar, 2017).
Books and journals
Edeling, A. and Himme, A., 2018. When Does Market Share Matter? New Empirical Generalizations from a Meta-Analysis of the Market Share–Performance Relationship. Journal of Marketing. 82(3). pp.1-24.
Damodaran, A., 2018. Equity Risk Premiums (ERP): Determinants, Estimation and Implications–The 2018 Edition.
Cheng, C. and Li, J., 2018. Early default risk and surrender risk: Impacts on participating life insurance policies. Insurance: Mathematics and Economics. 78. pp.30-43.
Kim, W., Kim, Y. M., Kim, T.H. and Bang, S., 2018. Multi-dimensional portfolio risk and its diversification: A note. Global Finance Journal. 35. pp.147-156.
Hoepner, A. G., and et.al., 2018. ESG shareholder engagement and downside risk.
Bedi, R., 2018. Cowen and Zines's federal jurisdiction in Australia [Book Review]. Ethos: Official Publication of the Law Society of the Australian Capital Territory, (247), p.59.
Hugo, C., Isenring, E., Sinclair, D. and Agarwal, E., 2018. What does it cost to feed aged care residents in Australia?. Nutrition & Dietetics. 75(1). pp.6-10.
Wellmann, D. and Trück, S., 2018. Factors of the term structure of sovereign yield spreads. Journal of International Money and Finance. 81. pp.56-75.
Adorno, T. W., 2018. Kant's critique of pure reason. John Wiley & Sons.
Cooke, A., Freisthler, B. and Mulholland, E., 2018. Examination of Market Segmentation among Medical Marijuana Dispensaries. Substance use & misuse, pp.1-5.
Chen, Y., Zhang, H., Tam, K.L. and Wu, M., 2018. The Making of Contemporary Australian Monetary Policy-Backward-or Forward-Looking?. International Journal of Economics and Finance. 10(6). p.127.
Queiroz, M., and et. al., 2018, January. The Complementarity of Corporate IT Alignment and Business Unit IT Alignment: An Analysis of Their Joint Effects on Business Unit Performance. In Proceedings of the 51st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
Australian Federal government position, 2018.
Cash rates of Australia, 2018. Available
Common wealth bank of Australia’s market risk, 2017.
Influence of cash rate on Australian dollar, 2017.