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Overview of the muscular system

Discuss about the Important Functions Of The Muscular Systems.

Muscular system is mainly comprised of muscles that are helpful for the working of the skeletal system that remains under the voluntary control. These muscular system mainly remains concerned with the movement, posture as well as balance in the body. Human muscles are mainly divided into three different types (1). These are the striated muscles or the skeletal muscles, smooth muscle and the cardiac muscles. Smooth muscles are under involuntary control within the body and they are mainly present in the walls of the blood vessels and even in the structure such as the urinary bladder, the stomach and even the intestines. Cardiac muscles are mainly seen to be making up the mass of the heart. It is also found to be responsible for the rhythmic contractions of the vital pumping organ. This type of muscle is also under involuntary control. The skeletal muscle is also one of the voluntary muscles in the human body and is mainly controlled consciously (2).  Each of the different physical actions that every individual is seen to perform requires the importance of the skeletal muscles. The main function of the skeletal muscles is to contract so that the parts of the body can be moved closer to the bones that the muscles are attached to. Most of the skeletal muscles are seen to move parts of those bones that are closer to each other. Most of the skeletal muscles are seen to be attached to two bones with tendons. Tendons are mainly seen to be tough bands that are formed from dense regular connective tissues. The connective tissues of the tendons have strong collagen fibers that are seen to attach muscles and bones firmly (3). Tendons are seen to be under extreme stress when the muscles are pulled on them. Therefore, they are found to be extremely strong and are mostly woven into the coverings of both muscles as well as bones. When an individual tried to gain weight to perform more work or to develop the capability to lift heavy weights, the main muscles that come into play is the skeletal muscles. Therefore, the focus on the discussion would be the skeletal muscle system.


There are a number of important functions of the muscular systems. The first function is mainly the movement. It is the only tissue in the body that has the capacity to contract. Therefore, it moves the other parts of the body. The second function is the maintenance of the posture as well as the body position. Muscles are mainly seen to hold the body still as well as in a particular position rather than to cause any movement (4). The muscles those are mainly responsible for holding the body posture have the greatest endurance of all the muscles in the body. These muscles are able to hold the body up throughout the day without being tired. The cardiac and visceral muscles are responsible for transporting substances like the blood or the food from one part of the body to another (5). Another much importance of the muscle tissue is the generation of the body heat. The contraction of the muscles results in high metabolic rate for which a great deal of waste heat is produced. Different types of muscle contractions within the body are mainly seen to produce the natural body heat. When an individual is seen to exert him or herself more than normal, the extra muscle contractions are mainly seen to result in a rise of body temperature. This eventually leads to sweating (6).

Types of muscles and their functions

ATP is available within the muscle fiber and this can maintain muscle contraction for several seconds. Creatinine phosphate is a highly energy molecule that remains stored in the muscle cells. It mainly takes part in the transferring its high-energy phosphate group to ADP in order to form ATP (7). This creatinine phosphate in the muscle cells is able to generate enough ATP of effective maintenance of the contraction of muscles for about 15 seconds. Glucose within the cell is in the form of carbohydrate glycogen. Glycogen is formed from glucose through the metabolic pathways of the glycogenolysis. On the other hand, ATP is formed from this glucose by the procedure of cellular respiration. When the energy requirement is found to be high, glycogen present in the liver and fat stored in the adipose tissues release the glucose and fatty acids respectively in the bloodstream (8). These glucose and the fatty acids are then absorbed from the blood stream by the muscle cells. ATP is then found to be generated from the energy rich molecules by the procedure of cellular respiration. Several types of metabolic pathways are involved in the procedure of cellular respiration. Some of them require the presence of oxygen and some do not require so (9).

Experts are of the opinion that proper exercises may help an individual to develop toned muscles in the biceps. However, in order to help the biceps to gather muscles to practice heavy weightlifting, it is extremely important for the individuals to get the right kind of nutrition. Depending on the present structure of the body and the degree of lean the individual is, experts mainly comment adding on a 10-to 20 pc caloric surplus. It also depends on the pace at which he wants to gain weight along with the factor the time within which he wants to reach a certain weight to life heavy weights (10). It is first important t develop equations that will mainly act as goals for the individuals. In case of males, those who are least active should multiply their weight in pounds by 18, those who are moderately active by 20 and those are very active by 22. In case of women, 16 in case of individuals who are least active, by 17 who are moderately active and 18 who are highly active should multiply the weights of the women in pounds. After keeping that figure in mind, one should then develop the food menu so that the diet helps the person to achieve the goal (11).

Energy sources for muscle contractions

In order to gain weight and stamina for preparing oneself to lift heavy weight, intake of calories are extremely important. Overall increase in the calorie intake should be done. An individual can be advised to develop 250 to 500 calories a day so that weight can be gained. This will in turn help in increasing a half to one pound of weight in each of the week. However, the individuals should remember one thing (12). This is that gaining weight faster than this pace or including unhealthy food in the diet to gain weight may prove to be  not only unhealthy but may result the patient to develop symptoms of other disorders affecting stamina and zeal as well. Increasing the total daily calories may be difficult and therefore, individuals should be suggested to eat more and choose food items that help to meet calorie goals each day. Therefore, healthy yet higher calorie foods should be selected (13). Therefore, the individuals should eat full fat dairy items, olive oil, nut butter, nut as well as avocado. The individuals can drizzle olive oil as well as put a pat of butter on the foods that have been prepared for them. Putting avocados on the salad and having a serving of scrambled eggs in the morning would also help. The afternoon snack may be composed of blending peanut butter into the protein shakes. Sugary junk food should be avoided as this process of gaining weight is not proper.  Eating cookies, donuts, candies and others would never be done for gaining weight and that would only result in gaining weight in an unhealthy way (14). Often the workouts would be grueling at times and therefore individuals need to fuel themselves effectively. Low GI carbohydrates as the part of the main meals can mainly achieve this. However, higher GI carbs can only be taken particularly in pre and post workout.


When individuals are trying their best to gain weight and build muscles, individuals also need to consume adequate protein so that they can support their goals. Researchers are of the opinion that lean proteins should be the cornerstone of the diets of individuals who want to gain weight to lift heavy weights. it would be better if the individuals can consume 0.8g of protein per kilogram of the body weight. The individuals can divide their weight in pounds by 2.2 to find their protein requirement (15). Many other researchers have argued this point and stated that this method may not be successful for those individuals who are wanting to build lean muscle mass. They have in place stated that the individuals should consume 1g of protein per pound of the body weight but this amount should never be exceeded. A typical serving of the protein is about 3 to 4 oz. the individual should include a serving of lean protein at each of the meal he takes and the snacks he takes. This results in helping the individuals to meet the minimum goals and many also help the individuals to achieve an amount that is slightly higher than the minimum goals. The individuals can focus both on lead and as well as moderately high protein fat sources (16). They can include items like low fat or full fat dairy, poultry, eggs, moderately lean beef, pork, seafood as well as legumes. They should avoid fried, high fat or processed protein choices. These should include fried foods, processed breakfast meats, fast foods. This is because these are not healthy options and therefore should not be used to help one gain weight.


Eating a carb dense snack about 30 to 60 minutes before working out . This will help t provide power to the muscles with fuel throughout the workout keeping the blood sugar level and would help individuals to develop a head start on post workout recovery. Individuals can include the healthy post workout carbs as this will include fruit, mashed potatoes, dried fruits or yogurts, whole grain breads (17). Also whole grains, legumes, fruits, starch vegetables and others are great sources of nutrients required the individuals to develop weight and can be included in diet every day.

Although the individuals are concentrating on mainly the higher calorie and protein dense foods, it is still very much important for them to get adequate servings of fruits and vegetables each day. Five to nine servings of fruits and vegetables each day can be recommended to such individuals. Including fruits and vegetables in each meal and snack my help in reaching the goals effectively (18). One serving of fruits is considered to be half cup chopped or one small piece. One serving of vegetables should be containing one cup or two cups of leafy vegetables.

Many of the individuals believe that fatty foods should be avoided as that may result individuals in getting fat. When individuals are seen to gain muscle mass, they remain in an absolute need of healthy intake of good fats in the diet (19). They are stated by researchers to be essential for good health and help in maintaining a high level of testosterone in men. In order to understand the total amount of fats that are required, the number of pounds of the bodyweight of the individuals should be multiplied by 0.3 to 0.6. Nuts, seeds, oils, avocado and fish are some of the best sources of healthy fats in the human beings (20).

From the above discussion, it is quite evident that the muscular systems helps individuals for not only movement but also lift weight and perform activities and exercises. It is also seen that having proper diet is one of the best ways to develop muscles. Individuals need to be careful about the nutrients that they need to take so that they can develop mass without being unhealthy. Proper calculation of the nutrients should be done and set as goals before proceeding with the task.

References:

  1. Haff GG, Triplett NT, editors. Essentials of strength training and conditioning 4th edition. Human kinetics; 2015 Sep 23.
  2. Dulloo AG, Jacquet J, Montani JP, Schutz Y. How dieting makes the lean fatter: from a perspective of body composition autoregulation through adipostats and proteinstats awaiting discovery. Obesity reviews. 2015 Feb 1;16(S1):25-35.
  3. Devries MC, Phillips SM. Supplemental protein in support of muscle mass and health: advantage whey. Journal of food science. 2015 Mar 1;80(S1).
  4. Longland TM, Oikawa SY, Mitchell CJ, Devries MC, Phillips SM. Higher compared with lower dietary protein during an energy deficit combined with intense exercise promotes greater lean mass gain and fat mass loss: a randomized trial. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2016 Jan 27;103(3):738-46.
  5. Fleck SJ, Kraemer W. Designing Resistance Training Programs, 4E. Human Kinetics; 2014 Feb 14.
  6. Iwaso K, Takashima Y, Harada A. Fast response dry-type artificial molecular muscles with [c2] daisy chains. Nature chemistry. 2016 Jun;8(6):625.
  7. Nicklas BJ, Chmelo E, Delbono O, Carr JJ, Lyles MF, Marsh AP. Effects of resistance training with and without caloric restriction on physical function and mobility in overweight and obese older adults: a randomized controlled trial–. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2015 Mar 1;101(5):991-9.
  8. Morton RW, McGlory C, Phillips SM. Nutritional interventions to augment resistance training-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Frontiers in physiology. 2015 Sep 3;6:245.
  9. Vogt M, Hoppeler HH. Eccentric exercise: mechanisms and effects when used as training regime or training adjunct. Journal of applied Physiology. 2014 Feb 6;116(11):1446-54.
  10. Hettinger T. Physiology of strength. Pickle Partners Publishing; 2017 Jun 28.
  11. Thompson JJ, Manore M. Nutrition for life. Benjamin Cummings; 2015 Jan 29.
  12. Schummers L, Hutcheon JA, Bodnar LM, Lieberman E, Himes KP. Risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes by prepregnancy body mass index: a population-based study to inform prepregnancy weight loss counseling. Obstetrics and gynecology. 2015 Jan;125(1):133.
  13. Rippetoe M, Kilgore L. Starting Strength. The Aasgaard Company. 2017.
  14. Brown L, Ferrigno V, editors. Training for Speed, Agility, and Quickness, 3E. Human Kinetics; 2014 Nov 13.
  15. Verreijen AM, Verlaan S, Engberink MF, Swinkels S, de Vogel-van den Bosch J, Weijs PJ. A high whey protein–, leucine-, and vitamin D–enriched supplement preserves muscle mass during intentional weight loss in obese older adults: a double-blind randomized controlled trial–. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2014 Nov 26;101(2):279-86.
  16. Chaouachi A, Hammami R, Kaabi S, Chamari K, Drinkwater EJ, Behm DG. Olympic weightlifting and plyometric training with children provides similar or greater performance improvements than traditional resistance training. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2014 Jun 1;28(6):1483-96.
  17. Finger D, Goltz FR, Umpierre D, Meyer E, Rosa LH, Schneider CD. Effects of protein supplementation in older adults undergoing resistance training: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports medicine. 2015 Feb 1;45(2):245-55.
  18. Lawrence NS, O'Sullivan J, Parslow D, Javaid M, Adams RC, Chambers CD, Kos K, Verbruggen F. Training response inhibition to food is associated with weight loss and reduced energy intake. Appetite. 2015 Dec 1;95:17-28.
  19. Morton RW, Oikawa SY, Wavell CG, Mazara N, McGlory C, Quadrilatero J, Baechler BL, Baker SK, Phillips SM. Neither load nor systemic hormones determine resistance training-mediated hypertrophy or strength gains in resistance-trained young men. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2016 May 12;121(1):129-38.
  20. Manu P, Dima L, Shulman M, Vancampfort D, De Hert M, Correll CU. Weight gain and obesity in schizophrenia: epidemiology, pathobiology, and management. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 2015 Aug 1;132(2):97-108.
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