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Discuss about the Psychology for Human Factors. The needs of child development as delineated by science remain relatively stable.

The Influence of Parenting on Children's Development

Parents are the only source that exerts enormous form of influence over their children's development. They not only influence the behavior of their children, but they also influence their personality (Zarra?Nezhad et al., 2014). Not only does the parent give their children a good start but they also recognize the temperaments of their children and provide them guidance to prepare their children for complete independence. In a rapidly changing world, parenting seems subject to fads and changing styles, and parenting in some ways has become a competitive sport. Nevertheless, the needs of child development as delineated by science remain relatively stable. There is such a thing as over parenting, and aiming for perfection in parenting might be a fool's mission. Too much parenting cripples children as they move into adulthood and renders them unable to cope with the mere setbacks (Zarra?Nezhad et al., 2014). There is also such a thing as too-little parenting, and research establishes that lack of parental engagement often leads to poor behavioral outcomes in children, in part because it encourages the young to be too reliant on peer culture. Ironically, harsh or authoritarian styles of parenting can have the same effect.

At any given stage, resolution must be made for these internal crises in order for the individual to facilitate the move to the next stage. According to Erikson, a combination of adult expectations and children’s drive towards mastery creates the crisis in this stage. In middle childhood (School Age for Erikson) social competence increases as the individual masters skills and is able to perform on task with peers (Marcia & Josselson, 2013). Agility, normal physical and cognitive functioning, and general popularity all contribute to the individual's idea about themselves in relation to their peers (development of a self-concept). 
It can be noticed; that formal schooling (part of the social network of the developing child) contributes to a generalized set of roles each child must master (Garner, 2017). Children first begin to describe themselves in terms of their psychological traits, compare their abilities to those of peers, and speculate about their strengths and weaknesses (between 8 and 11 years of age. Children increase in the development of perspective taking. Between ages, 8 and 15, children start to depend more on peers for feedback as parental influence begins to wane.  American society promotes conformity to some values, independence and uniqueness in other terms (Marcia & Josselson, 2013). 

The term "helicopter parenting" is the same age as members of the millennial generation, which is telling (Garner, 2017). This form of parenting style is characterized by a helicopter-like tendency to hover over children and swoop in to rescue them at the first sign of trouble, exploded into mainstream consciousness in the early 2000s, just as the oldest millennial were entering young adulthood. This was, to be fair, a fraught time in the culture: Between the events surrounding Sept. 11 and two economic crashes in 2000 and 2008, parents had cause for concern about their children's futures.  Research is piecemeal, but a few surveys and studies reveal the phenomenon is widespread in the U.S (Schiffrin et al., 2014). In one national survey of college students, 38 percent of freshmen and 29 percent of seniors said their parents intervened on their behalves to solve problems either "very often" or "sometimes."  From the other direction, a 2013 Pew Research Survey found that 73 percent of adults in their 40s and 50s had given adult children financial help in the past year, and not all of it was for college tuition (Sangawi, Adams & Reissland, 2015). This reveals one characteristic of helicopter parents. They often hail from the middle class society who are highly educated, who can vehemently provide financial and social resources to their adult children (Schiffrin et al., 2014). While most of the parents start scaling, back their involvement when children head to college, helicopter parents ramp up support (Sangawi, Adams & Reissland, 2015). The worst examples of helicopter parenting include previously unheard-of behaviors like parents attending their adult children’s job interviews or calling college professors to argue over a grade. Meanwhile, their kids emerge from childhood without basic survival skills like how to cook, clean or do their own laundry (Segrin et al., 2013). 

Middle Childhood: Social Competence and Self-Concept Development

Parental over involvement may lead to negative outcomes in children, including higher levels of depression and anxiety (Segrin et al., 2013). Studies also suggest that children of over involved or over controlling parents may feel less competent and less able to manage life and its stressors. In contrast, evidence suggests that some parental involvement in children's lives facilitates healthy development, both emotionally and socially (Yap et al., 2014).

Children's need for autonomy increases over time as they strive to become independent young adults. Among college administrators, concern is shared that parents do not adjust their level of involvement and control as their child grows up and, instead, practice helicopter parenting (Schiffrin et al., 2014).

Schiffrin and her team examined how parenting behaviors affect the psychological well-being of children by looking at college students' self-determination (Yap et al., 2014). Two ninety-eight American undergraduate students, aged 18-23 years, answered an online survey. They were asked to describe their mothers' parenting behaviors, rate their own perceptions of their autonomy, competence, and relatedness (i.e., how well they get along with other people). Overall, an inappropriate level of parental behavioral control was linked to negative well-being outcomes for students (Yap et al., 2014). Helicopter parenting behaviors were related to higher levels of depression and decreased satisfaction with life. In addition, helicopter-parenting behaviors were associated with lower levels of perceived autonomy, competence, and relatedness. In addition, those who perceived they had less autonomy and competence were more likely to be depressed.

The authors conclude that helicopter parenting is a highly involved, intensive, and hands-on method of parenting (Yap et al., 2014). Their research suggests that intense involvement is considered by some parents to be supportive, whereas it may actually be perceived as controlling and undermining by their children. “Parents should keep in mind how developmentally appropriate their involvement is and learn to adjust their parenting style when their children feel that they are hovering too closely.”

Therefore, the literature reviews the outcome of the helicopter parenting on the college going undergraduate students.

Schaefer (2014) has identified that there are three important aspects, or dimensions, of parenting: (1) acceptance versus rejection, (2) psychological autonomy versus psychological control, and (3) firm control versus lax control. Building on this work, the work of Baumrind, Maccoby, Martin, and others began to formulate the clusters of the parents that are based on the various dimensions of warmth/ responsiveness and control (Dee, 2015). It has been observed further that the work that has been done on the either dimensional approaches to parenting or broad typologies of parenting appears to reflect several important and distinguishing features. They generally includes; (a) the form of support that are given to a child (e.g., acceptance, affection, involvement, nurturance) aimed at forming an emotional connection with the child; (b) the control over the behavior of the child (e.g., limit setting, supervision, reasoning about consequences); (c) granting of the autonomy (e.g., giving choice, allowing child input into rule making, permitting the expression of ideas, avoiding intrusive behavior) that are aimed at fostering the emotional and psychological self-reliance. After examining these three key factors of the style of parenting, the researchers have not only found out the links with individual dimensions of parenting but have also identified the potential form of combinations that appears to be more or less adaptive for the young adolescents (Dee, 2015).

The Rise of Helicopter Parenting and its Characteristics

For example, parenting that reflects a combination of support and behavioral control has been linked to numerous indices of social, emotional, cognitive, and academic well-being and functioning from early childhood through adolescence (Forehand, Jones & Parent, 2013). Of particular interest for the present study are varying forms of parental control that have been identified. As noted previously, behavioral control refers to parental regulation and structuring of the child’s behavioral world (e.g., homework, daily activities, and manners), while psychological control refers to parental behaviors that are intrusive and manipulative of children’s thoughts, feelings, and attachment to parents (Forehand, Jones & Parent, 2013). As reported previously, when behavioral control is coupled with parental support intended to foster child maturity, it appears to be associated with child well-being (Hart et al., 2003). However, when parental attempts to exercise coercive control are aimed at limiting children’s behavioral autonomy (i.e., harsh, threatening, authoritarian behaviors) or psychological and emotional autonomy (i.e., psychological control), children and adolescents tend to exhibit problems of both externalizing and internalizing natures (Forehand, Jones & Parent, 2013). Although these approaches certainly capture parenting that is low on autonomy granting, neither behavioral nor psychological control seems to capture the type of control, or involvement, which tends to typify the form of parenting coined “helicopter” or “hovering” parenting by pop culture (Forehand, Jones & Parent, 2013). For example, recent articles in the New York Times portray parents who drop their children off at college and refuse to leave, attending classes with their children for the first week of school, intervening in roommate disputes, and calling professors or administrators when a child gets a lower than-expected grade . This tends to reflect parents who are highly invested, extremely concerned for the well-being of their children, and well-intentioned albeit misdirected. In this sense, we are not proposing that helicopter parenting is an entirely new dimension of parenting. Instead, it represents a unique patterning of the basic dimensions of parenting. Specifically, it represents parenting that is high on warmth/support, high on control, and low on granting autonomy. In that regard, the popular notion of helicopter parenting appears to involve the same major dimensions of parenting (e.g., responsiveness/involvement, control, and autonomy granting) that comprise other forms of parenting (e.g., authoritative parenting, psychological control) but is unique in how those dimensions are prioritized. The distinction is made in that helicopter parenting does not appear to be a clear form of psychological control, as it does not appear to target the emotional or psychological autonomy of the child. It certainly appears to reflect some aspects of behavioral control, but with high levels of warmth and support as well as excessive limiting of autonomy that is not at all consistent with the age of the child. In these respects, helicopter parenting is reminiscent of similar constructs that have been identified in parenting of children at various ages. For example, helicopter parenting does share some characteristics with certain forms of psychological control that are driven by parental separation anxiety.

Negative Outcomes of Helicopter Parenting on Children

The empirical studies on other aspects of parenting have provided support for the transactional model. It has been studied that a reciprocal interaction between the parents and the child can make the child get over the feeling of worthless, feeling sad or any form of anxiety (Darlow, Norvilitis & Schuetze, 2017). However, the over protection of the parents can make the child very much dependable on their parents and causes the defamation of the personality of the children. The autonomy and zeal in the personality of the children goes missing if they are always under the shadow of over protecting parents (Darlow, Norvilitis & Schuetze, 2017).

Negative effects of over-parenting were confirmed by another study amongst college students, which showed students with helicopter parents were ‘less satisfied with life’. They expressed a clear desire for more autonomy and competence (Schiffrin et al., 2015).  Several studies show a link between the over-involved parenting style and emotional and academic issues in college students. More importantly, many of these (especially the smaller ones) rely on self-reporting by students through questionnaires. Oftentimes the only ‘evidence’ researchers have for the over-parenting, is the students’ opinion (Schiffrin et al., 2015). There have been developments towards a more scientific model of validating helicopter parenting, based on certain characteristics, but many studies do not do this. Moreover, college students of course are not completely reliable in their answers, which is true for most of us by the way (Garst & Gagnon, 2015). Certainly many have heard of over-parenting and can manipulate their answers towards a certain outcome—the fact that they are in college shows they have at least some intellectual skills. Some researchers have attributed bad decision college students make (cheating, using drugs, negative sexual relationships) to a lack of decision-making skills due to over-parenting (Garst  & Gagnon, 2015).

Effect of helicopter parenting on the identity

Helicopter parents earn this symbolically interesting title because they seem to 'hover' over their children in an effort of trying to control their lives in order to protect them from harm, disappointment, or mistakes (Marcia & Josselson, 2013). Not only are these parents overprotective because they fear for their children's safety, but they also attach their own self-worth and identity to the accomplishments and successes of their children. These parents have a hard time letting go, are constantly intervening, and will not let their children make own mistakes – or at least acknowledge their mistakes so they can learn from them (Marcia & Josselson, 2013).

Dimensions of Parenting and Their Impact

Although there are certain similarities that the helicopter parenting shares with other type of the parental control, it has a distinct characteristic such as a clear benevolent intention for children (Givertz and Segrin 2014). Despite of such intentions that are positive, the helicopter parenting, that are similar to the other forms of the parental control, may be diminished by the children’s sense of self, independence, and competencies (e.g., locus of control, self-efficacy). Nevertheless, there is ample association with the other form of psychological functioning of the children that might not be the same due to the unique aspect of helicopter parenting (Garst  & Gagnon, 2015). The growing form of attention that has been paid to the helicopter parenting that holds most of the existing evidence of the research that shows its negative impact on the psychological functioning of the children. The studies demonstrate that certain aspects of parenting, such as parental control, low affect, and over protectiveness, contribute to the development of a cognitive style in which students believe that their behavioral outcomes largely depend on external factors (Garst  & Gagnon, 2015). This parenting style may interfere with children’s development of autonomy and the social skills required when they face challenges and/or social demands (Garst  & Gagnon, 2015). As the parenting construct measured in some of these studies is somewhat distinct from our conceptualization of helicopter parenting (i.e., consisting of high parental affect and over control without much autonomy granting), additional investigations are needed to confirm associations between recollections of helicopter parenting and college aged children’s sense of self.

The literature review lacks the support of the relevant literatures. The researcher has focused on the various negative effects of the helicopter parenting on the college-going adults. However, the research lacks implementation of the effective technique that can be giving good parenting to the young adolescents (Marcia & Josselson, 2013).

Parenting styles play an important role in shaping child behavioral and psychological outcomes. Some family scholars have recently focused their attention on the potentially deleterious effects of a style of parenting late adolescents and young adults where parents are hyperactively involved in their children’s lives, often in a developmentally inappropriate way (Marcia & Josselson, 2013).

This research study will fill the gap in literature by adding the greater understanding, learning as well as supporting the practices of good parenting that will be beneficial for the children. It will provide the relationship between the helicopter parenting and the outcome on the behavior of the children. This information can be particularly important, as it will bring light to the improper parenting styles (Marcia & Josselson, 2013). Furthermore, it will address the improving and understanding of how the autonomy, competence and identity achievement of the children are being affected by the helicopter parenting style. It will bring much needed insight into the chronic social problems that are arising due to helicopter parenting. The results of this research will provide a greater insight to the parents that how they should parent their child that will not hamper their autonomy, competence and identity achievement.

The Unique Patterning of Helicopter Parenting

The purpose of this qualitative research study is to understand the relationship between helicopter parenting and child outcome: autonomy, competence and identity achievement. To address the gap in research the approach to this study will be quantitative, where the researcher attempts to learn about the styles of parenting and reason behind this sort of parenting (Marcia & Josselson, 2013). The researcher will also find through his collected data that how the helicopter parenting is affecting the outcome of the personality of the children. The current study aimed to investigate the correlation between helicopter parenting and child outcome: Autonomy, competence and identity achievement among undergraduate college student.  The research question was “What is the relationship between helicopter parenting and child outcome: Autonomy, competence and identity achievement among undergraduate college student?”  In this current study, we hypothesized three hypotheses: a) Participant who higher in helicopter parenting will perceive lower autonomy control; b) Participant who higher in helicopter parenting will perceive lower competence and c) Participant who higher in helicopter parenting will score lower in identity.

  1. Helicopter Parenting (HP) & Autonomy (AUT)
 

Mean

Std. Deviation

N

AUT

31.99

6.522

89

HP

24.73

10.279

89

Table: Descriptive Statistics

(Source: As created by the author)

From this, it has been observed that considering 89 respondents, the mean value is 31.99 that states that almost 32% of the respondents consider the fact that helicopter parenting with degrade autonomy of children. The standard deviation id 6.522 that clearly signifies that Autonomy of children is greatly affect by the level of helicopter parenting done by the parents.

Correlations

AUT

HP

Pearson Correlation

AUT

1.000

-.258

HP

-.258

1.000

Sig. (1-tailed)

AUT

.

.007

HP

.007

.

N

AUT

89

89

HP

89

89

Table: Correlation

(Source: As created by the author)

The above table shows the significance p value is .007. Considering 95% confidence value, if the significance value is less than 0.05, the alternate hypothesis is accepted and the null hypothesis is rejected. From this, it is clear that the alternate hypothesis is to be considered avoiding the other. Thus, there is no doubt that the helicopter parenting will eventually reduce the level of autonomy among the children.

Model Summary b

 

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

Change Statistics

R Square Change

F Change

df1

df2

Sig. F Change

1

.258a

.067

.056

6.336

.067

6.224

1

87

.014

Table: Model Summary

(Source: As created by the author)

a. Predictors: (Constant), HP

b. Dependent Variable: AUT

The model summary gives the idea that the value of R = .258 and R2 = .067 F (1, 87) = 6.224, p = .014 and the adjusted R square is 0.56. When the value of R2 is less than that of 0.05, the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternate hypothesis is accepted. The result shows that the autonomy is rightly related to the kind of parenting. In fact, helicopter parenting would reduce autonomy of children.

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

 

1

Regression

249.894

1

249.894

6.224

.014b

 

Residual

3493.095

87

40.151

 

Total

3742.989

88

 

Table: ANOVA findings

(Source: As created by the author)

a. Dependent Variable: AUT

 

b. Predictors: (Constant), HP

The significance value obtained from this analysis is that the significant value is 0.14 which is greater than 0.05 that signifies that Autonomy of children is perhaps directly related to the helicopter parenting. The autonomy is definitely related to the kind of parenting options. The helicopter parenting will definitely create a situation where the children will lose their autonomy and they completely have to depend on their respective parents.

 

In the coefficient table, it has been observed that the relationship of helicopter parenting has a negative implication the autonomous thinking of children and this is the reason that many children are often found to struggle while making decision. The parents need to give the children little freedom in terms of their choice and decision in their life that would make them independent and that they can easily take certain life decisions all by themselves.

Collinearity Diagnosticsa

Model

Dimension

Eigenvalue

Condition Index

Variance Proportions

(Constant)

HP

1

1

1.924

1.000

.04

.04

2

.076

5.038

.96

.96

Table: Collinearity Diagnosticsa

(Source: As created by the author)

a. Dependent Variable: AUT

Descriptive Statistics

Mean

Std. Deviation

N

COMP

26.62

5.597

89

HP

24.73

10.279

89

Table: Descriptive Statistics

(Source: As created by the author)

From this, it has been observed that considering 89 respondents, the mean value is 26.62 that states that almost 27% of the respondents consider the fact that helicopter parenting with degrade competency of children. The standard deviation is 5.597 that clearly signifies that competency of children is greatly affect by the level of helicopter parenting done by the parents.

Correlations

COMP

HP

Pearson Correlation

COMP

1.000

-.180

HP

-.180

1.000

Sig. (1-tailed)

COMP

.

.046

HP

.046

.

N

COMP

89

89

HP

89

89

Table: Correlation

(Source: As created by the author)

The above table shows the significance p value is .046. Considering 95% confidence value, if the significance value is less than 0.05, the alternate hypothesis is accepted and the null hypothesis is rejected. From this, it is clear that the alternate hypothesis is to be considered avoiding the other. Thus, there is no doubt that the helicopter parenting will eventually reduce the level of competence among the children. This will automatically create a situation where the children will have to depend on their parents for every single purpose because they will not be having any kind of competence in themselves.

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

Change Statistics

R Square Change

F Change

df1

df2

Sig. F Change

1

.180a

.032

.021

5.537

.032

2.919

1

87

.091

Table: Model Summary

(Source: As created by the author)

a. Predictors: (Constant), HP

b. Dependent Variable: COMP

The model summary gives the idea that the value of R = .180 and R2 = .032 F (1, 87) = 6.224, p = .014 and the adjusted R square is 0.21. When the value of R2 is less than that of 0.05, the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternate hypothesis is accepted. The result shows that the competency is rightly related to the kind of parenting that the parents adapt for treating their children. In fact, helicopter parenting would reduce competency of children and the children will be more depended on their parents for their day to day activities.

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

89.492

1

89.492

2.919

.091b

Residual

2667.520

87

30.661

Total

2757.011

88

Table: ANOVA findings

(Source: As created by the author)

a. Dependent Variable: COMP

b. Predictors: (Constant), HP

The significance value obtained from this analysis is that the significant p value is 0.91 which is greater than 0.05 that signifies that competency of children is perhaps directly related to the helicopter parenting. The competency is definitely related to the kind of parenting options. The helicopter parenting will definitely create a situation where the children will lose their competency and they completely have to depend on their respective parents. This is the reason that the parents are more or less should let their children decide upon the major decisions of life that would help them to be little more reliable on themselves.

Coefficientsa

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

Correlations

Collinearity Statistics

B

Std. Error

Beta

Zero-order

Partial

Part

Tolerance

VIF

1

(Constant)

29.044

1.537

18.901

.000

HP

-.098

.057

-.180

-1.708

.091

-.180

-.180

-.180

1.000

1.000

Table: Coefficient table

(Source: As created by the author)

a. Dependent Variable: COMP

In the coefficient table, it has been observed that the relationship of helicopter parenting has a negative implication the competency of children and this is the reason that many children are often found to struggle while making decision or do their work individually, without taking help from others. The parents need to give the children little freedom in terms of making their choice and decision in their life that would make them independent and that they can easily take certain life decisions all by themselves. The level of competence needs to be improved by many folds so that when the children grow older, they can be self sufficient in their own part.

Collinearity Diagnosticsa

Model

Dimension

Eigenvalue

Condition Index

Variance Proportions

(Constant)

HP

1

1

1.924

1.000

.04

.04

2

.076

5.038

.96

.96

Table: Collinearity Diagnostics

(Source: As created by the author)

a. Dependent Variable: COMP

Here, the only variable has been found to exits in various regions of the chart. In this, it can be assumed that greater helicopter parenting can lead to the situation where the children will definitely be affected. However, it has been seen that the dots are places in a random manner in different parts of the chart. This shows that helicopter parenting has significant impact on the autonomy of the children. However, even if the diagram shows a relationship, it can also be made clear that one variable is greatly influenced by the other. Thus, there is no doubt that helicopter parenting will definitely result in decrease of competency of the children.

From the above analysis, the null hypothesis has been rejected and the alternate hypothesis has been accepted. It is clear and evident that helicopter parenting will definitely affect the competence of the children.

  1. Helicopter Parenting (HP) & Identity Achievement (ID)

Descriptive Statistics

Mean

Std. Deviation

N

ID

34.33

6.241

89

HP

24.73

10.279

89

Table: Descriptive Statistics

(Source: As created by the author)

From this, it has been observed that considering 89 respondents, the mean value is 34.33 that states that almost 34% of the respondents consider the fact that helicopter parenting with degrade autonomy of children. The standard deviation id 6.522 that clearly signifies that Autonomy of children is greatly affect by the level of helicopter parenting done by the parents.

Correlations

ID

HP

Pearson Correlation

ID

1.000

-.255

HP

-.255

1.000

Sig. (1-tailed)

ID

.

.008

HP

.008

.

N

ID

89

89

HP

89

89

Table: Correlation

(Source: As created by the author)

The above table shows the significance p value is .008. Considering 95% confidence value, if the significance value is less than 0.05, the alternate hypothesis is accepted and the null hypothesis is rejected. From this, it is clear that the alternate hypothesis is to be considered avoiding the other. Thus, there is no doubt that the helicopter parenting will eventually reduce the level of identity achievement among the children.

Model Summaryb

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

Change Statistics

R Square Change

F Change

df1

df2

Sig. F Change

1

.255a

.065

.054

6.069

.065

6.048

1

87

.016

Table: Model Summary

(Source: As created by the author)

a. Predictors: (Constant), HP

b. Dependent Variable: ID

The model summary gives the idea that the value of R = .255 and R2 = .065 F (1, 87) = 6.069, p = .016 and the adjusted R square is 0.54. When the value of R2 is less than that of 0.16, the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternate hypothesis is accepted. The result shows that the identity achievement is rightly related to the kind of parenting. In fact, helicopter parenting would reduce identity achievement among the children and in the long way, the children would ultimately have to suffer.

ANOVAa

Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

222.773

1

222.773

6.048

.016b

Residual

3204.778

87

36.837

Total

3427.551

88

Table: ANOVA findings

(Source: As created by the author)

a. Dependent Variable: ID

b. Predictors: (Constant), HP

The significance value obtained from this analysis is that the significant value is 0.16 which is greater than 0.05 that signifies that identity achievement of children is perhaps directly related to the helicopter parenting. The identity achievement is definitely related to the kind of parenting options. The helicopter parenting will definitely create a situation where the children will lose their identity achievement and they completely have to depend on their respective parents.

Coefficientsa

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

Correlations

Collinearity Statistics

B

Std. Error

Beta

Zero-order

Partial

Part

Tolerance

VIF

1

(Constant)

38.154

1.684

22.652

.000

HP

-.155

.063

-.255

-2.459

.016

-.255

-.255

-.255

1.000

1.000

Table: Coefficient table

(Source: As created by the author)

a. Dependent Variable: ID

In the coefficient table, it has been observed that the relationship of helicopter parenting has a negative implication the identity achievement of children and this is the reason that many children are often found to struggle while making decisions in their lives. The parents need to give the children little freedom in terms of their choice and decision in their life that would make them independent and that they can easily take certain life decisions all by themselves.

Collinearity Diagnosticsa

Model

Dimension

Eigenvalue

Condition Index

Variance Proportions

(Constant)

HP

1

1

1.924

1.000

.04

.04

2

.076

5.038

.96

.96

Table: Collinearity Diagnostics

(Source: As created by the author)

a. Dependent Variable: ID

Conclusion

The purpose of the study is to gain an insight into the main mechanisms of that further explains the relationship between the helicopter and the autonomy of the college-going students. We have created a measure for the helicopter parenting that is based on the behaviors that are generally identified by the college administrators as the overly involved and inappropriate for the parents of college-aged students (Rousseau & Scharf, 2017). Either the research measures are focused on the reports that are shared by the student about their parental actions that were designed for their children who were going to colleges or the parents were responsible for the actions of the students. Thus, our measure of helicopter parenting behaviors appears to capture the construct of behavioral control from the literature.

The present study revealed following major findings

  1. For hypothesis 1, from the correlation table it is evident that there exist a positive correlation between helicopter parenting and autonomy of the college-going students (Rousseau & Scharf, 2017). The ANOVA table shows that the autonomy is definitely related to the kind of parenting options. The helicopter parenting will definitely create a situation where the children will lose their autonomy and they completely have to depend on their respective parents. The college administrators have reported that the parents are recently increasingly more involved in the life of the college-going students (Biddle, 2016). This is probably because they tend to think they are the only experienced person in their children’s life. Therefore, it is their sole responsibility to guide their children and get involved in all the life decisions that are taken by their children. Several factors are believed to have contributed to the increase in the parental involvement. The major factor is the advent of new technologies. Due to latest form of technology, the nation has become digitalized. Therefore, it is very easy to communicate with each other and trace the location of the children through location terser. Moreover, the escalations of the cost in the higher education have contributed to the increase in the parental involvement. For most of the college students, their colleges are the first time they are living separately from their parents and their time to make any decisions in daily humdrums (Biddle, 2016). In fact, this is the initial stage where they form the autonomy in their character. It is also known as the ‘vector moving through autonomy towards independence’. It has been observed that over involvement of the parents in the life of the college-going students makes them dependent and weak. They lose their independence and become always claim support from their parents (Biddle, 2016).
  2. From hypothesis 2, the correlation table suggests that there exists a positive correlation between helicopter parenting and level of competence of the children (Frey & Tatum, 2016). Thus, there is no doubt that the helicopter parenting will eventually reduce the level of competence among the children. This will automatically create a situation where the children will have to depend on their parents for every single purpose because they will not be having any kind of competence in themselves.  The ANOVA table signifies that competency of children is perhaps directly related to the helicopter parenting. The competency is definitely related to the kind of parenting options (Frey & Tatum, 2016). The helicopter parenting will definitely create a situation where the children will lose their competency and they completely have to depend on their respective parents. This is the reason that the parents are more or less should let their children decide upon the major decisions of life that would help them to be little more reliable on themselves. Helicopter or over parenting can cause various problems in the modeling of the child’s behavior. The parents tend to hover over every decision that is taken by their children. The parents and the children are different entities; therefore, their perceptions will also be different from each other. Student experience of helicopter parenting is an important predictor of their mental health outcomes (Frey & Tatum, 2016). Over parenting takes away the self-confidence of the children. They make the children fall prey for depression and lose the charm in their personality.
  3. From the third hypothesis, it is evident that there exists appositive correlation between the helicopter parenting and the level of the identity achievement among the children. Thus, it is clear that the helicopter parenting will eventually reduce the level of identity achievement among the children (Frey & Tatum, 2016). The ANOVA table also signifies that identity achievement of children is perhaps directly related to the helicopter parenting.

It has been observed that adults always try to rationalize their intrusive form of behaviour and always points out several problems in the child’s behaviour. They always have the habit to manipulate the behaviour of their children. This phenomenon results in the character formation of the college-going students (Frey & Tatum, 2016).

In the current study, there are several limitations.  Firstly, the population taken from the study is from Malaysia and it is a very short population. Therefore, the study cannot be generalized. Secondly, there could have been various other effects of  helicopter parenting, but due to lack of access to journals diversity in the effects could not be focused. Lastly, due lack of time the study has been conducted in a short scale and hence it cannot be generalized worldwide.

The purpose of the study is to gain an insight into the main mechanisms of that further explains the relationship between the helicopter and the autonomy of the college-going students. We have created a measure for the helicopter parenting that is based on the behaviors that are generally identified by the college administrators as the overly involved and inappropriate for the parents of college-aged students.

Therefore, study represents the negative effect of helicopter parenting on the outcomes of the personality of the college going students.

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