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Tactics to conquer Aztecs and Incas

Cortes as well as Pizarro had been able to defeat both of the empires, namely Aztecs and Incas, by implementing the tactics of same manners. Cortes and his force of men made the use of more than a dozen of portable guns in order to target their shock values against their arch empire Aztecs. On the other hand, in the similar way, Pizarro targeted to conquest the empire of Incas by using the gunpowder as well. Incas did not have the provisions for disposing off of the gunpowder (Crosby 2022).

Despite all the odds imposed against them, both Cortes’ and Pizarro’s success in the conquering of Aztec and Incas can be attributing to the most vital reasons. In the success of Cortes in defeating Aztec, the introduction of the crippling harmful diseases like smallpox had been considered to be the most successful tactic on the battlefield.

With no more than 200 men placed against the thousand experts of the armed forces of Incas Empire, Pizarro tempted Atahualpa over a feast to the honour of the emperor and then, he opened fire to the unarmed men of the Incans (Sheppard 2021). The force of Pizarro could be able to massacre the empire of the Incans as well as were able to capture Atahualpa and forced them into conversion to Christianity before he eventually killed him. Additionally, the use of the biological warfare with that in the form of the deadly disease of smallpox made a significant contribution in conquer of Inca.

The idea of the English Puritans to establish a “city upon a hill” in the Massachusetts Bay Colony was more of religious orientations of the settlement of New England, as the charter of the goal of the people from the colony stated that “may be so religiously, peaceably, and civilly governed, as their good Life and orderly Conversion, may win and incite the Natives of Country, to the Knowledge and Obedience of the only true God and Sailor of Mankind, and the Christian Faith” (Mualim 2021).

The goal of the Puritans in order to come to the New World was not at all regarding to the creation of the new life, but for the development of the ideal model suitable for living for “corrupt” inhabitants in England. This was named as “The Errands”, the desire of the Puritans in order to establish a “city upon a hill” which other looked up to in order to imitate to receive the grace of the God. The phrase of the “city upon a hill” had been referred to the community which other people desired to look up to (Bolitho 2021). John Winthrop had used this phrase in order to describe Massachusetts Bay Colony.

The Massachusetts Bay Colony had been founded by the owners of the Massachusetts Bay Company which also included the investors of the failed Dorchester Company. The foundation of the colony had started in the year of 1628 which was also referred to the second attempt for establishment of the colonization.

Establishment of Massachusetts Bay Colony

The Great Awakening of America is referred to the religious revival which impacted the colonies of the English people residing in America during the time of 1730s and in 1740s. The movement had initiated in the time when the idea of the secular rationalism had been emphasized and the passion as well as dedication for the religion had grown to be stale (Platt 2021). The movement had been led by Jonathan Edwards and others. The Americans were required to have the Great Awakening due to the facts that the churches had been on the verge of becoming lifeless as well as moving way too far from the will of the God.

The significance of the Great Awakening of America can be considered to have altered the climate of the religions in the colonies of the America. The common people had been encouraged to establish a personal connection with the God, rather than being relying on the ministers. The new dominations like the Methodists and the Baptist were grown immediately (Tracy 2020). There were significantly important effects of the Great Awakening of America which were characterized by the widespread revivals which had been led by the evangelical ministers of the Protestant dominations.  It led to the sharp increase in the interest of the people regarding their religion. Additionally, it aroused a sense of the conviction as well as redemption for the people who had been affected. Also, the awakening also led to the increase of the evangelical membership of the church.

The American Revolutionary War, also known as the U.S. War of Independence, had been fought between the years from 1775 to 1783. In this war, 13 of the North American colonies of the Great Britain had thrown off the British rule from the country for the establishment of the freed sovereign country of the United States of America (King and Case 2020). It also found the Declaration of Independence in the year 1776. The war for the independence had started off when the clash took place in between the troops of the British and the colonial militiamen based in the Lexington as well as in Concord in the April of 1775. This incident was able to kick off the conflict of the armed forces. Additionally, this resulted in the initiation of the full-fledged war for the independence between the rebels.

The role of the parliament and the colonies in the Revolutionary War had been acknowledged as crucial. The parliament related to the Congress of England had passed several laws to place taxes on the colonies residing in the America. The laws, for example, the Sugar Act of 1764 and the Stamp Act of 1765, had been imposed to receive the money from the colonies for the Great Britain, which the colonies did not approved of (Hildebrand 2018).  They treated the people of the colonies as if they did not belong to the British. The colonists felt that the taxes imposed on them and not on the British colonists were unjust.

  • Human equality- It refers to the right of human beings which are inherited to all the people. It claimed that “all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness” (Barnett 2019). It is believed that no person should lead a poorer life as they were born poor. This right is applicable to each and every one of the country irrespective of the place they belong.
  • Natural rights- It is referred to the three natural rights as identified by Thomas Jefferson in the Declaration of Independence for the small groups. It is stated as “Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness”. These are the rights which the not independent of the laws and regulations of the country, but are significantly bounded by the same. However, these are not dependent on any culture or government. These are the universal, fundamental and the inalienable kind of rights of a person living in a country.
  • Natural law- According to Thomas Jefferson’s description of the natural laws in the Declaration of Independence, it is stated as “all men are created equal” as well as “they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights,” within which he also included the concepts of “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness” (Imene 2019). In order to secure such rights, the government of United States were instituted among the men to derive their power by consent as they were governed.

References

Barnett, R.E., 2019. The Declaration of Independence and the American Theory of Government: First Come Rights, and Then Comes Government. Harv. JL & Pub. Pol'y, 42, p.23.

Bolitho, R., 2021. The New England Puritans: History, Social Order, and Gender. Perspektywy Kultury, 34(3), pp.59-72.

Crosby, A.W., 2022. Tconquistadoreshemost Sensational over the Aztec military and Incan conquests empires. in history probably those the. Biological Consequences of the European Expansion, 1450–1800.

Hildebrand, D.K., 2018. The Revolutionary War and War of 1812. In Music and War in the United States (pp. 20-40). Routledge.

Imene, A., A Critical Study of the Political Philosophy of the American Declaration of Independence (July 04 th, 1776).

King, D.L. and Case, C.J., 2020. A Brief History of Taxation of the American Colonies Prior to the Revolutionary War. Journal of Business and Accounting, 13(1), pp.154-175.

Mualim, M., 2021. A City Upon a Hill: Spirituality And Exceptionalism In The Founding Of America. This is an electronic reprint of the original article. This reprint may differ from the original in pagination and typographic detail., p.85.

Platt, R., 2021. The First Great, or not so Great, Awakening and What it Means for Today. Journal of Unification Studies Vol, 22, pp.153-163.

Sheppard, S., 2021. Cuzco 1536–37: Battle for the Heart of the Inca Empire (Vol. 372). Bloomsbury Publishing.

Tracy, J., 2020. The Great Awakening. In American Religion (pp. voli381-voli392). Routledge.

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