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Class active learning material for heat integration, you undertook a class exercise to design a heat exchange network that involve two hot streams and two cold streams. You will recall that we then explored the possibility of taking the water cold stream out of the network, and using live steam to heat the water stream instead. On page 48 we listed the relatively advantages & disadvantages of this modification, and understood that in order to determine whether the modification is sensible, we’d need to calculate an NPV  net present value of the modification. The purpose of this assignment is to enable you to do just that, and will help put material that you have learnt in heat integration into the context of previous courses taught be alex in thermodynamics and process economics. The assignment takes the form of a role play; you will receive an email from your boss in a design consultancy, which will prompt you to prepare a report to determine whether the suggested live steam modification should be implemented or not. You will have to make lots of assumptions, and do not be frightened of making assumptions. However, nothing in design is arbitrary, and there must be a solid basis for the assumptions that you make. This will mean that you have to reference legitimate sources, if you need an estimate of the wholesale price of electricity when you are working as a Chemical Engineer, your colleagues will be surprised if you say that your lecturer told you it was about £XX.XX per MW.hr about 5 years ago. There is of course no right answer to this (although there are answers that are wrong). This is precisely the sort of task that you might be asked to perform in a year or two when working as a graduate chemical engineer.

Types of Heat Exchangers

Put basically, a heat exchanger is a gadget which exchanges warm starting with one medium then onto the next, a Hydraulic Oil Cooler or illustration will expel warm from hot oil by utilizing icy water or air. On the other hand a Swimming Pool Heat Exchanger utilizes high temp water from a heater or sunlight based warmed water circuit to warm the pool water. For preparatory cost gauges, squander transfer cost can likewise be dealt with like a utility cost. Not at all like capital, do work, and different costs, utility costs relate essentially with ordinary inflationary records, since fundamental vitality costs shift whimsically, free of capital what's more, work. Fundamentally, utility cost is connected to two separate factors swelling and vitality cost. Components of assembling cost that depend on work and capital take after inflationary measurements like the CE Plant Cost Index. Vitality cost, for example, that for fuel in an electrical or steam producing plant, resembles a crude material whose cost can shift generally and whimsically.

Reliably that passes, fuel and imperativeness industry get upgraded, endeavouring to meet the human needs. Warmth is exchanged by conduction through the exchanger materials which isolate the mediums being utilized. A shell and tube warm exchanger ignores liquids through and tubes, where as an air cooled warm exchanger goes cool air through a centre of blades to cool a fluid. Change of essentialness security infers that are capable, tried and true and sensible is inevitable and central to pass on up for the demand. The weight of the Heat essentialness in different building and science applications is directed and changed through contraptions that allow Heat to be traded between fluids called Heat exchangers. They are used by and large used as a piece of endeavours, for instance, steam control plants, compound getting ready plants and aeronautics applications. Heat Exchangers can be masterminded in different ways. One typical gathering of heat exchangers relies upon the course of action of the fluid stream way. There are three essential sorts of heat exchangers: shell and tube, cross stream, and twofold pipe. The typical kind of heat exchanger is tube and shell. Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers comprise of a substantial number of little tubes which are situated inside a tube shaped shell. Another sort of Heat exchangers is Cross Flow, where the two fluid moves in inverse path to each other.

The minimum troublesome sort is the twofold pipe Heat exchanger; where there is two concentric channels grants one fluid to encounter humbler broadness pipe and the other one in the annular space between the two pipes. The twofold pipe has two sorts of stream course of action being: parallel stream (synchronous) and counter stream (counter current). Parallel stream is when both the hot and cold fluid moves in a comparable bearing so they enter the tube from a comparable end and exists in the tube from the other side. In Counter stream, nevertheless, the two fluids (hot and cold) enter from backwards terminations and stream in opposite course. The later kind of Heat exchangers will be used to choose the general Heat trade coefficient by driving a trial and set up that will be portrayed in later entries.

Applications of Heat Exchangers

Heated moves in Heat Exchangers in different styles being: convection, conduction and radiation. Occasionally experts unravel the case and the finding by dismissing a couple of kinds of heat trade inside the glow exchangers if it is genuine. The legitimization of the modifications must consider the accuracy targets; accordingly the decision must be established on whether the required precision will be expert by keeping or disregarding any purposes of intrigue. In outlining applications, engineers must pick and heat exchanger to meet and specific temperature qualification. For this circumstance, the log mean temperature differentiate (LMTD) is used. The tubes are situated into the barrel utilizing a tube package or "tube stack" which can either have settled tube plates (forever settled to the body) or, on account of heat exchangers a skimming tube stack which permits the tube package to grow and contract with fluctuating warmth conditions and also permitting the tube package to be effortlessly evacuated for overhauling and support. Thusly, by looking over in the narrows temperature of the two streams (hot and cold), one can use the sufficiency NTU to get the foreseen outlet temperature which at that point grants to get the general heat coefficient as will be seen in next section.

Any glow trade or heat exchanger book demonstrates the procedure, steps, and enlistment of the ampleness NTU system in purposes of intrigue. To a few things up, this system requires choosing as far as possible rates of streams, hot and cool as the going with:

Minimum heat capacity rate  is then used to find the maximum heat transfer rate

The number of transfer units can be calculated as-

c = ratio of minimum to maximum heat capacity

The LMTD for the heat exchange can be written as-

Where,

The mass stream rate is acquired utilizing,

Where,

: Water density 

The thickness of water will be founded on the normal temperatures of the bay and outlet. Utilizing the stream meters, the volumetric stream rate can be gotten. These qualities permit to settle for the heat exchange rate.

At that point the accompanying condition can be utilized,

Where,

:  Rate of heat transfer

 U:  the overall heat transfer coefficient

 : Surface area

: The log means temperature difference.

The LMTD can be easily calculated by this way-

Where-

ΔT1 and ΔT2 are the temperature contrasts between the hot and chilly liquids at the finishes of funnels of the heat exchanger.

Heat Exchanger Calculations and Economic Optimization

Heat exchanger calculations

The given data are as follows-

Utility heating

HX1

HX2

HX3

HX4

HX5

Utility cooling

1601 kW

1281 kW

1831 kW

1033 kW

557 kW

425 kW

413 kW

The utility heating data are as follows-

Utility heating

HX1

HX2

HX3

Utility cooling

320 kW

799 kW

837 kW

1124 kW

1950 kW

Now performing the calculations for water-

Now calculating the mass flow rate of live stream which is required to produce 10 kg/s at 95 C from a feed at 20 C-

Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers comprise of a substantial number of little tubes which are situated inside a round and hollow shell. The tubes are situated into the chamber utilizing a tube package or "tube stack" which can either have settled tube plates (for all time settled to the body) or, on account of heat Exchangers a drifting tube stack which permits the tube package to grow and contract with changing warmth conditions and also permitting the tube package to be effortlessly expelled for the coolant dependably should be at a lower temperature than the hot liquid. Lower coolant temperatures will remove more warmth from the hot liquid than hotter coolant temperatures. On the off chance that you had a glass of drinking water at room temperature for instance, it is significantly more successful to chill it off utilizing ice as opposed to simply cool water; a similar rule applies to warm exchangers. One may inquire as to why conditions for utilities like cooling water and compacted air contain a Coefficient b at the point when no fuel is scorched. Think about that power is required to control the pumps and compressors associated with conveying these utilities. Fuel is devoured to create that power, and its cost must be incorporated into the cost for cooling water or compacted air. All in all, acquired control is less expensive than on location control, since extensive, detached electric power plants have a tendency to be more productive than on location creating offices. These backings dependable guidelines that self-age of power isn't attractive unless shoddy fuel is accessible or on the other hand power can be co-produced with process steam.

References

Caputo, A. C., Pelagagge, P. M., & Salini, P. (2008). Heat exchanger design based on economic optimisation. Applied thermal engineering, 28(10), 1151-1159.

Al-Obaidani, S., Curcio, E., Macedonio, F., Di Profio, G., Al-Hinai, H., & Drioli, E. (2008). Potential of membrane distillation in seawater desalination: thermal efficiency, sensitivity study and cost estimation. Journal of Membrane Science, 323(1), 85-98.

Smith, R., Jobson, M., & Chen, L. (2010). Recent development in the retrofit of heat exchanger networks. Applied Thermal Engineering, 30(16), 2281-2289.

Patel, V. K., & Rao, R. V. (2010). Design optimization of shell-and-tube heat exchanger using particle swarm optimization technique. Applied Thermal Engineering, 30(11-12), 1417-1425.

Montes, M. J., Abánades, A., Martinez-Val, J. M., & Valdés, M. (2009). Solar multiple optimization for a solar-only thermal power plant, using oil as heat transfer fluid in the parabolic trough collectors. Solar Energy, 83(12), 2165-2176.

Luo, X., Wen, Q. Y., & Fieg, G. (2009). A hybrid genetic algorithm for synthesis of heat exchanger networks. Computers & Chemical Engineering, 33(6), 1169-1181.

Allen, B., Savard-Goguen, M., & Gosselin, L. (2009). Optimizing heat exchanger networks with genetic algorithms for designing each heat exchanger including condensers. Applied Thermal Engineering, 29(16), 3437-3444.

Sun, K. N., Alwi, S. R. W., & Manan, Z. A. (2013). Heat exchanger network cost optimization considering multiple utilities and different types of heat exchangers. Computers & Chemical Engineering, 49, 194-204.

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