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Choose only one and explain.

1. Cyberterrorism

2. Biometrics for authentication: past. present and future

3. Web Browser Attacks

4. Recent trends in malware

5. Anomaly-based intrusion detection systems

6. Quantum cryptography

7. Privacy and security issues associated with Big Data

8. Smart device security

9. Internet of Things (IOT): Security issues and solutions

10. Threats to wireless networks and countermeasures

11. Security and privacy issues associated with social media

12. Security and privacy issues in cloud computing

Introduction to IoT

Internet of Things is the growing technology in today’s scenario locally and globally. It is also known as the internet of everything. It is the technology prototype which is being used in the global networks for the machine devices which provides the facilities to interact with the other systems all over the world. It has been grown in an extraordinary speed during the past few years. The term IoT is being introduced by Kevin Ashton in 1999 and it is been defined as the uniquely identified objects and a virtual way of designing and development of the internet like structure. It the upcoming technology and vastly enhanced in the world of internet (Gatsis & Pappas, 2017). It is been widely used in the various platforms where the users gets easily access to this technology i.e. it involves the user interaction accessing to the mobile devices, smart phones, gadgets, tablets, etc.  It is also known as Machine-to-Machine technology which causes the changing in the accessibility to the internet in the current scenario. Moreover, the accessibility of the technology by the users is bringing the biggest change in the society and the culture so as to bring the different forms of visibility and the interventions over the internet. The technology is been used for making the real time analysis.  It is usually used for introducing and to make predictions or to prevent from the provision outages. It is capable of building the communication and transferring of the data over the various networks between human interactions towards the machines (Gubbi et al., 2013).

  1. IoT has involved in making the identifications and addressing of the sensor devices and to the various other devices that it grant the permission to the sensors for accessibility to collect the data.
  2. Various software’s and applications is being used for the collecting and analysing of the data for the linking purpose.
  3. Decision is been made and the data is been transmitted on the basis of request made to the servers (Heer et al, 2011).

  1. Object Naming-Identification on the internet and to the specific server on which the information is been stored for the work performance. The information is being stored in the server cannot be acknowledged in the network and to the end points to the hosts.
  2. Privacy/Security /Authority-It is plays a vital role l to keep the data stored and maintained for the privacy and security so that no threats or the malicious activities can affect to users personal data.
  3. Presence-It have become a core challenging issue for developing over the mechanism which generally helps in tracking or accepting , distributing to the data and its information with the relationship between people and devices. It generally arises for creating the awareness of the existence into technical deliberations.
  4. Geographic Location-The services of an IOT applications is been provided globally, it tends to identify and track the information regarding to the location been tracked and saved in the system.
  5. Discovery/Research-Essential Data should be present and stored for the discovering of the objects to provide the suitable services for objects to automatically identify.
  6. Tracking Mobility support of mobile object- It provides the support to the routing and to the mobility protocols, that the IOT networks have structural characteristics.
  7. Data Processing/ computing-IOT technology ensures in providing the support to the various applications and information present should be available for transferring the objects operating under the varied perspectives instead of the humans involvement.
  8. Global Connectivity-It provides the global connectivity to end to end communications. It tends and ensures to the huge number of IP addresses in order to individually identify each object. For considering the global interoperability, IoT is considered for connecting to the smart objects and to the latest technology and its software’s (Jing et al., 2014).

The main concept of IoT is it generally develops to the networks being formed on a large scale having the sensor nodes. It is used for integrating to the various kinds of networks for communication and usability on the devices.

  1. It provides the dynamic control in the internet world and in daily life.
  2. It improves the utilization of resources ratios.
  3. It emphasis on the building a mutual relationships between the human and nature.
  4. Formatting an intellectual entity by integrating the human society and to the physical systems.
  5. Internetworking and universal transport.
  6. Usability and accessibility of the resources.
  7. It acts as an integration of the technology (Li & Da Xu, 2017).

IoT has the limitations due to certain extent.

  1. Interoperability and standardization of the technology
  2. Legal Mechanisms
  3. Technical Limitation in some cases.
  4. It has the connectivity problem regarding to all the part of the customers using the smart cards, big schemes in smart cities etc.
  5. It involves the forms and design of the products and services and the analytics tools used for dealing with the massive data.
  6. Killing of applications which basically needed to control the things from the data which is being collected and analysing of the data (Roman et al., 2013).

The internet of things has been widely spread for its implementation scope. However the lethargic growth and the poor development of the IoT security have results in arising of the several issues. IoT security issues are certainly a biggest reality for developing of the IoT applications. In the security issues IoT application security plays the vital role in testing of the frameworks.  IoT poses the risks to the data and files saved in the system, privacy issues and safety measures should be taken. It helps in creating the making the application secured and to have the proof regarding to the attacks and enabling of the devices and the applications that highlights the top security concerns. There are several security and privacy issues that are being faced and arising in the development of IoT (Sfar et al., 2017).

  1. IoT Security in Data Encryption- Internet of things collect the tons of the data the data is being retrieved from the several sites and for this it is essential to maintain and to protect the data from the encryption. For example to provide the location, it should only be shown to the customer or to the concerned user and no one else.
  2. IoT security in Data Authentication- It provides the successful encryption format for the data being changed and sometimes the data is been hacked while communication of the devices for this security is being compromised.
  3. IoT Security side Channel attacks - Accessibilityto the authentication services and encryption of the data will leave the scope for opening for the side attacks or to the malicious activities.
  4. Hardware Issues – IoT is the biggest issues in terms of hardware because of its modern architecture which creates the difficulty in accessing to the new technology and to the complex designs which is a bigger challenge to be accepted in the field of IoT.

In today’s scenario IoT plays a vital role in implementing the various tools and technologies for developing of the various applications. It majorly helps in creating and developing of the various different applications for the different platforms. The main Key challenges to overcome from the issues being raised in an IoT are:

  1. Device Range- It provides the facility for covering the whole network of the IoT. It should be very specific in terms of range metrics and for the applications and devices.
  2. Latency and Capacity- It helps in handling in the speed and to the total time taken for transferring of the data. It is essential before transferring; the data should be checked thoroughly.
  3. Manufacturability Test- It helps in building the IoT from scratching of the data and developing of the various applications.
  4. Flexible Infrastructure- It provides the internal and the cloud infrastructure for the development of the IoT requirement.
  5. Digital Certification- It provides and serves the certification as the main foundation of IoT network security for establishing and interacting with authenticated services.
  6. Security Design and Professional Services- It helps in providing the security to the users and helps in ensuring and developing the focus from the beginning to the end in designing and implementation.
  7. Data and System Integrity- It provides the confirmation regarding to the configuration of the messages and keeping the information saved that the message is not been changed (Zhu et al., 2010).


The IoT future is getting enhanced day by day and the development of the IoT is being boosted in the digital market while providing and ensuring to maintain the security and the appropriate protection provided to the customers.  Most of the technology advancement which is truly needed for making the enhancement in the manufacturing of the agencies of that have already being implemented on the legal and social security fields. The IoT is emerging into the global and to the International market and its architecture for providing and delivering the best services to the users in the near future.


Gatsis, K., & Pappas, G. J. (2017, April). Wireless Control for the IoT: Power, Spectrum, and Security Challenges. In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Internet-of-Things Design and Implementation (pp. 341-342). ACM.

Gubbi, J., Buyya, R., Marusic, S., & Palaniswami, M. (2013). Internet of Things (IoT): A vision, architectural elements, and future directions. Future generation computer systems, 29(7), 1645-1660.

Heer, T., Garcia-Morchon, O., Hummen, R., Keoh, S. L., Kumar, S. S., & Wehrle, K. (2011). Security Challenges in the IP-based Internet of Things. Wireless Personal Communications, 61(3), 527-542.

Jing, Q., Vasilakos, A. V., Wan, J., Lu, J., & Qiu, D. (2014). Security of the internet of things: Perspectives and challenges. Wireless Networks, 20(8), 2481-2501.

Li, S., & Da Xu, L. (2017). Securing the Internet of Things. Syngress.

Roman, R., Zhou, J., & Lopez, J. (2013). On the features and challenges of security and privacy in distributed internet of things. Computer Networks, 57(10), 2266-2279.

Sfar, A., Chtourou, Z., Natalizio, E., & Challal, Y. (2017). A systemic and cognitive vision for IoT security: a case study of military live simulation and security challenges. In International Conference on Smart, Monitored and Controlled Cities SM2C’17.

Zhu, Q., Wang, R., Chen, Q., Liu, Y., & Qin, W. (2010, December). Iot gateway: Bridgingwireless sensor networks into internet of things. In Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing (EUC), 2010 IEEE/IFIP 8th International Conference on (pp. 347-352). IEEE.

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