Get Instant Help From 5000+ Experts For
question

Writing: Get your essay and assignment written from scratch by PhD expert

Rewriting: Paraphrase or rewrite your friend's essay with similar meaning at reduced cost

Editing:Proofread your work by experts and improve grade at Lowest cost

And Improve Your Grades
myassignmenthelp.com
loader
Phone no. Missing!

Enter phone no. to receive critical updates and urgent messages !

Attach file

Error goes here

Files Missing!

Please upload all relevant files for quick & complete assistance.

Guaranteed Higher Grade!
Free Quote
wave
Negotiation

‘Negotiation is not a process reserved only for the skilled diplomat, top salesperson, or ardent advocate for an organized lobby; it is something that everyone does, almost daily’ (Lewicki et al 2011: 2). Critically evaluate this statement, does it mean that Negotiation skills are basically the same wherever they are practised?

With time, organizations have evolved and expanded in different parts of the world. the organizations like Google, Amazon and Microsoft has expanded across the world. The penetration of e-commerce, computers and Internet have further pushed the agenda of international business. It is expected that the transactions in the international market would continue to grow (Ting?Toomey, 2015). Amidst all these, organizations have realized the importance of negotiations. As more businesses expand their focus to include foreign markets, the demand for competent international management professionals, who can negotiate better, increases. The objective of this paper is to discuss the statement ‘Negotiation is not a process reserved only for the skilled diplomat, top salesperson, or ardent advocate for an organized lobby; it is something that everyone does, almost daily’ (Lewicki et al 2011: 2).

Simply defined, negotiation is “bargaining (give and take) process between two or more parties (each with its own aims, needs, and viewpoints) seeking to discover a common ground and reach an agreement to settle a matter of mutual concern or resolve a conflict”. It is something that people across different cadre and position do. In fact, negotiation is something that is practices not only in professional life but also in personal life. it would be correct to say that negotiation is a powerful instrument that is used by skilled diplomat as well as a housewife. The general rule of negotiation is that it includes two or more than two parties (Franke & Richey, 2010).

The power of international business negotiation is evident from the fact that the institutions that once competed heavily with each other now share data and information relative to the ever-changing collegiate business world. There are steps that organizations go through starting from the very inception (Groves & Feyerherm, 2015).  This is known as organizational life cycle and it continues to the termination. These steps are sequences of advancements that are not random events. It would be correct to say that organizations and business professionals would need the skills of negotiation at each of these steps. One of the basic and fundamental objective of negotiation is to get more (Zheng & Martin, 2014). It can happen only when negotiators and leaders focuses on 4C’s of negotiation. These can be discussed as:

Context of Negotiation

The four C’s of negotiation ensures that people gain during any negotiation process. These four C’s should be considered as different strategy for negotiation. It is generally advised to use a sequence or pattern while using these negotiation strategies. Each of the four C’s of negotiation in the preferred sequence can be discussed as:

Compelling

This strategy means that the party should insist the other party to accept the terms. In case of a business scenario, the organization or sales person would force supplier to accept the terms of purchase (Mircica, 2014). This type of negotiation strategy is used when one party has more power over other.

Collaborating

This strategy comes into picture when the compelling approach does not work. In this strategy of negotiation, the focus is on mutual benefit. This type of negotiation strategy is used when both the parties has more or less equal power.

Compromising

This strategy is generally used when the above two strategies have failed and still one of the party wants negotiation to happen. The output in this negotiation strategy is that one of the party ends up compromising on some parts. For example, a deal with two businesses can be compromised on price levels.

Caving In

This type of negotiation strategy is practiced only when the above three strategies are not able to provide any fruitful results. This strategy means that negotiation has failed and the process need to be started again from scratch (Long & Javidi, 2016).

The terms Distributive & Interactive Negotiation coins from the terms of Distributive & Interactive bargain. In distributive negotiation, the outcome is generally a win lose situation as the benefit of one party is at the cost of loss of other party. In interactive negotiation, the outcome is generally a win-win situation as the benefit of one party is dependent on the benefit of another party (Cseh & Davis, 2013).

Context of Negotiation in today’s Globalized Environment

Negotiation is something that is not only limited to business world or sales person. People can also do, or in fact, people have to do negotiation in daily life also. The housewife who would purchase the daily household needs may also negotiate a deal with the vendor or service provider (Mor & Morris, 2013). A child can also negotiate with parents for a perfect summer break. Likewise, there can be various examples of negotiation happening in the day-to-day life. It means that negotiation is something that is fundamental to life. However, it is important to mention that the process of negotiation could change across different situations (Louhiala-Salminen & Kankaanranta, 2011). The process of negotiation between the diplomats of two countries would be completely different than the process of negotiation between sales persons and the process of negotiation between a family. The process of negotiation would also depend on the objective that the parties wish to achieve. The process of negotiation could be smoother if both the parties want win-win situation. The process of negotiation would also depend on the gravity of situation and the owner. Various business or other meetings can fail because there is no owner. For example, the negotiation around environmental preservation across the nations has not resulted into powerful results because there is no owner who can actually get the negotiation done (Dygert & Barrett, 2016).

Four C’s of negotiation

The specifics of negotiation process and issue linkage can be discussed as:

Negotiation process

The process of negotiation is a very open process. Generally, every negotiation process would have five phases. These phases can be discussed as:

This is the phase in which all the parties involved in the negotiation process would plan for the negotiation. In this phase, the focus is on the expected outcome from the negotiation process (Saunders, 2012).

Phase 2: Defining the ground rules

This is the phase in which all the parties agree on the defined ground rules. This phase could be considered as the phase in which the boundary condition to the negotiation process are established (Lin & Kraus, 2014).

Phase 3: Clarification & Justification

This is the phase in which parties seeks and justification or clarification that they want from the other parties involved in the negotiation process (Beenen & Barbuto, 2014).

Phase 4: Bargaining & problem solving

This is the phase in which actual bargain happens. This is the phase in which one of the 4C’s of negotiation would be actually implemented. It can be said that this is one of the most important phase of entire negotiation process (Donahue, 2013).

Closure & Implementation

This is the phase in which both the parties agree upon a common solution. As an output of this phase the parties involved in the negotiation process finalized and closed the terms and conditions of negotiation (Acheson, 2016).

The process and success of negotiation in the business world would also depend on the skills of managers and leaders. When managers receive feedback internally and externally, it is important to analyze the information in order to make informed decisions about future actions. When there is a vast amount of information available to managers, they should try to implement filters so that information is disseminated to the proper channels to be utilized in helpful ways. Luo & Shenkar (2011) mentioned that the use of liaisons can be helpful to filter and communicate changes with teams in order to keep everyone aligned toward specific goals. The learning from the negotiation in business world is that successful negotiation depends a lot on communication.

Issue Linkage

It is also important to highlight that the negotiation skills may not be same across different types of negotiation. The negotiation in business world and diplomat is more formal in nature as compared to the negotiation in personal life. The difference in the negotiation style can also arise from cultural background (Phelps & Adams, 2007). While doing negotiations, there could be a linkage among various issues. Therefore, it is important that the parties involved in the negotiation process should first understand the linked or associated variables (Huffmeier & Mazei, 2015). The understanding of various linked and associated variables and factors would enable the parties involved in the negotiation process to take good measures to succeed and move forward in the negotiation.

BATNA in linked negotiation process

BATNA or best alternative to a negotiated agreement is the most beneficial course of action in a negotiation process. The role of BATNA particularly increases when the parties have the options to explore multiple options (Fischer & Bajaj, 2017). For example, is a startup has to sell its business and the company has the offer form one domestic player and two international players. The linked alternatives could be:

  1. Alternative 1: The domestic player would but the small firm in an equity payment of 10 installments
  2. Alterative 2: The international player would buy the firm at a 20% mark up for 15 installments
  3. Alternative 3: The other international firm would buy the firm with all-cash deal at 90% of the market price

There are various factors that affect the negotiation process (Patriotta & Kumar, 2011). These are the factors like expected outcome from the negotiation, parties involved in the negotiation, etc. The specific aspects of factors affecting the negotiation process can be discussed as:

Cultural impact on negotiation

One of the most important thing about negotiation is that the people involved in the negotiation process should be aware that cultural differences can make or break the negotiation. The way business negotiation is done in Australia may be completely different than the way negotiation is done in Pakistan or India (Druckman & Wagner, 2016).

Effect of trust, Aspiration and Gender on Negotiation

The things like trust, gender, biasness and aspirations also have a direct impact on negotiation process. The negotiation process could be effective when parties have trust in each other. Likewise, the output of negotiation could also depend on personal aspiration of people. If people have personal aspiration to close the deal then they would work hard to close the negotiation process (Schoop & Kohne, 2010).

Effect of Demography, culture, economic barriers on ethicality of negotiation Behavior

The factors like demography, economic conditions, ethical outlook and culture can also affect negotiation process. The negotiation process could be easy when the parties belong to same culture (Brett, 2017).

The negotiation skills are basically not same wherever they are practiced because the required negotiation skills would differ on number of factors like expected outcome from the negotiation, parties involved in the negotiation, etc. Therefore, it would be correct to say that any diplomat may need more formal skills as compared to a parent (Shell, 2011). A sales person may need cunning negotiation skills and a leader or a manager may need collaborative negotiation skills. The need of specific skills for negotiation would also depend on the type of negotiation. The stakeholders tend to be more relaxed when negotiation is internal in nature and the stakeholders tend to more aggressive when negotiation is external in nature. It is important that both the parties involved in the negotiation should first learn about the other party. Jennings & Faratin (2001) argued that the process of negotiation is easy when the parties involved in the negotiation process know each other. Thus, as leadership reflects leader and followers in terms of trust and building relationships, the occurrence of organizational members that are interested in only doing their tasks and duties, is also a possibility. They are strictly contractual and job focused without personal relationships with the leader (formal responsibilities and defined roles), in the workplace (Fisher, 2016). This group is not willing to accept expanded responsibilities and new roles to make extra efforts. Task- or relationship motivated negotiation can be derived from this perspective. This is down to the way in which the leader views the capabilities of this culture, with a certain need to overcome prejudices apparent in this study. If we look at Satya Nadella, he has done very well since taking charge at Microsoft in 2014, and is of Indian background (Haselhuhn & Wong, 2014). Long-time employees assert that morale has been better than in previous years since he has taken over and this has been possible only because of his excellent business negotiation skills.

Context of Negotiation in today’s Globalized Environment

Conclusion

The above paper discusses the process of negotiation and various intricacies involved in the negotiation process. With the above discussion, it can be said that negotiation is a key skill that could be utilized at various levels. The term ‘negotiation’ is a generic term; however, it has vast implications. The conclusion achieved from above discussion is that ‘Negotiation is not a process reserved only for the skilled diplomat, top salesperson, or ardent advocate for an organized lobby; it is something that everyone does, almost daily’. However, the negotiation skills are not the same basically everywhere. The negotiation skills depend a lot on the external environment. Precisely, the negotiation skills in corporate world would be different than the negotiation skills at a war front or within a family. Therefore, it is important that negotiation should be learned and practiced within the given eco-system. It is also possible that the negotiators that are good in one of the situation may not perform well in different situations. Therefore, negotiation must be practiced within the context and as per the external variables and factors.

References

Aarons, G.A., Fettes, D.L., Hurlburt, M.S., Palinkas, L.A., Gunderson, L., Willging, C.E. and Chaffin, M.J., 2014. Collaboration, negotiation, and coalescence for interagency-collaborative teams to scale-up evidence-based practice. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 43(6), pp.915-928.

Acheson, D., 2016. 6 Negotiation dynamics. International Negotiation: Process and Strategies, p.107.

Beenen, G. and Barbuto Jr, J.E., 2014. Let's Make a Deal: A Dynamic Exercise for Practicing Negotiation Skills. Journal of Education for Business, 89(3), pp.149-155.

Brett, J.M., 2017. Culture and negotiation strategy. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 32(4).

Cseh, M., Davis, E.B. and Khilji, S.E., 2013. Developing a global mindset: Learning of global leaders. European Journal of Training and Development, 37(5), pp.489-499.

Donahue, C., 2013. Negotiation, translinguality, and cross-cultural writing research in a new composition era. Literacy as Translingual Practice: Between Communities and Classrooms, pp.149-161.

Druckman, D. and Wagner, L.M., 2016. Justice and negotiation. Annual review of psychology, 67, pp.387-413.

Dygert, C. and Barrett, H., 2016. Building Your Licensing and Negotiation Skills Toolkit. The Serials Librarian, 70(1-4), pp.333-342.

Fisher, R.J., 2016. Generic principles for resolving intergroup conflict. In Ronald J. Fisher: A North American Pioneer in Interactive Conflict Resolution (pp. 87-104). Springer International Publishing.

Fischer, L.H. and Bajaj, A.K., 2017. Learning How to Ask: Women and Negotiation. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 139(3), pp.753-758.

Franke, G.R. and Richey Jr, R.G., 2010. Improving generalizations from multi-country comparisons in international business research. Journal of International Business Studies, 41(8), pp.1275-1293.

Groves, K.S., Feyerherm, A. and Gu, M., 2015. Examining cultural intelligence and cross-cultural negotiation effectiveness. Journal of Management Education, 39(2), pp.209-243.

Haselhuhn, M.P., Wong, E.M., Ormiston, M.E., Inesi, M.E. and Galinsky, A.D., 2014. Negotiating face-to-face: Men's facial structure predicts negotiation performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(5), pp.835-845.

Jennings, N.R., Faratin, P., Lomuscio, A.R., Parsons, S., Wooldridge, M.J. and Sierra, C., 2001. Automated negotiation: prospects, methods and challenges. Group Decision and Negotiation, 10(2), pp.199-215.

Kumar, R. and Patriotta, G., 2011. Culture and international alliance negotiations: a sensemaking perspective. International Negotiation, 16(3), pp.511-533.

Lin, R., Kraus, S. and Mazliah, Y., 2014. Training with automated agents improves people's behavior in negotiation and coordination tasks. Decision Support Systems, 60, pp.1-9.

Luo, Y. and Shenkar, O., 2011. Toward a perspective of cultural friction in international business. Journal of International Management , 17(1), pp.1-14.

Louhiala-Salminen, L. and Kankaanranta, A., 2011. Professional communication in a global business context: The notion of global communicative competence. IEEE Transactions on professional communication, 54(3), pp.244-262.

Long, L.W., Javidi, M., Hill, L.B. and Normore, A.H., 2016. Credible Negotiation Leadership: Using Principled Negotiation to. Handbook of Research on Effective Communication, Leadership, and Conflict Resolution, p.430.

Mazei, J., Huffmeier, J., Freund, P.A., Stuhlmacher, A.F., Bilke, L. and Hertel, G., 2015. A meta-analysis on gender differences in negotiation outcomes and their moderators. Psychological bulletin, 141(1), p.85.

Mircica, N., 2014. Constructive Communication in Effective Negotiation. Analysis and Metaphysics, (13), pp.64-72.

Mor, S., Morris, M.W. and Joh, J., 2013. Identifying and training adaptive cross-cultural management skills: The crucial role of cultural metacognition. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 12(3), pp.453-475.

Phelps, R., Adams, R., & Bessant, J. (2007). Life cycles of growing organizations: A review with implications for knowledge and learning. International Journal Of Management Reviews, 9(1), 1-30.

Saunders, M.N., 2012. Organizational trust: A cultural perspective. Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, 26(2).

Schoop, M., Kohne, F. and Ostertag, K., 2010. Communication quality in business negotiations. Group decision and negotiation, 19(2), pp.193-209.

Shell, G, R. (2011) Teaching Ideas: Bargaining Styles and Negotiation: The Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument in Negotiation Training. Negotiation Journal, 17(2), pp155-174.

Ting?Toomey, S., 2015. Identity negotiation theory. The International Encyclopedia of Interpersonal Communication.

Zheng, X., Martin, P., Brohman, K. and Da Xu, L., 2014. Cloud service negotiation in internet of things environment: A mixed approach. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 10(2), pp.1506-1515

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

My Assignment Help. (2018). Negotiation: A Critical Evaluation Of Its Ubiquity. Retrieved from https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/internal-business-negotiations.

"Negotiation: A Critical Evaluation Of Its Ubiquity." My Assignment Help, 2018, https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/internal-business-negotiations.

My Assignment Help (2018) Negotiation: A Critical Evaluation Of Its Ubiquity [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/internal-business-negotiations
[Accessed 23 July 2024].

My Assignment Help. 'Negotiation: A Critical Evaluation Of Its Ubiquity' (My Assignment Help, 2018) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/internal-business-negotiations> accessed 23 July 2024.

My Assignment Help. Negotiation: A Critical Evaluation Of Its Ubiquity [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2018 [cited 23 July 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/internal-business-negotiations.

Get instant help from 5000+ experts for
question

Writing: Get your essay and assignment written from scratch by PhD expert

Rewriting: Paraphrase or rewrite your friend's essay with similar meaning at reduced cost

Editing: Proofread your work by experts and improve grade at Lowest cost

loader
250 words
Phone no. Missing!

Enter phone no. to receive critical updates and urgent messages !

Attach file

Error goes here

Files Missing!

Please upload all relevant files for quick & complete assistance.

Plagiarism checker
Verify originality of an essay
essay
Generate unique essays in a jiffy
Plagiarism checker
Cite sources with ease
support
Whatsapp
callback
sales
sales chat
Whatsapp
callback
sales chat
close