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Effects of International mobility

Discuss about the International Labour Mobility and its Effects.

International Labour Mobility is an important feature in our global economy. Many international companies heavily depend on the workforce acquired both legally and illegally. For example, many industries in the United States of America acquire their cheap labor mostly from Mexico and the Caribbean (Barajas, Chami, Fullenkamp, Gapen, & Montiel, 2009). The economies of the middle East countries have been instigated by the laborers from the South Asian countries. An estimation by the UN puts it that nearly 3% of every country population migrate to other countries due to several reasons that will be discussed in this research paper.

It is believed that international mobility is influenced by political affairs. For example considering the legal and illegal migration of people across borders due to instability in their own countries. An example of this was noticed in the 1990s when there was a lot of movement of people from France & Italy ( Abella, 2004). The anti-immigrant political parties such as the National Front in France and the National Alliance in Italy opposed these movements. The same view is supported by the academics in their theories that this kind of movement has serious effects on the economies, people, and families. For instance, the traditional international theory holds that lowering barriers to mobility of labor consequently opens the way to the specialization of wages across the countries.

Studies have indicated that rural populations in Canada are prone to the aspect of movement to urban centers, but very little comes to light about the effects of these movements both in the economic affairs of the country and the families of the migrants. However, in developing countries, the movements might bear some fruits to the country and the families that are left behind. What comes in the limelight is that many people migrate to other countries to look for a better lifestyle, education, health. It is believed that international countries may have opportunities that are not present in your home country.

International mobility is a basis for some argues that those who are abroad will act as the bread winners to most families. For example, researchers have indicated that money migrants in most cases bring back home finances that are used to finance the education of children and sustain a number of projects and well-being of their families. However, immigration can lower the human capital stock, for instance, the brain drain aspect. This can negatively affect the productivity of a country because many of her people that could be in the workforce have migrated to other countries. The inadequacy of health professionals can cause a serious setback and disruption in the provision of health services both in rural and urban areas (Beine, Docquier, & Rapaport, 2001).

Some researchers have put it that foreign workers including the legal ones, help develop the economic status of a country by insulating domestic populations. This means that many guest workers may be required especially in developing countries to help them revive their economies. However, in developed countries, cheaper foreign labor may be needed if the local labor turns too expensive to afford.

International mobility can cause the ‘spill-over effects’, whereby those that have migrated leave vulnerable and dependent people in their families back at home. If the migrants are the breadwinners back at home, then the effect would be much felt and this may result to more agony from such families (Battistella & Gastardo-Conaco, 2013). This paper also looks at how the international communities have served as viable sources of information, links, and networking with business people and their businesses. These networks and links have given room for the transfer of technological skills from one country to another thereby improving the economies of the developing countries.


One thing that is mostly achieved through mobility is the increased urbanization. In India, for the first few decades, the movement of Indians who are registered has been observed as an important aspect of migration pattern of Indians. It began as the internal migration whereby registered Indians move from their rural homes to cities. Various reasons have been given for this movement. For instance, in 1996, a survey identified that education was the major cause of this kind of movement. Many people moved from their homes to cities and even abroad in search of an education in general. The study also puts family and housing issues in the lead in causing such migrations. In Britain, the mid-1800s saw many from the rural setups move to urban and abroad in search of jobs, healthcare, and education as well (Acosta, Calderón, Fajnzylber, & López, 2008).

In the recent world, there is a perception that mobility is on the rise everywhere in the world. There has been a massive movement of people in China that has brought a dramatic industrialization, such as that seen in the agricultural sector. In 1980, there was a massive movement of people to North America, followed by other movements of 1990 to Western Europe. As part of the population, the youths are considered the most mobile group. Many of them are migrating to cities and abroad in search of jobs, education, better lifestyle etc. In Canada, two-thirds of the locals have moved to urban centers as many of them moving towards that direction expected. The exposure of the indigenous people to urban life is seen as a positive move that would be able to enlighten them. In other words, the movement to other areas will result in positive impact on their lives and the economic status of the countries involved (Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada [AAND], 2010).

This research realizes that international migration leads to positive impacts for the migrants and the countries involved as well, despite knowing very well that there are cases of exploitation and discrimination involved. Most research that has been done show that most people who migrate from their countries do it to benefit them and their families. The departure of an individual brings down the labor and result to a decline in farm output but this is balanced by the positive effects of the movements. A recent study in Bolivia indicates that workers even those with inadequate education or schooling, who migrate to other cities, experience more in terms of their income than those staying at their rural homes.


International movements of people can be based on the issue of searching for better health care and other health benefits that may come alongside health services. People usually move because in their own countries there are no or inadequate services offered. For example, an individual may migrate from his or her country to seek medication in other countries abroad, as a result, it may be a beneficial to him or his family in the long run (Beine, Docquier, & Rapaport, 2001). The movement of workers is also based on the fact that they need a place where they are more productive. This means in their own countries, there is little they can do to showcase their talents like they can do when they are in other countries. When people migrate abroad, they are able to develop their skills even more in order to achieve the best results. In this situation, that particular country will be productive because there are new talents and skills in place. Therefore, there is a talent gain when international mobility is practiced (Amuedo-Dorantes,  & Pozo, 2004).

International mobility also results in increased consumption in terms of goods and services. The receiving country would be able to dispose their services to foreigners. This means that there would be an expanded market because the migrants can also send back goods to their original countries. It is also a benefit in terms of creating business networking among the countries. Countries which are involved in global businesses are known to creating networks with other countries (Basher & Fachin, 2011). These networks are successful if there are people to undertake logistical issues. Migrants can act like passive sales agents that would advertise the services and goods on both sides. Apart from the creation of business networks, new ideas, and business models are more prevalent outcomes with international mobility. Different people come up with new ways of doing businesses because of enriched manpower and skills.

If a country allows immigrants from other countries, it means that it has very close ties with that country and she would be willing to support that country. Many countries dispose of their people because of a number of factors. For example, political stability is the main cause of human movement from unstable countries. This means that the unstable country will benefit from the support given by the developed country. More specifically, the developed country can support the unstable country by lending and work very closely with the government to improve the lives of its people.  A recent research shows that there is a very close relationship between people migrating to other countries and transfer of technology and creation of knowledge networks (Adams, 2002). With the advances in technology, developed countries can transfer their technological skills to developing nations. This is only possible when people move from one nation to another.

These networks and links have given room for the transfer of technological skills from one country to another thereby improving the economies of the developing countries. One thing that is mostly achieved through mobility is the increased urbanization. In India, for the first few decades, the movement of Indians who are registered has been observed as an important aspect of migration pattern of Indians. It began as the internal migration whereby registered Indians move from their rural homes to cities. Various reasons have been given for this movement. For instance, in 1996, a survey identified that education was the major cause of this kind of movement (Aslund & Rooth, 2007).

Some people argue that those who are abroad will act as the bread- winners to most families. For example, research has indicated that people, who migrate because of money cases, bring back home finances that are used to finance the education of children and sustain a number of projects and well-being of their families. However, immigration can lower the human capital stock, for instance, the brain drain aspect. This can negatively affect the productivity of a country because many of her people that could be in the workforce have migrated to other countries. The inadequacy of health professionals can cause a serious setback and disruption in the provision of health services both in rural and urban areas.

Conclusion

International mobility has positive impacts as well as the negative effects on the economies of the concerned countries. The research presented here has indicated that it may result in a brain drain and to an extent that the young countries may lack skilled and professional workforce. It is, therefore, important that relevant policies are put in place to ensure that this is minimized at all cost. It is a hub for discrimination and intimidation and if not regulated can violate the human rights (Bernard, Finnie, & St. Jean, 2008).  International Labour Mobility is an important feature in our global economy. Many international companies heavily depend on the workforce acquired both legally and illegally. The importance of international mobility seems to overweigh the negative impacts it has on the people and the countries involved (Aydemir & Sweetman, 2007). Therefore, it is necessary to address every issue concerning immigration of people from one country to another.

The exposure of the indigenous people to urban life is seen as a positive move that would be able to enlighten them. In other words, the movement to other areas will result in positive impact on their lives and the economic status of the countries involved. The improvement of the economy of the gaining country is fundamental to the phase of any development in the world. These benefits may be highly derived when good policies are put in place to check on the movements of people and to regulate the rules that may be imposed on the migrants on those migrants.

References

Abella, M. (2004). The role of recruiters in labor migration. In D. Massey & J.

Edward Taylor (Eds.), International migration: Prospects and policies in a global market (pp. 201 - 211). London: Oxford University Press.

Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada [AANDC]. (2010). 2011 –

2012 report on plans and priorities: Demographic description. Retrieved from https://www.aadncaandc.gc.ca/eng/1315424049095/131542415504

Acosta, P., Calderón, C., Fajnzylber, P., & López, J. H. (2008). Do remittances

lower poverty levels in Latin America?

Adams, R. H. Jr. (2002). Precautionary saving from different sources of income:

Evidence from rural Pakistan (Policy Research Working Paper Report No. 2761). Washington, DC: World Bank.

Amuedo-Dorantes, C., & Pozo, S. (2004). Workers' remittances and the real exchange

 rate: A paradox of gifts. World Development, 32(8), 1407 – 1417

Aslund, O., & Rooth, D. O. (2007). Do when and where matter? Initial labor

 market conditions and immigrant earnings. Economic Journal, 117(518), 422 - 448.

Aydemir, A., & Sweetman, A. (2007). First- and second-generation immigrant educational attainment and labor market outcomes: A comparison of the United States and Canada. Research in Labor Economics, 27, 215 – 270.

Barajas, A., Chami, R., Fullenkamp, C., Gapen, M., & Montiel, P. (2009).

Do workers’ remittances promote economic growth (International Monetary Fund, WorkingPaper,09/153)?Retrieved from https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2009/wp09153.pdf

Basher, S. A., & Fachin, S. (2011). The long-term decline of internal migration

in Canada - Ontario as a case study (MPRA Paper No. 6685). Retrieved from https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de./6685/

Battistella, G., & Bastardo-Conaco. M. (2013). The impact of labor migration

 on the children left behind. Sojourn, 13(2), 220 - 241.

Beine, M., Docquier, F., & Rapaport, H. (2001). Brain drain and economic growth:

Theory and evidence. Journal of Development Economics, 64(1), 275 – 289.

Bell, M., & Muhidin, S. (2009). Cross-national comparisons of internal migration

 (HDR Paper no. 30). New York: UNDP.

Bernard, A., Finnie, R., & St. Jean, B. (2008). Inter-provincial mobility and

 earnings. Perspectives, 9(10). Retrieved from https://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-001-

x/2008110/article/10711-eng.htm

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