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Globalisation changing the shape of world politics

Discuss about the International Relations for Global Economic Integration.

World politics has changed a lot in the past centuries. Globalisation has played a very crucial role in giving shape to the politics all around the world. The bigger outlook of it is that globalisation is not only changing the political decision making but it is fundamentally changing the shape of the global politics (Haynes, et al., 2017). As globalisation is considered as process through which organisations develops an international relationship where the whole world acts as a global village. All the factors those are responsible for globalisation has impact on the politics also. This can be attributed by the fact that due to globalisation every country is getting more and more dependent on the each for their economic and social stability. This is both a challenge and support to traditional forms of national sovereignty but on the larger note it acts as a challenge. This report highlights the way globalisation fundamentally changing the shape of the world politics as well as its impact on the traditional form of national sovereignty.

Globalisation has impacted on the various aspects of nation and so is its political ideological thinking process. The interdependence of country on each other has made a greater impact on the politics of the nation. This can be understood by the fact that previously politics of any country was mostly on the national factors and the problems that exist within the nation (Feniger, Livneh and Yogev, (2012). This gave better chances to the regional politics to rise and become a new kind of ideology. The difference in the thinking helped especially the countries that are democratically electing their governments.

A much larger perspective of it needs to be evaluated that globalisation did not allowed the political thinking or ideologies to be pure. This can be illustrated through the fact that the communist ideology which was declined towards the rights of deprived has also started to get mixed with the capitalist ideology. This can be seen in the examples of China and Russia which was sometimes back a communist country but today they are the greatest evangelist of capital markets (Nousios, Overbeek and Tsolakis, 2012). In the countries like India where the social disparity was deep, the socialist ideology which was once a main political base line has now adopted economical thinking. This has got possible due to the fact that world politics have changed and it has become necessary for the nations to give these changes an at most priority.

Challenges to the national sovereignty

What globalisation has done is that it has influenced the contemporary international relationship among various nations. This relationship has become so deep that it has influenced the performance of various organisations inside the nation irrespective of the sector they belong to (Wenman, 2013). This type of inter-dependence has influenced the politics to adjust themselves in such a manner that they make healthy relationship with each other. There are many companies in almost every country that has passed the borders and are doing business in various domains. Politics has also taken the shape in that particular manner.

International trade and exports have also been affected by it. Governments are taking their decisions as per the requirement of the international allies they have (Bull, 2012). Today politicians are also under pressure of the international community to take decisions that are in the benefit of the whole world. This is due to the fact that the interdependence of each and every country on other for their stability has increased. Before globalisation it was seen that mostly a country was affected by the political changes in their neighbouring countries but after globalisation political changes in any corner of the world has its effect on the other part of the world.  

Political shaping can also be accounted to the fact that there are social changes going on in various parts of the world (Mohammadi, 2012). These changes are reflected back in the political aspect of the nation. Since the people all over the world are getting influenced by modern societies hence the politics have also changed accordingly. The interdependence of economy and politics has made the change more significant.


The prime example such a shift can be seen in the Europe where there is formation of European Union where the policies are almost same. This has also effected decision making of political parties in various countries inside Europe. The reason why it is called a shift is the fact that these were the only countries which fought the two world wars due to difference in ideologies (Wills, 2013). When the economic conditions of the countries became weak and they needed the support of each other in stabilising themselves in spite of their different political opinion they formed such Unions. This union helped them in terms of free trade.

This has made the political systems more complex where the political parties need not only have to think about the implication of decision in their national boundary but also they can see what its global significance is (Munck, 2013). For example the decision made by the UK government of making exit out of EU has not only affected the UK but has also affected the trade and businesses all across the globe.

A very different aspect of it is the fact that these days due to technological advancements the decisions made by the government in any country get published in other parts at that moment only. This has forced the governments to check out the decisions twice before implementing it even for a week. In a broader perspective migration of people in the globalised era from one region to another region was also one of the prime reasons of politics taking different shapes.

The United Nations which is a subject of globalised world is one of the prime examples where every country did not get equal representation (Talani, 2011). The countries which were rich got more control over the policy making of the UN. This was not good for the international politics. The effect of such differentiation of power where everyone’s concerns should have been heard is not good for the international politics. But it has also emerged due to the fact that UN also needed money, of which the major part was provided by these rich nations.

There are several challenges that are posed by this kind of political shift. One of the prime matters of concerns is that Globalisation has negatively impacted the traditional forms of national sovereignty (Baylis, Smith and Owens, 2017). In the above part also, it can be seen that today the interdependence of countries have taken different deep roots. On answering to the statement that whether national sovereignty is at stake or not the example of European Union is very appropriate. This is due to the fact that the countries in the European Union cannot take economic decisions as per their choice rather they became highly dependent on each other. This is a challenge to economic sovereignty of the country. This makes the situation more complex as the political parties at these places cannot take decisions as per the requirement of their own nation and neglecting its effect across boundaries. Even after the fact that making of EU was a good decision for smaller countries, it somehow challenged the national benefits of economically developed countries like Britain.

Because of presence of so many multinational companies in the modern business era, the economic sovereignty of the country has also been challenged. Business houses have started to control the political policies in many countries and more or less they have made it all same. Globalisation has empowered many of the small countries to make their mark in the world but on the greater note they have taken the independence on economic affairs (Haynes, et al., 2017). This can be seen in the case of American continent where the countries around United States are more or less dependent on economic policies made by U.S. On the broader context this can be justified with the example of countries like India and its neighbouring countries or the china and its neighbouring nations. In these regions the decision made by the government of the smaller nations are always made according to the demand of the bigger nations. No smaller country wants to upset the bigger nations as they are highly economically dependent on the bigger countries. On the global perspective it is seen that the countries which under the burden of the loans by other countries always tends to put their national sovereignty on line (Acharya, 2011). This can be seen in the example of the China and Sri-Lanka where the Sri-Lankan Government has allowed china to use their port for trading and other military purpose.

Globalisation has its biggest effect on the social dimension of the nations. This is due to the fact that people have started to adopt almost same kind of cultural aspects like the fashion, eating habits, living style etc. This is a serious threat to the originality of the country’s own cultural diversity (Higgott, 2012). This is evident from the fact that eastern countries have started to adopt the western clothing. This fascination created by the globalisation has resulted in commonness in the wearing habit. Due to this reason, many of the traditional wears have lost their market. The new generation which is coming up is more effected by the effects of globalisation. Cultural variance is one of the major elements through which one country differentiates itself from other. If the unanimity in this field comes then it is a serious threat to cultural sovereignty of the nation. Bigger organisations brings there culture within the nation which tends to destroy the original culture of that place. Corporate cultures effects the local culture on the larger scale as they change the lifestyle of the people that are working under them (Clapton, 2011). For example multinational companies do not celebrate regional festivals and generally do not provide holidays. This reduces the value of local believes which is again not good for the sovereignty. These multinational companies celebrate the festivals that are of their parent country hence these festivals starts to get importance.

The traditional forms of national Sovereignty are also at stake when the torch bearers of Globalisation like Social media spread a particular kind of mentality. At many instance it is seen that political, economic and traditional ideologies are spread on such networks and the people that agrees with it in other nations adopts it (Root and Zhang 2016). Some researches claim that the homosexuality which was not present in the societies like India and China gets to emerge due to a globalised sharing of thoughts. Most of the time market drives the society choices and hence destroying the original ethos of the nation. The spread of Valentine day in the nations of South East Asia or Arabic world is due to the market. All these destroy the original taste of the culture that is present in the nation. Today the colonisation is not defined in the military terms rather imposition of particular kind of thought is also an example of bondage. This is a slow poison to national sovereignty of any nation. 

Conclusion

From the above based report it can be concluded that globalisation has changed various aspect of nations. Globalisation had one of the most serious effects on the International politics. These days decision made by the government in any part of the world is made as per the demand of the international market. Globalisation has made economic ideology to more powerful than any other political ideology. Socialist and communist ideologies are losing their grounds in many parts of the world. Globalisation has not only affected the economic and social sovereignty of the country but it has made deep rooted impact on the cultural sovereignty of the nation. The traditional form of cultural and economic sovereignty of any nations has been directly influenced by the globalisation and the factors associated with it.  

References

Acharya, A., (2011) Dialogue and discovery: In search of International Relations theories beyond the West. Millennium, 39(3), pp.619-637.

Baylis, J., Smith, S. and Owens, P. eds., (2017) The globalization of world politics: an introduction to international relations. Oxford University Press.

Bull, H., (2012) The anarchical society: a study of order in world politics. Palgrave Macmillan.

Clapton, W., (2011) Risk in international relations. International Relations, 25(3), pp.280-295.

Feniger, Y., Livneh, I. and Yogev, A., (2012) Globalisation and the politics of international tests: the case of Israel. Comparative Education, 48(3), pp.323-335.

Haynes, J., Hough, P., Malik, S. and Pettiford, L., (2017) World Politics: International Relations and Globalisation in the 21st Century. Sage.

Haynes, J., Hough, P., Malik, S. and Pettiford, L., (2017) World Politics: International Relations and Globalisation in the 21st Century. Sage.

Higgott, R., (2012) The international political economy of regionalism: the Asia-Pacific and Europe compared. In Regionalism and Global Economic Integration (pp. 52-77). Routledge.

Mohammadi, A., (2012) Islam encountering globalisation. Routledge.

Munck, R. ed., (2013) Globalisation and migration: new issues, new politics. Routledge.

Nousios, P., Overbeek, H. and Tsolakis, A. eds., (2012) Globalisation and European integration: critical approaches to regional order and international relations. Routledge.

Root, H. and Zhang H. (2016) Globalisation’s Broken Promise. [Online]. Available at: https://www.usnews.com/opinion/economic-intelligence/articles/2016-03-07/globalization-has-had-political-consequences. [Accessed on: 2nd May 2018].

Talani, L.S. ed., (2011) Globalisation, Migration, and the Future of Europe: Insiders and Outsiders. Routledge.

Wenman, M., (2013) Agonistic democracy: Constituent power in the era of globalisation. Cambridge University Press.

Wills, J., (2013) Place and politics. Spatial Politics: Essays for Doreen Massey, pp.133-145.

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