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Techniques to calculate cost and benefits

Task 1: Financial Overview of the proposed system

The cost and benefit data of an organization is considered a significant step as these economic factors affect directly the future development and feasibility of the new system. Below an analysis has been shown that will explain that every individual company has its way of calculating the costs and the benefits where some of the techniques are more conservative than the other technique. For example, there are companies who don’t count their saving till the time there is an actual need for a reduction in out-of-pocket expenses. Whereas, in other companies, the saved hours present a valuable resource that can be accounted and identified for – as well as it is the job of the management to see that the possible savings on the cost are achieved by performing more tasks, and better-quality work, and other work.

Below a sample analysis has been presented that outlines the tangible costs as well as benefits which are addressed in the background of Chapter 7. Later by using the below table data an analytical spreadsheet will be created that will present the feasibility analysis in detail.

Costs and Benefits

Economic Effects

Cost and Benefit Categories

Eliminating 3 hours of overtime every week at 15 dollars per hour

6 hours (Annual Saving) * Hourly rate $15 * 52 weeks * overtime factor of 1.5 = 7020 (6 impact months or 3510 dollars will be available in every Year 0)

Variable, positive benefit, operational, direct

Removing the errors that occur daily

1 hour per day of possible annual savings = 52 weeks * 5 days * hourly rate of $15 * 1 = 3900 dollars (6 impact months or 1950 dollars will be available in every Year 0)

Variable, positive benefit, operational, direct

Time required by a consultant to develop the system – in-house option

75 dollars hourly rate * 40 hours * 20 weeks = $60000

Fixed cost, development, direct

Removing the requirement of additional position in 6 months

40 hours (Avoidance annual cost) * hourly rate $15 * 52 weeks = 31200 dollars (6 impact months or 15600 dollars will be available in every Year 0)

Variable, cost avoidance benefit, operational, direct

Network commercial database software – in-house option

4200 dollars

Fixed cost, development, direct

The vertical software package from the vendor – package option

$28000 in Year 0 is followed by 2 annual payments of $23500 for a total of $67000

Fixed cost, development, direct

Time to install, configure, and then test the vendor package by the consultant – package option

$75 hourly rate * 40 hours * 2 weeks = 6000 dollars

Fixed cost, development, direct

Vendor technical support – package option

The annual cost of $2000 after the 1st operation completion year

Fixed cost, development, direct

Time required by the staff of the clinic to perform file backups, updating, and maintenance

4 hours annual cost * 52 weeks * 15 dollars hourly rate = 3120 dollars (6 cost impact months or 1560 dollars will be acquired during every Year 0)

Fixed cost, development, direct

Time required by a consultant to provide starting support and training

$75 hourly rate * 13 weeks * 10 hours = 9750 dollars

Fixed cost, development, direct

Hardware requirements

8500 dollars

Fixed cost, development, direct

 Chart showing the sum of cumulative cost and benefits results for every year

Figure: Chart showing the sum of cumulative cost and benefits results for every year

Source: Created by author

In-house development of software

  • Build up the in-house potentials and assets
  • Meet all the limitations of the technology and system presented
  • Decrease the alteration in the strategies and dealings of the company
  • Assure the distinctive necessity of the company

Purchase of a package of software from the vendor

  • Reduce the overall cost
  • Shorten the time required for implementation
  • Reliable in benchmark performing
  • Vendor provides the future upgrades
  • The requirement for technical staff will be less

Vendor supplied package customization

  • Modification can be possible by oneself after the software is purchased if the license is available.
  • Users can make the software purchase that is customizable by the vendor according to the requirements of the user.
  • Negotiation becomes possible and easier with the software of the vendor and requires payment for the features that are required.

Task 1: Storyboards and Wireframe Design

First, the login screen of the system is required that will allow the user to provide their credentials into the input area and click on sign in to log in. Below the four screens designs of the application have been shown then depending on which user will log in to the system the option will vary as follows: 

For a doctor or a Nurse

 

For a receptionist

 

According to the above picture, it has been cleared that the nurse/receptionist/doctor has several options that they see in the main menu of the application. Below some of the wireframe designs are provided by using the tool “Balsamiq” that will show if the employee (nurse/receptionist/doctor) wants to see the details of the patient then what they will be going to see.

 

After choosing the Change/View Schedule Appointment option from the menu list, this is what the current user will be able to see: 

 

Also, when scheduling an appointment for the patient to get done the information which is provided will be sent to the calendar that can be accessed from the initial page. Below the wireframe design of the calendar page has been shown: 

 

If the user chooses the option “View Email” from the main page then for the employee there will be a specific page that will open that will be the email page with a simple interface. Below the design of the email page has been shown: 

Please fill out the form properly

Patient Details

First Name

Last Name

Middle Name

Address

City

State

Zip Code

Mobile Number

Alternative Number

Work Phone

Check One: (Tick)

? M   ? F

Marital Status: (Tick)

? Single   ? Married   ? Divorced   ? Widowed

Date of Birth:

Age:

SSN

Employer Name:

Driver License:

Provide the given information properly if the patient is under the age of 18 or if someone other than yourself is the insurance policyholder

Primary Insurance Details

Insurance Company:

Name:

Policy Holder Name:

Mailing Address:

Date of Birth:

City:

State:

Zip Code:

Patient relationship:

Date of Birth:

Social Security Number:

Group Number

Employer

Secondary Insurance

Insurance Company:

Emergency Contact Number:

Policy Holder Name:

Patient relationship:

Phone Number:

Date of Birth:

Policy Number:

Signature:

Date:

Group Number:

Control Features

  • Display the event-driven reminders and messages
  • Establish a series of values that will be predefined that the user can click in order to start.
  • Other control features are such as the toolbar, menu bar, command button, text box, check box, and so on.

Validation Features

  • Filling the form online with instant validation will save time at the office. It will be useful for the receptionist as well as for the client.
  • Proper validation and input masks will make it easier in order to interpret the format of the data as well as enhance the entire integrity of the data.
  • Output security to protect the privacy right of the users from unauthorized access as well as restrict the printed copies as well as remove the document properly.
  • Consistent control of the documents such as providing the page number on all the documents as well as the document will be printed.

Task 1: Logical Diagram

Below the logical design of the database that will be going to be developed later has been shown. In the design, all the essential entities are highlighted which will be responsible for storing the information. Here, for the design pre-defined symbols are used such as the rectangle denoting the entities, the diamond denoting the relationships between the two entities, and the connecting establishing the connection between the two entities. In logical design, only the logic is mentioned no specific cardinalities or constraints are used.

 Logical Diagram for the proposed system of NCWG

Figure: Logical Diagram for the proposed system of NCWG

Source: Created by author

Task 2: Relationship Between the Entities

The below design is the detailed version of the logical design where the difference is the presence of cardinalities which helps to determine how the data will flow between the two entities and how the user will fetch them. This diagram will help to make the appropriate decision in the business and based on all of these things the relational design is created.

 Relationship between the entities

Figure: Relationship between the entities

Source: Created by author

Task 3: Verification of Primary and Foreign Keys

For the verification of the designs of all the tables created it is important to ensure that there are no data redundancy and all the tables are normalized. Below the normalized relations are provided:

Patient_Details:

Primary Key: Patient_ID

Secondary Key: First_name, last_name, Date_of_Birth, relationship_code

Foreign Key: Household_ID 

Appointment_Details:

Primary Key: Appointment_ID

Secondary Key: Appt_date, Appt_time, Provider_Number

Foreign Key: Patient_ID 

Appt_Service_Info:

Primary Key: Service_ID

Secondary Key: Status, Fee_amount, Explanation

Foreign Key: Appointment_ID, CPT_Code_Fee 

Provider_Details:

Primary Key: Provider_ID

Secondary Key: Provider_Name 

Employer_Details:

Primary Key: Employer_ID

Secondary Key: Emp_Name, Insurance_Group_Number 

Household_Details:

Primary Key: Household_ID

Secondary Key: Last_name, first_name, address, city, state, zip code, mobile_number, work_phone, alternative_number

Foreign Key: Employer_ID 

Insurance_Company_Info:

Primary Key: Insurance_Number

Secondary Key: Address, city, state, zip_code, company_phone 

CPT_Code_Fee:

Primary Key: CPT_Code_Fee

Secondary Key: CPT_Description, standard_fee

Arvanitis, Stavros, and Leticia Estevez. "Feasibility Analysis and Study." The Emerald Handbook of Entrepreneurship in Tourism, Travel and Hospitality. Emerald Publishing Limited, 2018.

Berry, Gregory R. "Feasibility analysis for the new venture nonprofit enterprise." New England Journal of Entrepreneurship (2017).

Luo, Shangyu, et al. "Scalable linear algebra on a relational database system." IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 31.7 (2018): 1224-1238..

Roth, Robert E., et al. "Wireframing for interactive & web-based geographic visualization: designing the NOAA Lake Level Viewer." Cartography and Geographic Information Science 44.4 (2017): 338-357.

Sahatqija, Kosovare, et al. "Comparison between relational and NOSQL databases." 2018 41st international convention on information and communication technology, electronics and microelectronics (MIPRO). IEEE, 2018.

Setyawati, Endang, Hadion Wijoyo, and Nyoto Soeharmoko. "Relational Database Management System (RDBMS)." (2020).

Sukavejworakit, Krisakorn, Triyuth Promsiri, and Thanaphol Virasa. "OETEL: An innovative teaching model for entrepreneurship education." Journal of Entrepreneurship Education 21.2 (2018): 1-11.

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[Accessed 03 March 2024].

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