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Review of soil stabilization with polymers from 2000 to 2010

Stabilization of Dispersive Soil by Blending Polymers

The title of this paper is Stabilization of Dispersive Soil by Blending Polymers which was written by Sammer Vyas, Neelam Phougat, Pankaj Sharma, Murari Ratnam. This paper is completely based on stabilization of dispersive type soil and for stabilization blending polymer process is used. According to author type of Dispersive soils are not comfortable for the construction of hydraulic earth structures. When Dispersive soil mixed with water than it provides a dispersed stage which occurs due to force developed between clay particles (Asgari, Dezfuli, and Bayat, 2015). However, to reduce this type of problem in soil material stabilization process is required. In the chemical process of stabilization few chemicals were added with soil such as alum, lime, molasses, bitumen, and polymers. The polymer provides a remarkable stage due to the formation of bonds between clay particles and polar. This paper is explaining about properties of soil material and stabilization process of dispersive soil (Beyers, Pyke, and Wirth, 2015).

According to last little research, it is estimated that clay soil was measured to be extremely resistant to erosion (Hasan, et al., 2015). The problem of dispersion occurs due to increases repulsive forces between clay particles. According to this journal paper, the stabilization of dispersive clay soil can be done by both mechanical and chemical process. The chemical method increases the engineering properties of clay soil by making bonds between clay particles. It was identified that the addition of polymer ions in soil increase bonding between adjacent clay particles. This research paper investigates the impact of polymer ion on the stabilization of dispersive soil. This process is completed at dandiya dam, Udaipur and it is done by the crumb test and pore water test process (Jiménez, and Villar, 2017).

Crumb test is a field test in which crumb soil is mixed with water and the degree of water provide a signal of dispersive of clay soil. This process provides the dispersive behaviour of soil clay and it is obtained from Duniya dam. The soil is mixed with distil-water which provides a paste of saturated soil. After competing for the process it was observed that the chemically treated soil clay have the high rate of aggregates as compare to untreated soil and plastic limit, plasticity index and liquid limit of treated soil is reducing rather than untreated soil. From this experiment, it is estimated that the stabilization of dispersive soil reduces the liquid limit, and plasticity index and this process is very effective for soil particles. The stabilization of dispersive is more comfortable for the construction of roads and dam. This paper is explained about stabilization of dispersive soil by a chemical process and also explained mechanical properties of dispersive soil.

A Review of the Stabilisation Techniques on Expansive Soils

The title of this paper is A Review of the Stabilisation Techniques on Expansive Soils by using polymers which was written by Umair Hasan, and H. Nikraz. According to the author, there are many soil stabilization processes to counter the hazards presented by Expansive a soil in which polymer is one of the best materials for stabilization of soil. The main objective of this paper is to describe and elaborates on different studies and research on the latest soil stabilization process. The expensive soil is a type of clay that causes it to swell with a rise in its water content (Horpibulsuk, et al., 2015). The deviation in the expensive soil causes horizontal and vertical deformation of the ground. There are many factors which affect the shrinkage and swelling of expensive soils such as the type of minerals, dry density, loading conditions, and water content. The treatment process is one of the best methods for stabilization of soil through polymer which consists of mechanical and chemical treatment. There are many benefits of this process such as reduce compressibility, increase engineering properties, reduce water absorption in the soil. The mechanical process of stabilization with polymer particles includes mixing of native soil with different gradation to get final mixture (Maghchiche, Haouam, and Immirzi, 2010) This process can be done by the separate location of soil before the combination is reverted to the job site. The chemical process of stabilization is done by mixing another additive material in the treated soil. There are several benefits of the chemical process such as improve strength and stiffness, increase graduation, and plasticity of soil materials. In last few years mechanical process for stabilization of expensive soil is used and it also called as soil compaction method. Soil replacement is one of the most common processes which are used in mechanical soil stabilization process (Vyas, et al., 2011). The replacement of soil with polymer depends upon many factors such as soil profile, building code recommendations and conventional practices. In this process the problematic soil can be combined with a various soil material to obtain plasticity, workability, and strength. There are many other mechanical processes which can be used for stabilization of soil such as moisture control, and pre-wetting of soil clay but these methods are very costly. According to this paper stabilization of expansive soil is done by mixing of various chemical materials such as FA, gypsum, lime, and gypsum and increase the bearing capacity by reducing plasticity of expensive soil. This journal paper researched about stabilization of expensive soil and it is observed that stabilization of expensive soil can be done by chemical process as well as mechanical process. Stabilization of expensive soil should be done by adding other material with soil material because it reduces plasticity of soil material.

Use of Polymers and Biopolymers for Water Retaining and Soil Stabilization in Arid and Semiarid Regions

The title of this research paper is Use of polymers and biopolymers for water retaining and soil stabilization in arid and semiarid regions which was written by A. Maghchiche, A. Haruna, and B. Immirizi. According to the author, the use of polymer materials for stabilization of soil is one of the best steps which are used to control soil degradation and increase arid soils (Jayanthi, and Singh, 2016). The main objective of this research paper is to determine the impact of polymer material on the arid and semi-arid soil. The mixture of polyacrylamide with polymer was considered through many methods or technique such as infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, SEM, and X-ray diffraction process.  Polymer and biopolymers recognized as a viable soil because both are used for stabilization of soil. According to this paper, polymers were observed as the most effective erosion and infiltration polymers (Onyejekwe, and Ghataora, 2015). X-ray diffraction process is used for characterization of polymers materials and this process was carried out with TATC 11 thermal analyzer. In this process, the polymer sample was packed into a container which is made by perplex and thickness of this container is 5 mm. A PW 1830 meter was used to generate CuKa radiation and the scattering angle of X-rays was varied from 10 to 44 degree (Rahgozar, Saberian, and Li, 2018).

This paper explained different techniques used to characterize polymers and biopolymer materials. According to this research paper, there is four type of process are sued for characterization of a polymer material such as IR spectroscopy, SEM, X-ray diffraction process, and thermal analysis (Saneiyan, et al., 2018). The results indicated that the composition of the polymer in soil could increase physical properties of soil and increase around 60% of water retention at arid soils. This process can increase the efficiency and productivity of arid and semi-arid soils through utilizing a low concentration of polymers. Polyacrylamide mixture at arid can improve the retention of water and also synthetic sub-layer which can avoid water losses.

The title of this research paper is A Brief Review on Various Methods and Materials Used for Stabilization of Soil which was written by Ayushi lakhanpal and Avani Chopra. According to author soil is the most important part of any construction industry and it is found in abundance on the surface of the earth. According to this research paper the mechanical properties of the polymer is vary from place to place (Ostad, and Shayannejad, 2015). Therefore a proper test or process is required to perform the soil stabilization of polymer and the properties of earth soil can be changed by any process such as SEM, thermal process, and X-ray diffraction process. Therefore stabilization of soil material with polymer is required in which different materials are added with soil material (Otoko, 2014). There are many types of materials are used for stabilization of soil such as lime, cement, and carbon and polymer materials in which lime an cement are one of the most common materials which are added with soil at the time of stabilization. Now at that time many polymer materials are also used for stabilization of soil such as marble dust, fly ash, and waste foundry sand. The main aim of this research paper is to identify different approaches for the stabilization of soil and also provide various methods of stabilization (Roy, 2014).

The word soil is derived from sodium which means an upper layer of earth and it is made by the disintegration of rocks which is used for the formation of building and roads. According to this journal, the paper soil is classified into eight categories such as alluvial soil, red soil, and black cotton soil, and forest soil, arid, peaty and saline soils. Each type of soil has a different type of mechanical and chemical properties. The main advantage of stabilization of soil is it improves the bearing capacity of any soil and this process uses polymer because it makes perfect construction (Usluogullari, Temugan, and Duman, 2016). According to the author, there are main three methods used in industries for the stabilization of soil such as mechanical stabilization, chemical stabilization, and geo synthetics stabilization. Mechanical stabilization includes physical properties of soil in this process dynamic and vibro compaction methods are used. In the vibro compaction process, the soil is compacted through a vibration process but dynamic compaction utilizes s heavy weight of vibration. This process is one of the oldest techniques (Wang, et al., 2018). The chemical process is one of the advanced processes for the stabilization of soil in which some extra material is adding with soil which is used to change the physical properties of soil. Lime and cement both are most common materials sued for stabilization of soil in the chemical process. At that time some of the industrial wastes are also used in chemical processes such as dust, fly ash, marble dust, and foundry sand. In the geo synthetic stabilization process generally, geo grids are used and this type of process used for making roads and buildings. Materials also play an important role in the stabilization of soil in which there are many types of materials are used such as lime, cement, and Carbon. According to author the safety of building and roads not only depend upon the type of material but also depends upon the quality of materials. It is very important to maintain the bearing capacity of soil materials; therefore, the stabilization process with polymer is used to improve the bearing capacity of any soil materials. This journal paper should explain the stabilization process of soil through polymer material and other soil materials and various stabilization methods for soil. According to the above research it is estimated that there are main two methods are sued for the stabilization of soil such as mechanical process and chemical process.

References

Asgari, M.R., Dezfuli, A.B. and Bayat, M., (2015) Experimental study on the stabilization of a low plasticity clayey soil with cement/lime. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 8(3), pp.1439-1452.

Beyers, J.L., Pyke, D.A. and Wirth, T., (2015) Synthesis of current knowledge on post-fire seeding for soil stabilization and invasive species control, 14, pp. 1-15.

Hasan, U., Chegenizadeh, A., Budihardjo, M.A., and Nikraz, H., (2015) A review of the stabilization techniques on expansive soils. Australian Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 9(7), pp. 541-548.

Horpibulsuk, S., Kampala, A., Phetchuay, C., Udomchai, A. and Arulrajah, A., (2015) Calcium carbide residue-A cementing agent for sustainable soil stabilization. Geotechnical Engineering Journal of the SEAGS & AGSSEA, 46(1), pp.22-27.

Jayanthi, P.N., and Singh, D.N., (2016) Utilization of sustainable materials for soil stabilization: state-of-the-art. Advances in Civil Engineering Materials, 5(1), pp.46-79.

Jiménez, J.J., and Villar, L., (2017) Mineral controls on soil organic C stabilization in alpine and subalpine soils in the Central Pyrenees: Insights from wet oxidation methods, mineral dissolution treatment, and radiocarbon dating. Catena, 149, pp.363-373.

Maghchiche, A., Haouam, A. and Immirzi, B., (2010) Use of polymers and biopolymers for water retaining and soil stabilization in arid and semiarid regions. Journal of Taibah University for science, 4(1), pp. 9-16.

Onyejekwe, S. and Ghataora, G.S., (2015) Soil stabilization using proprietary liquid chemical stabilizers: sulfonated oil and a polymer. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 74(2), pp. 651-665.

Ostad, K. and Shayannejad, M., (2015) the Study of Mixture Design for Foam Bitumen and the Polymeric and Oil Materials Function in Loose Soils Consolidation. Journal of Civil Engineering Research, 5(2), pp. 39-44.

Otoko, G.R., (2014) A review of the stabilization of problematic soils. International Journal of Engineering and Technology Research, 2(5), pp.1-6.

Rahgozar, M.A., Saberian, M., and Li, J., (2018) Soil stabilization with non-conventional eco-friendly agricultural waste materials: An experimental study. Transportation Geotechnics, 14, pp.52-60.

Roy, A., (2014) Soil stabilization using rice husk ash and cement. International journal of civil engineering research, 5(1), pp.49-54.

Saneiyan, S., Ntarlagiannis, D., Werkema Jr, D.D. and Ustra, A., (2018) Geophysical methods for monitoring soil stabilization processes. Journal of applied geophysics, 148, pp.234-244.

Usluogullari, O.F., Temugan, A. and Duman, E.S., (2016) Comparison of slope stabilization methods by three-dimensional finite element analysis. Natural Hazards, 81(2), pp.1027-1050.

Vyas, S., Phougat, N., Sharma, P. and Ratnam, M., (2011) Stabilization of dispersive soil by blending polymers. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering, 4(6), pp.42-54.

Wang, X., Tao, J., Bao, R., Tran, T. and Tucker-Kulesza, S., (2018) Surficial Soil Stabilization against Water-Induced Erosion Using Polymer-Modified Microbially Induced Carbonate Precipitation. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 30(10), p.04018267.

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