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Problem of Mental Health and Addiction

Discuss about the Mental Health Addiction and Solutions.

Mental health and addiction have become a sector of concern worldwide. Many countries have been affected and are in a rush to find the solutions and ways of reducing the problem of mental health and addiction. Different organisations both public and private in different countries have come up with solutions on how to minimize the cases of mental health and addiction problems affecting the youths by holding rallies. Through these rallies the youth are being educated on how to avoid things such as addiction which is mostly caused by drug abuse. Considering that the youth are the future leaders, there is need to solve the problems of mental health and addiction which are affecting them. In many countries, mental health and addiction problems have been rampant especially in urban areas as compared to rural areas. This is as a result of many people migrating from their rural areas to urban centres in search of jobs.

 As a result of large population in urban areas, there are more people affected by mental health and addiction problems in urban areas compared to rural areas (Wang, Aguilar-Gaxiola, Alonso, Angermeyer, Borges, Bromet, & Haro, 2014). As a result of many people being affected by mental health in urban areas, more rehabilitation centres have been set up in order to cater for the need of the affected group. Aotearoa, New Zealand is one of the affected cities where there is rampant growth of mental health and addiction problems.

New Zealand addiction intervention system is focused on treatment of individuals in specialist addiction services. This focus in only appropriate for people with severe addiction. Due to increase in number of people suffering from mental health and addiction in aotearoa, New Zealand, the government of New Zealand has started setting up more rehabilitation centres in order to treat the affected people (Crisp et al., 2013). Due to increase in the number of people affected by mental health and addiction problems, the primary health and social services are underutilised in provision of treatment to people with addiction issues (Hlatywayo,2011). The current mental health and addiction sector is extended to cater for the larger group of people who are severely addicted and experiencing problems related to their situation, and also ensure early interventions as possible. This will be achieved through better integrations of primary, secondary and tertiary services to eradicate impacts and escalation of addiction.

Prevalence of Mental Health and Addiction

It has also been found addiction and treatment services are family centred by actively working to reduce addiction effects on all family members (Teesson et al., 2010). This is by specialists who visit families from door to door educating the affected families. Despite the growth of government and addiction services, the value of family inclusive practise, the vast majority of adult services still focuses on individual services. The purpose of this sector is to increase effective tools and resources that support people, to reduce or stop their problematic substances or other addictive behaviours.

Primary health services are the first contact with mental health professional, and are widely accessible to individuals and families. They are funded by ministry of health and made up of number of health care providers, mobile nursing services and pharmacist. Primary health services are provided to specific population within geographical area and cultural focus (McKenna et al.,2009). Also, it targets health promotion and screening programmes, which help to determine whether particular problems may or may not be present. It also determines the degree of extend of the problems for the whole population. This is done to ensure that the people at risk are met for early interventions and treatment.

Primary health services also provide care to mentally ill and addicted people, through cognitive behavioural therapy, psychoanalytical therapy, family therapy, group therapy, individual therapy, health lifestyle services and specialist youth provision (Browne et al.,2011). Enhancement of interventions for opioid dependence through maximising access to opioid treatment, retention, supporting recovery and addressing peoples wider needs by reducing opioid side effects. This will include extending the use of primary care that is well supported by specialist services to deliver interventions to opioid dependence people.

Primary health services will also offer self-management education programmes like self-management education, education therapy programmes and also programmes provided by peer support specialist. This will equip people with knowledge and skills to manage their own condition and reduce its adverse impacts on their life and to work in partnership with other services to enhance their wellbeing.

In addition, primary health care will work actively to improve coordination through ensuring that people who access range of services from mental health and addiction sector collaborate with other network of services like non-governmental organisations mental health, specialist services and other government agencies (Consedine, 2008). This is done to ensure that there are more solutions to mental health and addiction problems among the people. Through collaboration more information about the problems is available hence reducing the number of affected people. This also reduces the effect of mental health and addiction problems in future to the affected group.

Solutions to Mental Health and Addiction

Secondary health services are provided especially to people with more serious mental health and addiction issues. They are more specialised like in primary health services. The government strategy refers to these services three percent target of the severely affected people. These services are provided by both governmental and private non-governmental funded organisations. This is done in order to fulfil the needs of the large population which is affected by mental health and addiction problems in the city.

In secondary health services mental health profession access and treatment is done using many technics. These include medications like antidepressants such as heterocyclic and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, which are administered to control constipation and pain control medicines (Baldwin et al.,2008). Other medications used are psychotherapies like individual and group therapy. While other services focus on recovery and supporting people to live independently within the community.

Services offered are: community alcohol and drug services which are capable of treating existing addicted and mental health problems, providing treatment for alcohol and other gambling problems and also bringing other treatment options together and improving access to treatment. And will also ensure recovery and wellness support incorporating harm reduction and abstinence approaches (Browne et al., 2011). Secondly secondary health services offer community living services which are given to disabled people. These services are provided by providers in partnership with the ministry of health, to help reduce substance abuse to hose people.

Third is provision of peer support services which are currently offered by every district in aotearoa New Zealand (Wepa, 2010) This is all about relationships and mutuality and is growing as part of mental health sector. It includes modelling of relationships by peer support people and supports access to housing, education, employment, social and recreational activities. It also supports cultural peer services especially with indigenous people, material support like food storage, internet and transportation and support during crisis. Also provides supervision of peer educators. Secondary health services offer problem gambling services which provides psychological support and clinical interventions, like counselling services for people experiencing gambling harm including gamblers and those affected.

Tertiary health services provide intensive, highly specialist care and targets specific people or groups across age speculum such as pre and postnatal services to children, adolescents and adults (O’Brien et al.,2010). This is done through ways such as acute inpatient mental health treatment, which includes psychiatry assessment and treatment, educational programmes regarding illness management and lifestyles changes, individual counselling, medication planning and management.

Primary Health Services

Inpatient medical management with withdrawal services also provide withdrawal symptoms results from stopping use of most substances after heavy prolonged use. The provision of these services is to ensure safety of others and self when substances are stopped or reduced and where possible to address withdrawal symptoms to alleviate acute distress (Consedine, 2012). This is done through hospital based withdrawal management, social detoxification and withdrawal medical beds, social service based withdrawal management and also use of complementary and alternative therapies for withdrawal management like acupuncture, message, aromatherapy, homeopathic remedies and mineral and herbal supplements.

Secondary health services are also archived through forensic science services which are provided in four specific areas of provision within regional forensic science model (Wang et al., 2014). These include in courts, prisons, inpatient setting and courts they provide advice, assessment, court reports and recommendations to judiciary. The court reports are completed by psychiatrist and psychologist from the mentally ill people.

The services to prison is in essence, no difference from that of general community mental health service, but there are specific limitations in service provision in a prison setting (Bushnell et al., 2013). Responsibility of forensic science is to accept referrals either from primary cares or mental health teams when their clients need mental health clinics, screening, assessment and ongoing treatment (McKenna et al., 2008). The inpatient and residential services are also applicable especially where there are acute cases of mental health problems. These include; acute mental health services, assessment and treatment for specific patients. In cases where acute mental health services are required, professional nurses are the key characters. This is because they have more knowledge on how to handle such cases, and therefore the patient is at a high chances of healing.

 In community where management of specific patients, consultation, liaison services, specialised community support, service provider funding for enhanced community support for clients who are re-integrating back to the community after period in forensic setting and lastly forensic residential service in conjunction with non-governmental organisation providers.

Many organisations both governmental and non-governmental organisations have been set up to educate the youths (Cowie, 2011). This has been done especially in schools where mental health and addiction specialists such as mental health nurses are being sent to schools in order to educate student so that they can be aware of these problems early in advance. The mental health specialists can either pass the message to all students at a time or choose few students who are peer educators in order to teach them (Gillanders, 2010). The peer educators then pass the message to their fellow students who are therefore educated.

Secondary Health Services

Many people prefer that the mental health and addiction specialists use peer educators in this case (Browne et al., 2011). These is because students know is other and are also more free while with their fellow students rather than strangers. Education on mental health and addiction problems is therefore well passed where students are used to pass the message to their fellow students, since the students feel free and they can therefore as questions freely without fear (O'hagan, 2009). The government of New Zealand has also supported non-governmental organisations through financial support since many of these organisations are faced by financial problems. Therefore, in order to reduce the number of people of people affected by mental health and addiction in aotearoa, the government of New Zealand has released more funds to non- governmental organisation who are responsible in creating awareness to the people living in the area.

The government of New Zealand has also started setting up more rehabilitation centres in the aotearoa area in order to rehabilitate the affected group. More school of mental health nursing have also been set up. This has increased the number of students specialising in the mental health nursing sector, and this with help deal with the increasing number of people affected by mental health and addiction problems (O’Brien et al.,2010). Considering that the major cause of mental health problems is depression especially among the adults, the government of New Zealand has started educating adults on how to avoid depression. This has been done in both family education and also individual education. This has also been done through public education with the aim of reaching every adult who is at a risk of depression. This education is done by both governmental and non-governmental agencies in New Zealand.

In order to reduce the rate of addiction among the youths in aotearoa, the government of New Zealand has started creating more jobs. This is done in order to ensure that the youths are always committed and thus they have less chances of being involved in things such as drug abuse which leads to addiction (Chapman et al., 2015). The government of New Zealand has also send a warning to drug traffickers and drug abusers. Those who are found trafficking the drugs are going to face the law. This has reduced addiction among the youth in aotearoa, New Zealand since there is fear of being caught trafficking drugs (McBain, 2013). This has also reduced the number of drugs traffickers hence only few youths are able to access the drugs and this has reduced the problem of addiction and also mental health problems since some drugs such as cocaine if used for a long time, leads to a mental health problem.

Tertiary Health Services

The government of New Zealand is struggling to ensure that all children are able to get education. Through going to school, the children will be able to get enough education on mental health and addiction. Going to school also will reduce idleness and therefore the youths will not get time to engage themselves with bad companies where they can be taught on how to use alcohol and other commonly abused drugs (Patton et al., 2009). In schools, the government has also initiated programs in which all students are taught about addiction and mental health and how to avoid them. Private sectors have also taken this opportunity to send counsellors of different specialisations to schools in order to counsel students in schools. This has helped a lot especially in aotearoa where there is high population of youths engaging in drug abuse.

The government of New Zealand has also come up with policies governing selling of alcohol. The selling of alcohol has been rampant especially in the city of aotearoa. In order to reduce the case of addiction, the government has set strict policies to alcohol sellers. This has reduced addiction since only few will be able to meet the requirements and qualifications of selling alcohol (Browne et al., 2011). The government has also gone to the extent of reducing the time for opening alcohol pumps. The government has also restricted selling of alcohol to a certain age, and this has greatly reduced the problems of addiction and mental health.

Considering that there are many street children around the city of aotearoa, in order to reduce cases of mental health and addiction, the government of New Zealand has gone to an extent of providing housing to the homeless children (O'hagan, 2009). Not only the government, but also the non-governmental organisations have supported this. They have worked hand in hand to ensure that homeless children acquire homes hence reducing the number of street children in the city hence reducing cases of addiction and mental health in aotearoa, New Zealand.


Baldwin, A., Patuwai, R., & Hawken, D. (2008). Peer reciprocal supervision in a community child and family health service. Supervision in the helping professions: A practical approach, 299-312.

Browne, O., & MA, W. JE, & Scott, KM (Eds.). (2011). Te rau hinengaro: The New Zealand mental health survey.

Bushnell, J., McLeod, D., Dowell, A. D., Salmond, C., Ramage, S., Collings, S., ... & McBain, L. (2013). The nature and prevalence of psychological problems in New Zealand primary healthcare: a report on Mental Health and General Practice Investigation (MaGPIe).

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Consedine, M. (2008). Developing abilities: the future of clinical supervision? Journal of psychiatric and mental health nursing, 7(5), 471-474.

Consedine, M. (2012). Supervision and the reduction of anxiety. Australian and Aotearoa New Zealand Psychodrama Association Journal, (12), 32.

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Cowie, C. (2011). Conceptualising the foundation of an effective clinical supervision cycle in Mental Health Nursing (Doctoral dissertation, University of Otago).

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Gillanders, M. J. (2010). Towards the Development of'Good Practices' for Recording Social Work Supervision in Aotearoa New Zealand after the Introduction of Registration (Doctoral dissertation, University of Otago).

Hlatywayo, E. (2011). An exploration of the experiences of mental health and addictions nurses providing clinical supervision in a New Zealand District Health Board (Doctoral dissertation).

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Teesson, M., Hall, W., Slade, T., Mills, K., Grove, R., Mewton, L., ... & Haber, P. (2010). Prevalence and correlates of DSM?IV alcohol abuse and dependence in Australia: findings of the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Addiction, 105(12), 2085-2094.

Wang, P. S., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Alonso, J., Angermeyer, M. C., Borges, G., Bromet, E. J., ... & Haro, J. M. (2014). Use of mental health services for anxiety, mood, and substance disorders in 17 countries in the WHO world mental health surveys. The Lancet, 370(9590), 841-850.

Wepa, D. (2010). Clinical supervision in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Health Perspective.

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