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1. Discuss the impacts of internal factors (e.g., organisational, individual, and management factors) and external factors (e.g., market, industry, social, economic, technological and political/policy factors) on the success (or the failure) of IS/IT enabled innovation.


2. Suggest recommendations and guidelines for helping organisations succeed in their efforts to embark on using IS/IT for innovation with good explanation and discussion.

Examples of Use IS/IT for Innovation

Innovation has become the base of the modern day enterprises.  Informational technology is very much essential for modern day innovations. It is because information systems have helped the firms in doing research and development.  IT/IS enabled innovations have become very common. Information technology has helped the firms in gaining advantage especially in terms of the resources they have for Innovation projects. It is crucial for the company to understand the use of technology for improving the innovation standards (Pantano & Di Pietro 2012, pp.1-19).  Technology helps the firm in giving the platform where they can virtually test their innovation before launching it in the real world. There are several internal and external factors that poses impact on the success of IT/IS enabled innovation. This report highlights the examples that shows the use of the IS/IT for innovation. It also illustrates about some of the success factors and the factors that led to something wrong have been explained.  The later section of the report will describe the impact of internal and external factors on the success of the IT/IS enabled innovation. At last recommendations regarding the way in which organisation could improve such innovations has been highlighted.

Today’s Companies use technology in each and every operation related to their business. Innovation is one of the most crucial aspects in their business and hence they utilise their information system or information technology for bringing innovation. Some of the most common examples are:

Driverless car: This is one of the most common innovation on which many big companies are working. This innovation aims to remove the human intervention while driving a car. In the development of these cars the role of Information technology and information system becomes highly significant. This can be understood by the fact that these cars are equipped with different types of sensors and other modern day technology (Yoo et al. 2012, pp.1398-1408). Information technology provides it a platform where they can actually test the cars in the virtual environment. Information system helps in storing data that is helpful in navigation, identifying threats and recognising individuals. Information system acts as a brain which helps the cars to take decisions according to the pre-stored data. Information technology helps in controlling the cars and makes it automatic. Information technology assists in programming, testing and observation in the whole process of innovation. Tesla has been developing this car for a longer period of time.

Drones: Another important innovation that is going in different parts of the world is Drone technology. In this innovation the role of the technology is very much significant. This is because drones operate through sensors which sends and receives data. In sending and receiving this data there is use of IT technologies. IT technologies such as IOT are very much beneficial in this regards as it improves the functionality of Drones. Balancing, flight and navigation is also done with the help of IT technologies. Software is required for making drones available for work. This software helps in operating and controlling the operations of the drones. Information technology also helps the drones to have communication with other devices placed at different locations (Mithas et al. 2012, pp.205-224). The camera installed on it sends the data to the systems that are available. With the use of information technology the information grabbed by the drones can be transmitted to long distances at multiple locations at the same time. Dominoes is trying to use drones for delivering the parcels at home.

Success Factors and Things that Went Wrong

Surgery Robots: In the whole world there are multiple innovations going on for increasing the use of technology in different surgeries. Highly intelligent robots are required for doing it precisely. There is an extensive use of technology in these robots as there is use of software, sensors so as to control it from the remote places. Information technology helps in development of robots as well as for controlling it as per the requirement. On the other hand information system helps the robots to think appropriately and perform their operations as required. The use of data storage units along with data analytics will help them in taking their decisions autonomously in case of any critical situations. Artificial intelligence has a very critical role in this innovation as it improves the performance of these robots which is very much essential in the case of operations as it is a matter of life. In building artificial intelligence in the machines the role of information technology and systems becomes very much essential. Using this technology, sometimes doctors can perform operations from far across places sitting in their rooms (Dao, Langella & Carbo 2011, pp.63-79). This communication between the sensors placed on the arms of the doctors and the arms of the robot takes place via internet technology which is again controlled by information technology. This is highly in use in the case of heart and other types of surgeries that is highly critical. Da Vinci is one of the biggest names in this type of robot development.

Virtual reality: This is again an important innovation that is going to transform the world. IT systems play a very crucial role in this as it improves the ways of doing this. It helps to create an environment where a person can perform different task but not practically. This is having several applications in different fields. In this innovation, information system has a very crucial role as it helps in creating that imaginary world based on the detailed data they have. Technology helps in creating graphics and making people feel the reality (Goh, Gao & Agarwal 2011, pp.565-585). In this there will be extensive use of technologies such as IOT. The sensors placed at different human parts lets the technology understand about the movement of the people which creates an image of the person in that virtual world. Oculus one of the primary devices in the augmented reality works with the help of the data that they have stored for creating an effect on the business operations.

In all these innovations it can be seen that it is not only that their development can be made easier but IT/IS technologies also helps in making it useful. It is also helpful in improving its performance. Without the help of IT and IS technologies, these innovations cannot be possible.

In terms of innovation, the success factors and the things that went wrong are described below.

Success factors

High quality sensors are capable enough to record the variables that effects driving. It also helps in communicating between the different devices present at different locations. Some of the important sensors are high resolution camera, Radar, Lidar etc. Apart from this there is also use of advanced software that is capable of making it operational without human intervention (Hsu, Lee & Straub 2012, pp.918-939). Vendors such as NVIDIA and AMD provide the processors that provide heterogeneous processing which helps it in taking decisions. Along with this there is also development of Vehicle to vehicle and Vehicle to other things communication platform that enables cars to drive safely.

Impact of Internal Factors on IS/IT Enabled Innovation

In this innovation, there is a big problem that even after evaluating all the environment related issues, it is not possible to avoid accidents as other vehicles on the road is not that smart. It is a process where the data that will be required in its development will be huge hence quick decision making is also a problem.

Success factors

High grade processers, software, advanced programming platforms are some of the success factors that made drone successful. Apart from this now the developments of technologies such as internet of things and advancements of internet facilities have ensured its success.

Things that went wrong

It is having range limitation and in case of any loss of contact it is possible that drones may be lost. Location errors are not easy to remove.

Success factors

Advanced robotic designs, high quality sensors, processors as well as other types of technologies have made it successful. Along with this development of Nano technology has improved the success ratio of these robots (Krogstie 2012).

Things that went wrong

It is less autonomous as the data that is available with the robots sometimes becomes irrelevant in context with different people. In other words, it has been unsuccessful in removing the doctors from the operations.

Success factors

Artificial intelligence has been one of the most important factors that ensured success of virtual reality. Along with this, the use of advanced 3D glasses, emerging graphics and high quality motion sensors have ensured the success of virtual reality technology (Boland 2017).

Things that needs to be learnt

It is not implemented at the ground levels as technology development related to this innovation is very costly and not easy to handle.

There are several internal and external factors that is having impact on the success of the IT/IS enabled innovation. Some of the internal factors are as follows:

Organisational: Organisation that is having high quality information technology and information system installed at their workplace is able to bring innovations. The training they are getting acts as a factors that ensures success of the IT/IS enabled innovations. Apart from this information system framework acts as a support to such innovations (Merali, Papadopoulos & Nadkarni 2012, pp.125-153). An organisation’s capacity to bring changes and its ability to invest in that innovation in spite of many unsuccessful attempts plays a very crucial role in bringing IS/IT enabled innovation.

Individual: The skilled labourers and their knowledge related to IT technologies play a very crucial role in bringing the innovation. Along with this the research capabilities of the employees acts as an essential factor that brings innovation (Roger 2018). Personal development programs play a very crucial role in development of research skills within an individual.

Management factors: Management factors such as approach to bring changes and to go on with innovation is very much crucial for the success. Along with this leadership skills and the team working capability also has impact on the success of the innovation. Organisational culture and the attitude of the management officials play a decisive role in the success of innovation. Along with this, the resource that is available with the firm plays a much crucial role in the success of the innovation (Fawcett et al. 2011, pp.38-59). It includes human resources and technology infrastructure present with the firm.

Impact of External Factors on IS/IT Enabled Innovation

Apart from this there are certain external factors that impact on its success. Some of them are as follows:

Market: Market is highly tilted towards the innovations that are done with the help of IS/IT technology or the innovations that is made in the IT field. There are two reasons for it first, that it reduces the failure chances and it reduces the overall cost of innovation process. Investors are also ready to invest in such type of innovations as they are the future of the industries as well as it enables the innovation to be used for multiple purposes. It gives higher returns to the investors hence they are also giving positive response towards such investments (Chou, Chuang & Shao 2014, pp.290-299). The chances of failure also reduce as the innovations are tested on the virtual platforms and its feasibility is also tested before making actual implementation.

Industry: If the industry has moved towards information and technology then it will be easier for them to innovate. The industry that is having high amount of capital investment capacity is able to bring more number of innovations. It is essential for the industry to recruit people that are trained and skilled in IT technologies (Stair & Reynolds 2017).

Social: The demands of the society have changed especially related to higher use of technology in the new innovations that are coming up. With the increasing reach of the people in mobile technologies, people also want products that are developed through the help of technology (Oliveira & Martins 2011, p.110). Society is also demanding of innovations that are easier to use and bring a change in the lives of the people.

Technological: More the use of technology by any institution more is the chance of its success. Advanced technologies such as Internet of Things, data management software, virtual platforms, high speed internet facilities, advanced software; processors are some of things that ensure the success of the innovation. Technology is not only essential for bringing innovation but it is also essential for using it in an effective manner (Schwalbe 2015).

Political/policy: The political environment in the country always increases the chance of innovation. If the government supports the innovation and technology infrastructure within the country then the chances of development of new innovative product increases (Bloom et al. 2014, pp.2859-2885). The change in the policy of the government regarding the educational system within the country has a very decisive role in promoting new innovation within the country.

Checking the fact that there are many IT/IS enabled innovations going on in different parts of the world, there are certain things that can be recommended. First thing that would help the organisation in their success is to change the internal policy regarding the technology management. Their policy must be in line to ensure that new technologies are brought at regular basis. Change in the policies must also be in terms of bringing innovation culture at the workplace. Policies at the national level needs to be changed in terms of building national workforce that are more research oriented and they must be given proper training so as to make them more skilful. Second thing that can be recommended that digital divide in the society should be eliminated (Baheti & Gill 2011, pp.161-166). This must be done by the government by enlarging the infrastructure related to internet facilities and reducing the tax and tariffs on the technology equipment will improve the status of innovation within the country. Thirdly, it is recommended that companies provide the guidelines to the people regarding the innovations that are going to be held in the future so as to increase their participation in the innovation projects. This will help the firms to improve the quality of innovation that is going on in the world. More people would be able to contribute to such innovation which is very much necessary for improving the technology as soon as possible as well as to reduce the challenges that are faced by the company in its innovation. It also recommended that leadership approach towards innovation has to be boosted up to higher levels without thinking about the risk that it may cause to the business operations. 

Conclusion

From the above based report it can be concluded that IS/IT innovations are going on in various parts of the world. Some of the major and most common innovations are drones, driverless cars, virtual reality and surgery robots. High speed processors, advanced software, sensors, internet technologies, IOT infrastructure etc. are some of the success factors that have supported these innovations. On the other hand privacy, security, accidents are some of things that went wrong. There are several internal and certain external factors that are having impact on these innovations. It is recommended that policies are to be framed both at organisational and at cultural level so as to promote technology at the workplace. Technological innovations must be made under the guidelines so as to improve the quality of innovation.  

References

Baheti, R & Gill, H 2011, ‘Cyber-physical systems’, The impact of control technology, Vol. 12, no. 1, pp.161-166.

Bloom, N, Garicano, L, Sadun, R & Van Reenen, J 2014, ‘The distinct effects of information technology and communication technology on firm organization’, Management Science, Vol. 60, no. 12, pp.2859-2885.

Boland, M 2017, What are the Top VR Success Factors? (new report), viewed 25 November 2018, <https://artillry.co/2017/05/16/what-are-the-top-vr-success-factors-free-report/>.

Chou, YC, Chuang, HHC & Shao, BB 2014, ‘The impacts of information technology on total factor productivity: A look at externalities and innovations’, International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 158, pp.290-299.

Dao, V, Langella, I & Carbo, J 2011, ‘From green to sustainability: Information Technology and an integrated sustainability framework’, The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Vol. 20 no. 1, pp.63-79.

Fawcett, SE, Wallin, C, Allred, C, Fawcett, AM & Magnan, GM 2011, ‘Information technology as an enabler of supply chain collaboration: a dynamic?capabilities perspective’, Journal of Supply Chain Management, Vol. 47 no. 1, pp.38-59.

Goh, JM, Gao, G & Agarwal, R 2011. Evolving work routines: Adaptive routinization of information technology in healthcare. Information Systems Research, 22(3), pp.565-585.

Hsu, C, Lee, JN & Straub, DW 2012, ‘Institutional influences on information systems security innovations’, Information systems research, vol. 23 no. 3-part-2, pp.918-939.

Krogstie, J 2012, ‘Model-based development and evolution of information systems: A Quality Approach’, Springer Science & Business Media, Berlin.

Merali, Y, Papadopoulos, T & Nadkarni, T 2012, ‘Information systems strategy: Past, present, future?’, The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Vol. 21, no. 2, pp.125-153.

Mithas, S Tafti, A Bardhan, I & Goh, JM 2012, ‘Information technology and firm profitability: mechanisms and empirical evidence’, Mis Quarterly, pp.205-224.

Oliveira, T & Martins, MF 2011, ‘Literature review of information technology adoption models at firm level’, Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation, Vol. 14, no. 1, p.110.

Pantano, E & Di Pietro, L 2012, ‘Understanding consumer’s acceptance of technology-based innovations in retailing’, Journal of technology management & innovation, Vol.7, no. 4, pp.1-19.

Roger, A 2018, Innovation Case Studies: How Companies Use Technology To Solidify A Competitive Advantage, viewed 25 November 2018, <https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbestechcouncil/2018/04/13/innovation-case-studies-how-companies-use-technology-to-solidify-a-competitive-advantage/#3433beff1410>.

Schwalbe, K 2015, ‘Information technology project management’, Cengage Learning, Boston.

Stair, R & Reynolds, G 2017, ‘Fundamentals of information systems’, Cengage Learning, Boston.

Yoo, Y, Boland Jr, RJ, Lyytinen, K & Majchrzak, A 2012, ‘Organizing for innovation in the digitized world’, Organization science, Vol.23, no. 5, pp.1398-1408.

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