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For your Final Report (assignment 4) you are to develop a Stakeholder Engagement Plan and present it in a report format. You are to assume that the new runway is being proposed TODAY, and must therefore conform to current standards, and legislation, and consider the expected reaction, perceptions, input, and knowledge of all stakeholders as they exist today, not when the actual runway was constructed.

You are to incorporate assignments 1, and 2 corrected. (Note they are not included in the word count).

You have been briefed many times in lectures and tutorials on what we expect in your final report. To remind you yet again, all participants should at least follow the following structure:

In you final report your will need to:
Insert the corrected Assignment 1 as 1.0 Introduction;
You may include a short section on the engineering aspect of the project, but you must relate this to stakeholder engagement issues; and Insert the corrected assignment 2 as 2.0 literature review.

Background of the Sydney Airport and the Parallel Runway Project

Stakeholders engagement is considered to be one of the major aspects that every organizations must put focus upon. There are an array of factors related to the stakeholders’ engagement that are responsible to determine the success of a project. In this regard, it can be argued that stakeholders’ engagement is a process that is completely different from the notion of stakeholders’ management (Yang & Al-Qadi, I.L, 2017). In fact, the stakeholders’ engagement is coupled with the understanding of influencing variety of outcomes through relationship building, communication, consultation and negotiation (Ingeman-Nielsen & Foged, 2016). Moreover, it also helps the organization to bring more transparency and effectiveness in the process of the ongoing project by sharing and respecting the views and opinions of the stakeholders (Mizukami & Matsunaga, 2016). Henceforth, the purpose of this report is to underline the stakeholders’ engagement in a parallel runway project in Sydney Airport. In course of the discussion, it can also be asserted that the report encompasses the process of stakeholder identification and identify the key stakeholders. Moreover, the discussion further incorporates the budget analysis involving the staffing costs, activity costs. This section is highly important in order to understand the feasibility and pragmatism of the project and help to foster a better opportunity for the project.

The Sydney Airport is considered to be one of the busiest airport across the world with an annual passenger strength of 21 million approximately. The reason behind such a heavy rush of passengers is the Sydney Airport is one of the principle aviation gateway in Australia. In this context, with the growing number of passengers it becomes important for the airport authority to increase the number of flights daily (Okafor, Jemitola & Soladoye, 2018). Currently, the Sydney Airport has two runways but they are not adequate enough to deal with such huge volume of passengers. As a result of that the Sydney Airport authority is going to initiate a parallel runway project with the purpose to manage the passenger pressure effectively (Gamil et al., 2017).

However, there are some issues that the airport has faced in course of implementing the parallel runway project. Environmental factors are identified as one of the major challenge that hampered the very management of the Sydney Airport. Furthermore, issues in terms of equipment, infrastructure and effective management is also referred as an important aspect that the airport authority has to work on (Shah, 2014). In addition to this, the huge airspace and the aircraft systems and communication will be played a significant role in the project that is highly related to the technological advancement and infrastructural adequacy. 

Challenges Faced in Implementing the Parallel Runway Project

One of the pertinent aspect of stakeholders’ engagement program in a project is identified as the stakeholder identification process. According to Ho (2015), the stakeholder identification process relies on the methodical and logical factors that can guide the process to formulate a better understanding. In this regard, the stakeholders can be identified geographically, organizationally and by their involvement in various projects. On the other hand Ruh (2014) argued that there are two different types of stakeholders responsible to attain success in a project such as stakeholders who are directly influenced the team and stakeholders who indirectly put an impact on the project (Das, Mahesh & Kumar, 2016). In other words, it can be advocated that people who are directly engage with the project are defined as the internal stakeholders. The internal stakeholders are primarily accompanied with the organizational members. On the contrary stakeholders influence the project team indirectly are referred as the external stakeholders. It can be argued that the role of the stakeholders’ engagement plan is to maintain a transparent and better result for achieving success in the project. In his research, Je? (2015) have argued that due to lack of communication and understanding about the process of stakeholders’ identification strategy often the organizations face sever challenges in engaging the stakeholders. Therefore, it is imperative to have an in-depth perception regarding the entire framework of stakeholder identification process.

In response to this the parallel runway project for the Sydney Airport has to identify the key stakeholders who can foster a great deal of impact on the project. As a matter of fact, the key stakeholders are categorized into two groups, the internal and the external stakeholders.

The internal stakeholders are as follows,

  • The   Sydney Airport Authority sets up a committee or a board that is led by a project manager. As the project manager is responsible for the entire parallel runway project therefore it is obvious for the internal stakeholders to choose the project managers as the key members of the project team (Cascetta et al., 2015).
  • Airport runway construction authority – Besides the engineering complexities and detailed information related to the project management, there are concerns of infrastructure, construction and the procurement process that are entitled to bring more accuracy in the project development mechanism (Kwan et al., 2016).
  • Development and master planning

In this context, the planning of the project development is very important in order to make a better stakeholders’ engagement. The development and master planning process has two different elements in the name of the consultant and the building contractors (Shackleton et al., 2018). As far as the consultant is concerned he is responsible to advise the management about the compliance with policies and procedures. On the other hand, the design building contractors are committed to deliver the respective project the service of design and construction (Barrett, Oborn & Orlikowski, 2016).

  1. Ground services- The ground services are entitled to ensure the safety and security of the airline passengers and also responsible to keep an eye on the maintenance process of the plane and the runway (Mok, Shen & Yang, 2015).
  2. Government operation authority- Police, air carrier and the customs are identified as the operation authorities to make a better environment for the operation related matters. Specifically, the police units look after the law enforcement functions in case of the airport emergency. The air carrier are related to the flight deck checking and maintenance of the air navigators whereas the customs are dealing with the functions of loading export goods that are essential for the parallel runway project (Jillella, Matan & Newman, 2015).

Stakeholder Name

Impact

How much does the project impact them? (Low, Medium, High)

Influence

How much influence do they have over the project? (Low, Medium, High)

What is important to the stakeholder?

How could the stakeholder contribute to the project?

How could the stakeholder block the project?

Strategy for engaging the stakeholder

Project board

High

High

 The overall requirement of the project is defined by the board of members and take into consideration the requirements of the other stakeholders in the project.

 The purpose of the project board is management of the overall project by providing guidance based on the weekly reports.  The overall project plan is scheduled based on the criteria and constraints defined by them.

They have the highest accountability while developing and executing the project. They assess the feasibility of the project at each phases and can stop it if required.

The project board will be provided with weekly status reports and project updates. This will also consist of weekly meeting discussing about the challenges and issues in the project.

Project manager

High

High

The project manager monitors the overall project and is accountable for the success of the project. .

The project manager is the mainly act as a link between the board and other stakeholders. The project manager will develop the project plan and allocate resources as per the budget and timeline.

The unavailability of the project manager directly hampers the project as the major decision making is developed based on the project manager.

Project manager will be involved in daily meetings to set daily agendas and evaluate the progress of the project based on the success criteria.

Civil Engineer

Low

High

Civil engineer is responsible for developing the modernized runway.

The construction requirement of the project is developed by the civil engineer and will monitor the construction of the project

The absence of the civil engineer will lead to scope creep and delay in the project activities.

The civil engineer will sit for weekly meetings with the project board and the project manager to discuss the project progress and the issues.

Infrastructure and concrete management engineer

Low

High

The resources required for developing the runway are effectively managed by the Infrastructure and concrete management engineer

The cost and resources requirement are effectively developed by the Infrastructure and concrete management engineer

The absence of the stakeholder may result in inventory and requirement issues.

The infrastructure and concrete engineer  will sit for weekly meetings with the project board and the project manager to discuss the inventory related issues

Procurement engineers

Low

High

The procurement engineers are responsible for purchasing of all the product requirements for the project.

The procurement engineer can keep the project budget with the given limit by developing effective relationship with the suppliers and selecting appropriate suppliers for the project.

The absence of the procurement engineer will result in mismanagement of the overall budget of the project.

The procurement manager will sit for weekly meetings with the project board, project manager and other stakeholders to discuss the issues related to purchasing of materials and budget of the project.

Road design engineers

Low

High

Road designer aims to develop a world class runway based on the current and future project requirements.

The road designer will design the runway by keeping in mind the current requirement and future requirements in the upcoming years.

The absence of the road design engineer will result in delay of the project commencement and all the phases of the project will be delayed

The road design engineer will have an initial meeting with all the critical stakeholders in the project and will be called upon in case of change in project requirements.

Surveyor

Low

High

The surveyor designs the overall land to provide effective topographical knowledge about the project site

The analysis of the land will result in identification the appropriate area for the runway and stakeholder identification that will be directly affected.

Surveyor belongs to the initial stage of the project and faulty evaluation of the contour will result in development of working estimate in the project.  The surveyor will also evaluate the environmental implication of the project on the surrounding environment.

A meeting will be held with the surveyor and quarterly reports will be send.  The ecological rules and regulation will also be discussed for developing the success criteria of the project.

Consultant

Low

High

Consultant are advisors to the project that will provide that will provide solutions that are ideal in nature.

Consultants are responsible for providing the drawing and designing of the project within the given time. Consultants also provide valid strategies that should be implemented for effective development of the runway.

Consultants are one of the key stakeholders that are crucial to initial phase of the project and helps in initiating the project at soon as possible by keeping in mind the requirement of the stakeholders.

A meeting has to be conducted at the initial phase among the projects stakeholders and the consultant to gain clarity about the strategies and the project requirements. The consultant has to be provided with monthly reports so proper evaluation of the strategies can be done.

Design Build contractors

Low

High

The design build contractors will consist of the stakeholders that are responsible for developing the runway

The design build contractors execute the plans developed by the other engineers and stakeholders to as per the schedule and timeline.

The contractors have a high chance of hampering the project due to the disagreement of the pay of the project and there are times where the budget increases and the contract demands more resources and money for effective development of a project. In this scenario, it is essential to reach an agreed contract before the commencement of the development phase of the runway.

The design build contractors will have regular meetings with the engineers, managers and project board to ensure that they are aware of the each phase and activity of the project.

Geo technical Services

Low

High

The geo technical team will aim to provide proper knowledge about the surrounding environment.

The geo technical team will consist assess the wind pressure and conduct soil testing which is the first step of the project as it will provide detail analysis of the climatic conditions and the ground conditions. This analysis is essential for developing the technical and infrastructural needs of the project.

The project will not start unless the geo technical team has analysed the overall project site.

A meeting will be conducted with the geo technical team after the testing for evaluating the needs that is essential for proper functioning of the runway.

Ground Services

High

Low

The ground services provides the consumers with the needs and wants for boarding the plane from the airport to the runway.

The ground services being the external stakeholders do contribute to the project directly but provide requirements for smooth functioning of airport operations

The ground services cannot block the project and will not have any impact on the project.

The ground services will be provided with monthly reports about the progress of the report and quarterly meetings will be held with the project stakeholders.

Police

Medium

Medium

Police department are responsible for protecting the project site from any form of the illegal activities.

Police is responsible for protecting the project site

They are external stakeholders and does not have the power to block the project on their own. However, in case of illegal activities, the site may be sealed.

The police will be provided monthly information about the activities and equipment in the project site.

Customs

High

Low

The customs will analyse the project site to check for imports and exports.

The customs will evaluate the suitability of the site regarding shipping and docking. They are responsible for providing clearance to the project

The customs can stop the project by not providing clearance

Meeting on monthly basis has to be conducted to inform them regarding the progress of the runway.

Air carriers

High

Medium

The different aircrafts will analyse the runway to check its suitability to flight take offs.

The air carrier will provide permissions for developing the runway.

The air carriers may cause issues for the project if the project does not meet the requirement and regulations of the aviation industry.

Quarterly meetings will be conducted to make them aware of the progress of the report.

Airport operations

High

Low

The airport operations are responsible for managing all the operations.

The airport operations are external stakeholders so does not directly contribute to the project.

As they are not directly related to the project so cannot hinder the project directly. However, they can indirectly cause interruptions

The airport are provided the copy of the monthly project report and status updates.

Local Airline Company

High

Low

The local airline companies aim to provide convenient journey to all their consumers

They cannot directly contribute to the project as they are the external stakeholders.

They cannot cause hindrance to the project as they are the external stakeholders.

They will provided with reports on quarterly basis to keep them up to date about the project.

Funding Government

High

High

The funding government will check for the sustainability, feasibility and success of the project.

The stakeholders develop industry standards, regulations and rules that needs to be followed for developing a runway.

The stakeholder may stop the project if they feel that the project is not feasible and the industry rules and regulations are not being followed.

The government has to be provided with reports on every fort night and weekly meeting have to be conducted so that all the processes and procedures are being followed.

According to Thaler & Levin-Keitel (2016) the engagement activities of the stakeholders are closely related to the communication mechanism. As a matter of fact, the communication framework provides the stakeholders to generate a better environment for achieving success and sustainability in future development. Therefore, before going to take decisions regarding the effectiveness and implementation of the stakeholders’ engagement plan it is pivotal for the stakeholders to formulate a pragmatic communication plan (Taylor & Kent, 2014). In this context, the report also puts emphasis on the communication plan as a driving tool to engage the stakeholders profoundly.

Stakeholder Identification Process

Task Name

Duration

Start

Finish

Stakeholder Engagement Plan

149 days

Mon 11/2/09

Thu 5/27/10

1.0 Identification of Stakeholders

43 days

Mon 11/2/09

Wed 12/30/09

1.1 Analysis of the area

7 days

Mon 11/2/09

Tue 11/10/09

1.2 industry standards, requirements and regulations

10 days

Wed 11/11/09

Tue 11/24/09

1.3 Stakeholder identification

6 days

Wed 11/25/09

Wed 12/2/09

1.4 Evaluating the stakeholders

5 days

Thu 12/3/09

Wed 12/9/09

1.5 Stakeholder mapping

10 days

Thu 12/10/09

Wed 12/23/09

1.6 Developing priority list based on stakeholder analysis

5 days

Thu 12/24/09

Wed 12/30/09

1.7 Milestone 1: identification of stakeholders completed

0 days

Wed 12/30/09

Wed 12/30/09

2.0 Engaging the stakeholders

29 days

Thu 12/31/09

Tue 2/9/10

2.1 Partnership approach implementation for high interest and high influence

4 days

Thu 12/31/09

Tue 1/5/10

2.2 Participative approach implementation for low interest and high influence

7 days

Wed 1/6/10

Thu 1/14/10

2.3 Consultation approach implementation for high interest and low influence

6 days

Fri 1/15/10

Fri 1/22/10

2.4 Push-pull approach implementation for high interest and high influence

3 days

Mon 1/25/10

Wed 1/27/10

2.5 Stakeholder engagement activities review

2 days

Thu 1/28/10

Fri 1/29/10

2.6 Necessary Amendments

4 days

Mon 2/1/10

Thu 2/4/10

2.7 Execute the final strategies

3 days

Fri 2/5/10

Tue 2/9/10

2.8 Milestone 2: Development of stakeholder engagement plan completed

0 days

Tue 2/9/10

Tue 2/9/10

3.0 Implementation of the stakeholder plan

63 days

Wed 2/10/10

Fri 5/7/10

3.1 communication plan development

7 days

Wed 2/10/10

Thu 2/18/10

3.2 Evaluation of the communication plan

5 days

Fri 2/19/10

Thu 2/25/10

3.3 Mailing the communication plan to all the stakeholders

6 days

Fri 2/26/10

Fri 3/5/10

3.4 Execute the meetings based on the developed schedule

45 days

Mon 3/8/10

Fri 5/7/10

3.5 Milestone 3: stakeholder plan implemented

0 days

Fri 5/7/10

Fri 5/7/10

4.0 Project closure

14 days

Mon 5/10/10

Thu 5/27/10

4.1 Analysis of the developed plan

3 days

Mon 5/10/10

Wed 5/12/10

4.2 Identification of the different issues and budget of the project

6 days

Thu 5/13/10

Thu 5/20/10

4.3 Develop risk management strategies and evaluating the budget

4 days

Fri 5/21/10

Wed 5/26/10

4.4 Stop engagement plan

1 day

Thu 5/27/10

Thu 5/27/10

4.5 Milestone 4: Project closed

0 days

Thu 5/27/10

Thu 5/27/10

It is important for the parallel runway project to design the cost of the project in an effective manner. In this context, the cost of the labor and employee is expected to be set a rate of $30,000. As a result of that the total expense of the parallel runway project in Sydney Airport can be estimated at a rate of $1, 20, 000. In fact, the employee cost per production hour can be waged at $60 for each production hour. It means the employees can get an amount of $1 for each productive minute. Moreover, there are the engineering labor burden rate (6) for per week hour that is subtracted from engineering designer’s labor burden rate (%) per product (work) hour, deduct the engineer’s hourly rate from the individual’s fully burden cost ($60-$28= $32). It indicates that the additional cost will be estimated for the engineers on the job when computed as a percentage add 115% ($ 32/$28*100) to the electrical engineer’s base hourly rate.

The internal activity cost is as follows,

TABLE 12-4  Illustration of a Internal activities cost

Factor

Budgeted Cost

Estimated Total Cost

Cost Committed

Cost Exposure

Cost To Date

Over or (Under)

Labor
Material
Subcontracts
Equipment
Other
Total

$96,306
90,499
190,658
47,543
   80,693
505,699

$102,000
90,658
187,696
47,543
   83,392
511,289

$60,785
70,678
95,258
35,945
262,666

---
50,467
100,865
---
            ---
151,332

$52,746
---
15,139
13,920
   32,076
113,881

$2,936
0
(2,135)
0
   8,739
5,950

The external activities cost is as follows,

Activity

Expenses (AU$)

Expenses (AU$)

11,022,489

Member Training

3,971,645

Member Training

1,563,287

Technical Infrastructure

1,442,420

Technical Infrastructure

1,147,931

Community Engagement

4,758,804

Regional Technical Development

464,222

Corporate

1,905,745

Facilities

3,321,653

Finance & Administration

781,804

Human Resource Management

875,111

Legal & Governance

532,853

Total Expenses

31,26,1111

The parallel runway project of the Sydney Airport is a complex mechanism that requires expert assistance externally. As a matter of fact, the experts are entitled to deal with the design, consultation and the development costs related to the parallel runway project in the Sydney Airport.

Expert service

Budget

Planning, research and outreach

5000

Design and Consultation

8000

Development

40000

Total

53000

Conclusion

It can be concluded that the report extensively carried out a detailed research on the stakeholders’ engagement regarding the parallel runway project. In this context, choosing the case study of Sydney Airport is very much relevant and provided a clear understanding of the topic. In addition to this, the cost analysis or the activity cost fosters further insights into the report. In this way the report perfectly portrays a modern day stakeholders’ engagement perception and figures out the competencies and remedies to make the project a successful attempt.

Reference

Barrett, M., Oborn, E. & Orlikowski, W., (2016). Creating value in online communities: The sociomaterial configuring of strategy, platform, and stakeholder engagement. Information Systems Research, 27(4), pp.704-723.

Cascetta, E., Carteni, A., Pagliara, F. & Montanino, M., (2015). A new look at planning and designing transportation systems: A decision-making model based on cognitive rationality, stakeholder engagement and quantitative methods. Transport policy, 38, pp.27-39.

Das, P., Mahesh, G. & Kumar, R.R., (2016). Participatory Risk Management Model for Construction Projects Using Expert Systems. Journal of Construction Engineering, Technology & Management, 6(2), pp.17-24.

Gamil, Y., Rahman, I.A., Nagapan, S. & Alemad, N., (2017). Qualitative Approach on Investigating Failure Factors of Yemeni Mega Construction Projects. In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 103, p. 03002). EDP Sciences.

Ho, J.K.K., (2015). An examination of the Hong Kong Airport Third Runway project (HKATRP) using the mode 2 strategic assumptions and surfacing technique (SAST) rationale. American Research Thoughts, 2(2), pp.3186-3205.

Ingeman-Nielsen, T. & Foged, N., (2016). The construction of Kangerlussuaq Airport-A case story from West Greenland. In XI. International Conference on Permafrost (pp. 1131-1133).

Je?, M., (2015). Mechanical Aspects of Circular Runway Aspects. Machine Dynamics Research, 38(1).

Jillella, S.S.K., Matan, A. & Newman, P., (2015). Participatory sustainability approach to value capture-based urban rail financing in India through deliberated stakeholder engagement. Sustainability, 7(7), pp.8091-8115.

Kwan, B.M., Sills, M.R., Graham, D., Hamer, M.K., Fairclough, D.L., Hammermeister, K.E., Kaiser, A., de Jesus Diaz-Perez, M. & Schilling, L.M., (2016). Stakeholder engagement in a patient-reported outcomes (PRO) measure implementation: a report from the SAFTINet Practice-Based Research Network (PBRN). The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 29(1), pp.102-115.

Mizukami, J. & Matsunaga, Y., (2016). Construction of D-Runway at Tokyo International Airport. Japanese Geotechnical Society Special Publication, 2(2), pp.122-134.

Mok, K.Y., Shen, G.Q. & Yang, J., (2015). Stakeholder management studies in mega construction projects: A review and future directions. International Journal of Project Management, 33(2), pp.446-457.

Okafor, E.G., Jemitola, P.O. & Soladoye, M.A., (2018). Assessment of runway excursion causal factors and mitigation strategies. Nigerian Journal of Technology, 37(3), pp.619-625.

Ruh, F., (2014). Munich airport’s third runway and stakeholder communications. Journal of European Management & Public Affairs Studies, 2(1), pp.15-22.

Shackleton, R.T., Adriaens, T., Brundu, G., Dehnen-Schmutz, K., Estévez, R.A., Fried, J., Larson, B.M., Liu, S., Marchante, E., Marchante, H. & Moshobane, M.C., (2018). Stakeholder engagement in the study and management of invasive alien species. Journal of environmental management.

Shah, S., (2014). Stakeholders Management in the Indian Construction Industry: Insights into the Approach at Larsen & Toubro’s Construction Division. The Journal of Values-Based Leadership, 7(1), p.6.

Taylor, M. & Kent, M.L., (2014). Dialogic engagement: Clarifying foundational concepts. Journal of Public Relations Research, 26(5), pp.384-398.

Thaler, T. & Levin-Keitel, M., (2016). Multi-level stakeholder engagement in flood risk management—A question of roles and power: Lessons from England. Environmental Science & Policy, 55, pp.292-301.

Yang, R. & Al-Qadi, I.L., (2017). Development of a Life-Cycle Assessment Tool to Quantify the Environmental Impacts of Airport Pavement Construction. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, (2603), pp.89-97. 

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