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Desk research is very effective and can be conducted in starting phase of market research as it is quite quick and cheap and most of the basic information could be easily fetched which can be used as benchmark in the research process. There are two types of desktop analysis

1-Internal desk research: process of collecting information that generated internally within the organization as a course of normal process. the advantage of using this method is that it uses existing organization resources to organize the collection of information which helps to improve the efficiency of information.

2-External desk research: process of collecting information outside of the organization.

The best external desk research is online resources.

Online Desk Research: this method involves using the internet resources to collect information. The main advantage of using this method is the capacity and availability of information.

To reduce the quantity of waste generated during construction, the cost of erecting the building, increasing the standard of the building and reducing the opposing environmental impact in high rise building can only be achieved by using the type of technique mentioned above as explained by Mathew (2013). The advantages of this method include;

Advantages and Disadvantages of Raster Façade Precast Concrete construction

High building speed.

Good quality control.

Prestressing is easily done which can reduce the size and number of the structural members.

Rapid construction on site.

The error encountered is minimal.

Difficult during connection.

The usage of precast concrete cannot take place in two-way structural systems since the size of the panel is limited.

The building design will be affected by the repetition of forms.

The lifting of the panels requires cranes.

The flexibility of the building design is limited.

Expensive and complex joints between the panels.

Application of the panel on the site requires skilled workmanship.

?Regularly shaped buildings require economies of scale.

The safety of workers is taken care of as well as the quality of work by using automated welding system and it will enable construction operations to take place smoothly without interference. The automation has various advantages in the construction industry which includes;

  • It enhances quality and standardized products.
  • It handles dangerous operations taken by employees
  • It increases productivity and reduces the cost.
  • It carries out labor tasks at hazardous locations, for instance, extensive height places.
  • It promotes a good operating environment since workers are operating in a safe environment.

Advantages of the automated welding system

  • Better welding quality.
  • Increased output is increased.
  • Decreased scrap are decreased
  • The cost of labor is reduced
  • Materials are efficiently used.
  • Safety among workers is improved since certain works are handled by robots.
  • Shorter workweeks for labor and reduced factory lead times.

Disadvantages of an automated welding system

  • The welding system needs a high amount of capital.
  • A regular maintenance is required compared to the manual one.
  • The degree of flexibility is lower.
  • It can lead to unemployment
  • It causes the displacement of workers.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Raster Façade Precast Concrete Construction

The demand of the infrastructure has been on the increase. This increase in the demand can be attributed to the ever-increasing population. Most of the individuals have opted for modern structures whose characteristics are different as compared to the ancient and outdated buildings. The construction of the modern houses normally makes reference to the management of time, quality of the building services and the period for the construction (Shaikh et al 2014). The success of the current projects on the building has been as a result of the current techniques and technologies. The design has been incorporating the parameters like time, quality and cost. The rate of the land use and the investment has gone high with the time. This is because most of the private developers have been acquiring land to facilitate construction of the projects. This particular project seeks to highlight some of the modern techniques that have been utilized in the construction of the high rise building (Johansson 2012). The project has set specific objectives that are considered relevant to assist in the study. The objectives include reducing the construction time of the high-rise building, to reduce the general cost of the construction of the building and finally the improvement of the quality of the services within the building.

 The construction of the high-rise has been given much of the attention as compared to the other construction sectors. This has been because of its unique requirements that must match the standards. Some of the key characteristics are; such projects are labor intensive, involvements of the turnovers and also relatively large investments. The techniques that are exploited in the modern constructions serve to provide shortcuts that do not necessarily compromise the quality of the structure alongside other engineering requirements.

 Most of the construction companies have considered the project of construction of the high-rise building as a wealth-generating mechanism. These kinds of buildings are preferred since they can cause large estates from small pieces of the land. In order to make the construction of the high rise building successful, there has to be an integration of several mechanisms and techniques. Adoption of the latest methods and trends allows for the construction exercise to be faster and also more efficient. The developers must always remain committed to an understanding of the latest modern technologies so as to make their projects competitive. Information in regard to the latest construction equipment thus becomes very crucial for the whole company

Advantages of Automated Welding Systems

The increased population across the globe has consequently increased the demand of housing in most countries. People are looking for more space to improve their lifestyles. This has made the construction of buildings to try and maximize on land utilization as well as investment return. High rise construction development is regarded as a center of the construction industry in view of its very large labor turnovers and contents which have changed as a result of its nature of works and investments from the investors.

 The design processes of high rise buildings have been changing over the previous years. The precast elements in constructions began in 20th century as a result of economic boom (Harrision 1998). In the modern construction world, high rise buildings are being constructed as a frame structure which is subjected to gravity as well as lateral loads. In terms of technology, there are vital procedures that are considered when planning for high rise building. Numerous high rise buildings are currently constructed in the world using the latest technology. The use of strengthened cement as well as steel technology is currently used in high rise building construction. Likewise, cement blocks are being used for wall construction in most high rise building.

The difficulties experienced in acquiring construction materials in Japan, U.S and Australia have contributed to an increase in high rise building construction. The expedient adoption of new technology in the high rise building construction is now recognized as one of the solutions to these problems to improve quality, efficiency and minimized cost in construction projects. The development of new technology in high rise building construction is a driving force to alter decisions at the stage of design as well as operations at construction. It is an important factor impacting both design and construction integration and it is a prudent deployment as a direct influence on constructability effectiveness input during design (Hardy 1997)

  The need for cost competitive, quick to assembly buildings, social and industrial buildings also rose at this time. According to Griffin (1986), the high cost of structural steel lead to the adoption of strengthened concrete as base material which contributed to a cost advantage between 1 and 10 when resisting compressive columns are put into consideration. The need for minimizing construction costs have resulted to reduced long time spending, casting and scaffolding site construction operations.  Smith and Andres (1986) highlight improved quality, increased safety, short time schedules and cost minimization to owners and contractors as one of the main advantage of incorporating technology in construction.

Disadvantages of Automated Welding Systems

In Hong Kong, developers and contractors are seeking technology to reduce the construction time, cost, safety-working environment and improved quality control in high rise building construction. The adoption of technology in the construction of high rise building in Hong Kong has lead to reduced accident rates. For instance, steel sheet piling have been utilized instead of timber planking. One of the modern technologies that have been used in the construction of high rise building is construction automation. According to McElroy (1993), numerous construction robots have been utilized in Japan such as automated concrete finishers, façade inspection system and steel welding machines. As much as these systems are not commonly used, they represent an increase in automation as well as safety. The automated systems need to be supervised because they perform one simple construction task. For instance the Japan concrete floor-finishing robots effectiveness is almost the same to America walk-behind system.

Computer system is another modern technology that is utilized in the construction of high rise building. CHEW (2001), stipulates that the technologies of structural-design used by constructors are almost the same as those used by medium and large-size consulting engineering companies in the U.S.  The finite-element codes as well as graphic front-end packages have been routinely used to present buildings. Additionally, two dimensional CAD systems have been utilized for construction whereas 3-D systems have been utilized by Architects for client presentation and spatial design.  

Precast concrete construction is another technology that has been used in high rise building construction. The precast concept involve buildings whose structural components are standardized and generated in plant location away from the building then transported to the site of construction for assembly. The components are processed by industrial methods based on mass production to build a huge number of buildings for a very short time at a reduced cost. The major features of this construction process include division and human workforce specialization, use of automated machinery, tools and other equipment (Schuller 1990).  This type of construction method need a restructuring of the whole typical construction process to facilitate interaction between the production planning and design phase to enhance and speed up the process of construction.  

This type of construction method was used in the second half of the 20th century to avail low-income residential houses for the increasing urban population.  Precast building systems have been identified to be economical as compared to conventional apartment buildings in numerous nations. Notably, the precast concrete construction in Canada began in 1950’s. The precast concrete use in flooring was common in New Zealand and Japan in 1960’S leaving cast-in place floor construction overall rare in these countries. Andres (1998) has supported this by developing a fulfilling ductile, moment-resistant beam to column connection that could be used in earthquake resistant buildings with precast strengthened concrete construction. The design for such link has enabled the performance of the link to be examined experimentally.

The technique and requirement of construction for high rise building is significant for the strength of the building and project management. A building is not good if there is no good structure. Contemporarily, the structure of a building directly relate to the material used for construction. The material use for construction, management of waste product and wastewater treatment for reuse are significant aspects in the construction of high rise buildings. Construction of high rise building depends on proper planning and efficient quality control method. As viewed in the studies above, researchers have demonstrated fulfilling results for conventional frame in all aspects and this suggest that precast frame has become crucial throughout the world.

Desktop analysis research:

The study has properly utilized the desktop research. This was found to be very useful in the analysis of various kinds of the technologies. Desk analysis is process of researching and collecting data from online resources.   

Desk research is very effective and can be conducted in starting phase of market research as it is quite quick and cheap and most of the basic information could be easily fetched which can be used as benchmark in the research process. There are two types of desktop analysis

  • Internal desk research: process ofcollecting information that generated internally within the organization as a course of normal process: the advantage of using this method is that it uses existing organization resources to organize the collection of information which helps to improve the efficiency of information.
  • External desk research: process of collecting information outside of the organization.

The best external desk research is online resources.

Online Desk Research: this method involves using the internet resources to collect information. The main advantage of using this method is the capacity and availability of information.

 These technologies were found to be very relevant in the implementation of the project objectives. The analysis has been guided by the objectives of the projects that include quality and the cost of the construction information’s. The strength of the opinions has been comprehensively argued using the theories of the Desk research methodology. Desk research analysis has been used for secondary research. it helped to collect more detailed data from internet resources and review previous research findings to gain a broad understanding of the field This has assisted in the making of the decisions regarded as efficient as before. The construction of the high rise buildings has been much better in the recent years with such considerations taking the center stage (Goldstein 2012).

 Different points of views have been provided by the use of the Desk analysis. Such methodology helps in the digging of the insights to the problems through utilization of the different technologies. The effectiveness of the modern technologies in the establishment of quality residential places was evaluated as well. The opinions and the ideas of different authors in regard to the subject matter have been used to uncover the trends that are considered beneficial for the construction of the high rise building.

The construction of tall buildings has always been human desires despite the resources needed to complete it. The benefit of implementing the use of modern technologies in Australia helps to avoid various challenges encountered in the construction industry for example high cost and the long period of construction. These technologies include; 

The construction of high rise building requires the use of modern technology to ensure the quality of construction is achieved, the cost of construction is minimal and a short period of completing the construction. There are also certain challenges which affects the construction of high rise building in Australia and these challenges can only be avoided by implementing modern construction technologies that has mentioned in this report.

Issues facing High rise construction in the Australian Construction Industry   

Modern technologies are mostly used in many Australian construction companies so that they can minimize the time taken to erect the building and also its cost. To ensure completion of the building is done on time and also prevented from collapsing, modern technologies are needed by high rise building. There are numerous issues that are affecting high rise building in Australia and some of those challenges are mitigated by modern technology currently introduced in the construction market (Dehn, 2016, p. 78). Some of these challenges experienced in the construction of high rise building in Australia include;

  1. a) Rising costs of projects

The rising cost of building high rise building is one the greatest problem facing the Australian construction industry. This comes as a result of high prices of metals, oil, rising interest rate, and a strong Australian dollar. The efficiency of the Australian construction sector is affected by these factors and one of the factor which increases the cost of constructing high rise building is delay in construction thus too much expenses are incurred for example, paying workers as well construction expenses (Wood, 2014, p. 65). This issue can be solved by practicing Raster façade precast concrete system.

  1. b) Quality Control

Controlling the quality of services rendered in Australia is one of the biggest problem facing the Australian Industry. This is the most nagging issue since there is no regulation or law put in place to control the delivery of quality services. This is because the industry lacks the focus to establish the best standard of services that should be delivered (Stafford, 2009, p. 329). Application of Raster façade precast concrete system assists in solving quality issues.

  1. c) Reduced workplace productivity

The working hours either lessen or stays the same and this is becoming a greater challenge through which the Australian construction industries have failed to handle. There are numerous workers whose working hours have been slashed while certain workers who are skilled do not get overtime in order to increase production thus a low production is displayed.

  1. d) Shortages of skilled labor

Underestimation of skilled labor should not be done when looking at problems affecting high rise construction in Australia. The Australian as a nation, is not capable of producing enough skilled or professional workers who are capable of carrying out all operations in high rise building effectively. These shortages will not be able to successfully function thru scarcer trained workers.

  1. e) Capital supply constraints

The construction of high rise building requires resources to be erected since numerous materials for construction are expensive in Australia. For example, the price of metals needed for construction in Australia are high thus high rise building requires a lot of capital to ensure that all construction materials needed are available in the site and all expenses such as salaries to the workers are paid for within the stipulated time. Adequate capital is needed to cater for transportation expenses which is much costly, since a frequent transportation of materials are needed from the extraction site to the construction site (Sayigh, 2016, p. 432)

  1. f) Safety Onsite

Safety on site is one of the crestfallen problems that is being faced by Australian industry. There are certain construction activities that are being encountered by workers that leads to injuries among the workers and that is the reason why insurance cover and compensation claim, are needed for serious injuries (Sarkisian, 2016, p. 76). Safety can be improved by using Automated Welding System and Mega truss seismic isolation.

  1. g) The long period of construction

Construction of high rise building in Australia takes too long to be completed and this can only be avoided through application of modern technologies. The time taken to construct a building should be minimized since it results into cost overrun. When a building takes too long before completion, then expenses such as transportation and payment of salaries will accumulate when the work takes too long (Reddy, 2009, p. 543). A long period of construction can be solved through BSB prefabricated construction process.

Deep Foundation

Deep foundation is employed when the location of load bearing layer is deep or when the loads of the building is too heavy for example high rise buildings in most cases require deep foundations.

Bored Pile

The construction industry for some reasons have always avoided to construct foundations that are close to the earth surface due to poor bearing capacity of the soil. If this is the case, then the best solution will be to transfer the loads deep into the soil bearing rocks to withstand the lateral loads from the building structure to avoid any collapse or the building toppling over. For this reason, there is one economical alternative solution to employ in the construction of high rise building and buildings with heavy loads, the best solution for this will be the use of bored piles foundation. Bored piles are constructed by boring circular holes of about 300mm diameter to a depth of approximately 3m by using auger (Fenton and Naghibi 2011). After the holes have been created, they are then filled with concrete and reinforced with steel bars which are left projecting to the top of the ground level. The piles are mainly bored at the corners of the building and in positions that the wall are estimated to run at interval positions. The ring beams are then constructed on top of the piles with reinforced concrete at the ground level to strengthen their position. Brickwork can therefore begin on top of the ring beam (Fenton and Naghibi 2011).

Procedure of employing soil-mechanics technology

  • Boring the holes up to the desired depth using the guiding tube.
  • Using bentonite mud or slurry
  • Placing the reinforcement
  • Pouring the concrete on the bore holes and removing the guiding tube.

Advantage of Bored Piles

  • Have a higher capacity levels
  • Its affordable
  • Cause less disruption to any adjacent building or structure
  • Its suitable in places with poor soil condition
  • Its environment friendly
  • Produce less noise and vibrations

Driven H-Pile

Steel H-piles have a standard universal section that are used as piles that take up the building load by skin friction or by end bearing. The material and equipment used are simple but their noise level and vibration levels have made it prohibited in the urban areas. In the case of large rocks referred to as boulders, pre-drilling can also be done before inserting the piles. This methods have proved to be economical and effective since it can take up to 3000 Kilo newton per pile (Fenton and Naghibi 2011).

Features of steel driven H-pile

  • Easy connection of piles of site by simple wielding
  • Integrity of pile is guaranteed
  • There is a variety of pile sizes that can be used to fit different load bearing requirement
  • Buckling allowance is necessary for H-piles driven to greater depth
  • Ease of driving and handling
  • Able to penetrate small rocks however, certain deflection may occur

Top down technique:

In this method of construction, the basement slab acts as a bracing for the perimeter wall system. The first slab for basement and the ground floor are poured allowing the access holes for excavation beneath. As such, subsequent levels are completed with the floors acting as lateral buckling for the diaphragm walls (Biswas et al. 2012). The diaphragm walls act as a supporting wall on the sides. Construction process take place from upward going down at the same time helping in saving time of the construction process (Biswas et al. 2012). Top down construction makes it possible for construction to be done on the ground level while at the same time construction happens underground.

The construction procedure of top to down method is illustrated as follows

  • Construct a retaining wall normally referred to as a diaphragm wall
  • Piles are bored after which the steel columns are placed.
  • The first stage of excavation is carried out
  • The first basement slab is cast
  • The superstructure work can then commence
  • The second stage of excavation can be carried out;, the second slab for the basement can be cast.
  • The same procedure is repeated until the desire depth is achieved
  • The foundation slab and the ground beam is then constructed
  • The superstructure can be still go on until it is finished

To create the retaining wall, the earth is dug in a long strip until the desired depth, concrete is then poured and left to cure to gain for the concrete to gain its strength and stability to create a strong diaphragm wall before the excavation process can commence.

Excavation and installing the steel strut

The ring beam or the strut is the installed at the ground level or simply the roof slab for the substructure to support the diaphragm wall from toppling over at the same time the retaining wall resist the lateral loads or pressure form the sides.

Construction of the substructure

The strut or roof slab is constructed with an opening that allowance for the access of the underground space for underground works to proceed.

Construction of substructure

The second floor slab for the basement is constructed and the process proceed in that sequence downwards until the desired depth until the foundation slab is finally constructed.

Construction of substructure

The diaphragm walls then act as the base for brickwork to commence upwards followed by the removal of the strut and sealing the opening on the roof slab used to access the underground space.

Backfilling and reinstatement

After completing the underground works, backfilling is done by toping up the structure with soil at the strut level before removing the strut and reinstating the surface areas.

Construction technique

Jump form/slip form system

Slip form is a method of construction where by concrete is poured into a continuously moving form. As the name suggested, this is a shallow mould that is in the form of the same plan to be constructed by pouring concrete to create the desired shape (Lloret et al. 2015). The deck is jacked upwards at a slow rate in a controlled motion until the required length of elevation is achieved.

The method is suitable for constructing core walls for high rise buildings such as towers, lift shafts etc. the formwork rises steadily at a speed of 300m per hour while supporting itself from the core without relying on the adjacent structures or the parts of the building (Lloret at al.2015). It allows for the construction of a concrete wall structure until a desired height to be constructed is achieved. The process is done in a continuous sequence of pouring concrete and allowing it to settle for some time after which the formwork is allowed to move upwards leaving the concrete wall structure exposed to gain its strength and firmness.

Procedure

  • Assembly starts when the foundation of the building is already in place and the wall starter is placed in position.
  • Yokes are then used to help align the slip form shutters
  • The yokes are connected using horizontal crossbeams
  • Hydraulic jacks are then connected to the crossbeams to allow for upward movement
  • Slip form height range from 1.1 – 1.5m
  • Crossbeams and yokes are used to support the working platform.
  • Ensure there is no lag that will disrupt the upward movement

Types of slip form construction

Vertical slip form: the concrete formwork is surrounded by other platform where workers stand while they work on the steel bars in concrete and ensure that the pouring process in done accurately.

Horizontal slip form: In the construction of pavements and the road separation walls, concrete is poured, vibrated and allowed to settle while the slip form itself is allowed to slide ahead. It was first used in 1950s in the construction of the interstate highway.

Tapered slip forming: It is used in the construction of cooling towers, conical chimneys, piers and any other tall concrete structires that involve the changing of the shape of the structure, and the wall thickness.

Precautions

  • Prevent any form of plastic shrinkage
  • Protect the concrete from loss of moisture
  • Protect the concrete from rapid temperature changes during the period of one week.
  • Unhardened concrete is protected from flowing water and rain

Jump form

Comprise of a system where the formwork has a platform on its sides for working, steel fixing and concreting. Suitable in the construction of multi floor structures of high rise buildings such as core walls, stair shaft, lift shafts, shear walls etc. it is a highly productive design system in terms of speed and efficiency hence minimizing the time spent in construction with few labor involved.

BSB Prefabricated Construction Process

The studies of this particular technology can be traced back to the 15-day work that was done in Changsha in China. This particular technology was used to construct a 30-story hotel within a span of two weeks. This achievement has drawn the attention of the construction industries. The engineering aspect of the building has never been compromised despite the very short duration that is consumed for the construction. The technology employs the use of the already assemble products that are commonly referred to as the pre-assembled components (Chan, Darko and Ameyaw 2017).

 This has been a clear indication of the beneficial nature of the technology in the terms of time reduction in the construction of the high-rise system. The process uses the factory fabricated structures of the steel system. The use of the flanges and very high strength bolts in the process is a confirmation of the need of the pre-assembled components. These components are used in the process of joining the different parts in the construction. The integrated floor slabs, wallboards, and other fabricated materials are combined together using the bolts and also the flanges.

The evaluation of the structures that have been erected by the use of this particular technology has revealed several benefits. Some of the competitive advantages include the following. The resistance of the structure to the effects of the earthquakes had been reduced to almost 9 magnitudes. The building is almost five times more energy efficient as compared to other similar structures. The cost of construction of the conventional buildings has been reduced by almost over 20 percentages on average. As compared to the conventional buildings in the whole process, the waste production has been minimized by one percent. This particular process is a reflection of the most innovative ways that are used to address the demand of the high-rise buildings in the urban places (Schön 2017).

Prefabricated construction involves assembling numerous mechanisms of a structure at a manufacturing site and transporting those sub-assemblies to the location of the construction site. This type of construction technique is sometimes referred to as a low-end and mass-produced mode of construction. (Harvey, 2010, p. 98). Prefabricated construction provides numerous benefits to the construction process for example quality of construction.

  1. Eco-friendly

Modular construction is normally much-admired for efficient energy as well as supportable construction. Extra materials that result into increase in waste is encountered in the case of traditional construction methods and recycling of extra materials can be done since the construction of fabricated sub-assemblies takes place within the factory. This is a considerable improvement as compared to traditional methods where waste was directly sent to a landfill (Beadle, 2011, p. 56).

  1. Financial savings

Financial savings is one of the greatest advantages that can be achieved as a result of using prefabricated construction. Use of this particular modern method of construction sidesteps the possibility of unreliable contractors and unproductive staff. To lower the cost of construction, there is need of minimizing the time taken to complete constructing a building (Irwin, 2015, p. 76).

  1. Flexibility

The relocation and disablement of modern construction can easily take place at different sites. As a result of this, the overall time, demand for raw material and exhausted energy can be reduced. Flexibility is permitted by modular construction when it comes to the design of the structure allowing for an inexhaustible number of opportunities (Carmona, 2013, p. 34).

  1. Consistent quality

The occurrence of fabricated construction takes place in a controlled manufacturing environment, a specified standard is followed and the sub-assemblies of the structure will be constructed to a uniform quality. By using this particular technique, the building of each subassembly is done by experienced crews. (Craighead, 2009, p. 128).

  1. Reduced site disruption

In this type of technique, the materials and equipment supplied are less since many buildings components are completed in the factory. In traditional construction sites, factors such as noise, pollution, and waste are limited. The use fabricated construction method is beneficial to construction firm since it gets rid of unnecessary distractions and interference in the construction site (Marginson, 2013, p. 55).

  1. Shorter construction period

A construction which is portable takes a shorter time during construction unlike on-site construction. Compared to the traditional method, prefabrication takes less time and this is as a result of better scheduling interruptions and quicker construction. The construction expenses involved are minimal when little time is taken to erect a building and this can only be achieved by practicing a portable construction method (Patterson, 2011, p. 23).

  1. Safety

Problems relating to dirt and moisture can be easily controlled since this particular construction technique entails the creation of sub-assemblies in a factory. With practicing this method, there are fewer accidents experienced among the workers and minimal liabilities. Safety is the greatest importance, workers are exposed to conditions relating to weather and other varying ground condition. Prefabricated construction is the best method to enhance safety in the construction site. (Duncan, 2012, p. 65).

This particular structure is commonly known as a load-bearing precast concrete frame. The frame allows for the removal of the interior columns so that the possibility of having floor to ceiling glass is achieved. This achievement is by the use of triple glazing that has exterior retractable protective louvers. The studies have indicated that there has been the provision of the more area of the floor when using this particular technique as opposed to the other methods. The study of this system has further found out that the ratio of the percentage of the glass to the enclosed surfaces is 60 percent to 40 percent (Darko et al 2017)..

This has been useful in the improving of the values of the insulation. The heating and the cooling systems are joined to the hanging ceiling panels. This particular approach is considered to be more effective as opposed to the other means of installing the other systems on the floor. The precast concrete is a fireproof material and this property allows for the removal of the additional means of the fire protection. The studies have indicated that this particular innovation will always provide an alternative way to the use of the glass curtains for the high-rise buildings. This has been one of the ways through which this particular project ensures quality and succeeds in the reduction of the time of the project handling. The technology is considered very innovative in terms of the materials reduction. It was discovered that the technique has been utilized in very many parts of the world.

To reduce the quantity of waste generated during construction, the cost of erecting the building, increasing the standard of the building and reducing the opposing environmental impact in high rise building can only be achieved by using the type of technique mentioned above as explained by Mathew (2013). The advantages of this method include;

Advantages and Disadvantages of Raster Façade Precast Concrete construction

Advantages

  • High building speed.
  • Good quality control.
  • Prestressing is easily done which can reduce the size and number of the structural members.
  • Rapid construction on site.

Disadvantages

  • The error encountered is minimal.
  • Difficult during connection.
  • The usage of precast concrete cannot take place in two-way structural systems since the size of the panel is limited.
  • The building design will be affected by the repetition of forms.
  • The lifting of the panels requires cranes.
  • The flexibility of the building design is limited.
  • Expensive and complex joints between the panels.
  • Application of the panel on the site requires skilled workmanship.
  • Regularly shaped buildings require economies of scale.

Other recommended advanced technologies

The conducted studies have indicated that the Kone Ultra Rope is just but a carbon fiber hoisting technology that has the benefits related to the weight and the bending. In this particular technology, the distance is double so that the elevator is capable of covering a distance of over 1 kilometer in a single shaft. The rope has got specific characteristics that make it relevant for such engineering duties. Some of the obvious properties include the following: It contains fiber with epoxy based high friction coating. The rope is very light and this is very useful since it will consume very little energy in the entire process of hoisting (Eastman 2018).

 Through this technology, it has been possible to reduce the machine room size significantly. This technology has got its own way or the mechanisms of the operation. The reduction in the weight of the rope that is used for the processes of the hoisting basically implies that the moving masses of the elevator have been reduced. It is important to note that as the elevator rises, it will always carry with it the masses that are attached to it. Some of the masses include the compensating ropes, the car of the elevator, the hoisting ropes and finally the passenger load.

In this particular type of the Kone technology, the elevator has been confined to a single shaft which is at the height of almost 500 meters. The studies have indicated that at this particular point, the masses and the densities of the steel ropes normally make the height very impractical. When this particular technology is used, it is possible for the elevators to move up to 1000mteres without the need for the transfer of the lobbies (Collins and Woerman 2015).

 The research indicated that there exists a huge importance of having such elevators in the tall buildings. Such importance cannot be neglected completely. While using the technology of Kone Ultra Rope, it is possible for a single elevator to operate the load at a particular height while using the steel ropes. There is the provision of the energy efficiencies in this particular technology. The materials selections have been properly done and this also ensures that the engineering properties of the materials are never compromised both in the terms of time and quality.

This is the latest technology used in high rise building. This technique improves reliability, durability, and efficiency for the unrivaled elevator. And also improves the performance of the elevator. This technique is beneficial since it eliminates the disadvantages of using steel ropes and it allows 1000 meters to be covered by the future elevator.

One of the compulsory operations in the construction sites is called welding. Such operations are known to consume a lot of time when various parts are to be joined together. The innovation s that has utilized the use of the automated system of welding have not only improved the quality of the erected structures but also saved time for the construction of the high rise buildings.

In such setups, the welding of the columns to columns have been done automatically by the use of the robots. The research has revealed that the welding of the joints that exist between the columns is horizontally done and is multi-layered. The incorporation of the robots in the design welding allowed for performance of very essential parts of the welding in a manner that not only saves time but also improves the quality of the weld. This automatically translates to the quality of the entire high rise building (Calautit, Hughes and Ghani 2013).

 According to Lynn (2011), the use of automated welding in the construction industry can provide numerous gains in productivity and profitability during application. In semi-automatic welding, the load is loaded manually by an operator into the welding fixture. Welding system may be completely automated and can include robotic part, load and unload or have semi-automatic capabilities. A fully automated welding can be equipped by robotic part, load and unload and a mechanized programmable tool is used in automated welding to carry out both handling and welding part, for example, gas metal arc welding (Holmes, 2007, p. 98).

The safety of workers is taken care of as well as the quality of work by using automated welding system and it will enable construction operations to take place smoothly without interference. The automation has various advantages in the construction industry which includes;

  • It enhances quality and standardized products.
  • It handles dangerous operations taken by employees
  • It increases productivity and reduces the cost.
  • It carries out labor tasks at hazardous locations, for instance, extensive height places.
  • It promotes a good operating environment since workers are operating in a safe environment.

Advantages of the automated welding system

  • Better welding quality.
  • Increased output is increased.
  • Decreased scrap are decreased
  • The cost of labor is reduced
  • Materials are efficiently used.
  • Safety among workers is improved since certain works are handled by robots.
  • Shorter workweeks for labor and reduced factory lead times.

Disadvantages of an automated welding system

  • The welding system needs a high amount of capital.
  • A regular maintenance is required compared to the manual one.
  • The degree of flexibility is lower.
  • It can lead to unemployment
  • It causes the displacement of workers.

Discussion:

The latest breakthrough in the line of technology is the KONE UltraRope that has set the pace in the construction of high rise buildings. The Australian construction industry have gained a greater boost in providing reliable, durable, efficient and unrivalled electors that are ecofriendly while at the same time improving the performance of elevators. This technology has succeeded in eliminating the use of steel ropes that consumed a lot of energy. With the increase in urban development and the rise in tall buildings, the importance of elevators play an important role in the construction of towers hence the use of KONE UltraRope can enable elevators installed in future to travel at heights of up to 1000m.

Automatic wielding system in the building construction of Australia. In order to protect the building industry, this wielding mechanism should always be carried out by qualified wielders and controlled by the relevant engineering to make the process a success. The wielding technology have greatly improved the quality of construction, production capacity, reduces the production time and the planning period in Australia. In addition, the wielding automation has greatly reduced the management costs and finding a drive that will improve these operations is the best way to expedite the investment return while at the same time positioning companies in a competitive edge. The importance and benefits in the wielding and KONE UltraRope technology in the construction industry are always investigated, analyzed and alternative suggestions are put forward.

Recommendation:

Lifts in high rise buildings are essential part in our daily lives which support vertical transportation in buildings. It is important to provide safety measures by ensuring travel guide rails are available to ensure lifts comfort. In providing the linearity of the travel guide rails, steel clips and rail brackets should be used to fix the guide rails to the wall shafts. If these components are put into place, it will ensure a complete and successful rail fastening system. Hence, this can be achieved effectively by the use of KONE UltraRope technology which is more effective and improves the process of building the high rise buildings, eliminating the stress involved in constructing tall buildings. Moreover, the use of automated wielding should be encouraged because it improves the quality and finish product of the building elements.

Construction industry in Australia should encourage the use of slip form/jump form and top down technique in building towers and high rise building due to their high productivity, quality and reducing the cost of building construction. The industry should organize conferences and seminars to be attended by the relevant stakeholders in the construction industry to create awareness of the importance of employing such techniques in the construction due to their numerous benefits hence saving on time and cost at the same time.

The use of bored piles and driven H-piles in the construction of high rise building will save the developers from any form of collapse of the building which will eventually save people’s lives and ensure that the durability of the building is achieved without compromising on the quality of the foundation structure and the substructure in general. Adopting this measures will make the construction industry in Australia to be more competitive due to the advancement in technology.

Conclusion

The techniques of the constructions and other innovations have been considered very basic for the success of any project of the high-rise building that is already mentioned in the project. The effective management of various construction companies has implemented some of the technologies that have since left them very competitive. The equipment that is considered relevant has been utilized effectively to achieve the goals and electives of the related projects. The development stage was considered important since it provided the basic idea of the construction to the task force.

The engineers have always been guided effectively with the design concepts when they are carrying out the implementation processes. The innovations that have been highlighted have been found to impact strongly the strength of the buildings. In any of the construction, the quality of the materials that were used played a significant role. They ensured that the engineering requirements of the houses were met alongside achieving the aesthetic value. The reduction of the time and construction cost among other advantages of the technologies have contributed to the ever-growing popularity. It is therefore very important for the authorities to adopt this particular scheme so as to assist in the provision of the required solution for the housing.

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