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The planning of constructing a work site involves the designing of the construction work site for optimizing the resources allocated. “The traditional work site planning is based on paper work which includes sketches of the layout to rely on the real world” (Mekni, 2014). It is ineffective method of presenting work and is error prone. The visual rendering of design is not provided to the collaborative parties. To overcome the problem of 2D planning techniques, the concept of augment reality to develop a 3D view of virtual construction site is come into existence. The augment reality brings a new revolution in the planning process. This technology is capable of creating the virtual environment of the plan which is designed for constructing the work site. “The perception of human can be added to the real world by using the digital information” (Jen, 2013). The additional information can be added to the computer generated model to give a new look to the developed model. “The environment of augment reality provides the scientific visualization of the proposed plan for constructing the work site” (Waugh, 2013). The activities like training, collaborative work, and surgery are combined together to achieve the goal of human perception. It helps in overcoming the potential errors in the planning phase and the inefficiencies of the processes which in turn result into the maximization the profit of the enterprise. “The qualities of planning a work site can be improved to a high extent by implementing the innovative concept of augment reality in the curriculum of planning and designing” (Guo, 2015). The creation of virtual world is based on the 3D models of the objects. In this paper, we are going to research on planning of Virtual construction site using the concept of Augment reality.

The concept of augment reality and virtual reality are work in conjunction to provide a virtual environment to the perception of the user. “The additional information can be added to the user view” (Baker, 2016). The virtual information can be added to the real world by using the concept of augment reality. The requirements for augment reality system are discussed in detail below:

  • Input devices: “The input devices are used for the manipulation of virtual information” (Wang, 2014). The user interface should be equipped with input metaphor to reveal the concept, procedure, and action undertaken to design a work site. Keyboard and voice input are the most common input devices used for creating the environment of virtual reality.
  • Output or display devices: Head mounted display, 3D sound system, and feedback devices are the most commonly used display devices in the augment reality environment. “The live video streams are merges with computer generated pictures and environment” (Abboud, 2013). The poor lighting system is the major concern in the environment of augment reality.
  • Technologies used for tracking: The tracking is required for knowing the current position of the physical object of real world. The augment reality system is affected by accuracy in the resources, user location, and the objects surrounding the environment.
  • Computing devices: The feasibility of the augment reality system depends on the power of computing devices.

The designing and implementation of AR environment in the construction of work site faces challenges in determining the domain knowledge, extraction of technical knowledge and limitation, and the development of real model.

  • Development of real model: “The virtual information is used for developing a real environment” (Peterson, 2010). The accurate information is required of the real world to register virtual information. The application of systematic method is the complexity associated with the designing and deployment of AR system.
  • Domain Knowledge extraction: “The variety of information can be extracted by using the services of HVAC, electrical, mechanical, and structural” (Rabbi, 2014). Most of the information is presented in 2D model which is hard to apply on 3D model environment. The 3D database is not available for extracting information from the source. The integration effort is required to model information from 2D environment to 3D environment. The reconstruction of the existing image is depends on the complex matching of coordinates from the real environment. The complex matching and the high dependability are helps in giving realization to the virtual objects.
  • Limitation of Technology: The major challenge in the implementation of AR system is the limitation of technology. The accurate trackers are required for tracking tiny errors and wrong registration of real and virtual objects. “The challenges which are faced in the implementation of augment reality in the constructing the work site is accuracy, deployment of sensors of long range, and the placement of the tracker” (Georgel, 2010). The tracker in the infrastructure is deployed for getting the position of the miniature objects. The specialized hardware domain is required for real time tracking of objects. The detection of the occlusion is the critical issue for the AR environment because the digital representation of hidden object is hard to implement.
  • Social issues: The transfer of information through augment reality is not given much consideration. “It is difficult to influence the people of construction field towards the new technology of augment reality” (Regina, 2013). The solutions of the AR technology are cost-effective but they are not used for creating design in regular basis because the individuals are well-versed in traditional way of working.

The layouts of the construction site can be optimized by using the augment reality technology.  The technology is working on replacing the paper based design with computer generated virtual model. “The 3D objects are used for enriching the quality of the augment reality projects” (Tollens, 2015). The combination of virtual and real environment is used to generate layout design for generating geometric design. It helps in overcoming the potential errors in the planning phase and the inefficiencies of the processes which in turn result into the maximization the profit of the enterprise. The planning designs are used for comparing the design of real world. “The qualities of planning can be improved by avoiding re-planning of activities” (Woodward, 2013). The collision of equipment can be avoided by designing the virtual environment for the construction of work site. The implementation of augment reality is composed of three components which are named as visualization and rendering, simulation, and rules engine.

Issues and challenges in Augment reality environment

The features which are supported by the augment reality environment are categorised as rendering and virtualization. The initial step is to design a layout for constructing the design of the work site. The tangible user interface is used for moving the object in virtual environment of constructing the work site. No prior training is required to work with the virtual model. The various parties are involved to develop collaborative functioning in performing collaborative work. “The tangible user interface is used by every user in collaborative environment for rendering of scene at the position of view point” (Behzadan, 2014). The different interfaces are used for storing the activities of different users. The implementation of the AR planner is used for developing animation of the static objects. The behaviour of the static object can be converted into dynamic. The errors in the construction model is used for identification, visualization, and highlighting of errors. The planning rules should be followed for bringing the accuracy in the construction plan of the work site. The realization in the augment reality environment depends on accuracy in placement of objects, alignment in virtual elements, and their associated movements. The linking of different 3D object is difficult to select virtual elements.

The tracking system of augment reality is used for detecting the physical location of the object in the virtual environment. “The digital images are automatically detected by using the detecting algorithm” (Kamat, 2009). The digital coding theory is used for developing the robust immunity of occlusion. The passive sensor and GPS system is used for the movement of the user. The research is going in the field of events, locus, and development of real scene. The quadrilateral contour is used for developing square border of the image. Varieties of objects are available for to represent components in the 3D virtual environment. The size of the virtual object can automatically adjust according to the given scenario.

Head mounted display, 3D sound system, and feedback devices are the most commonly used display devices in the augment reality environment. Keyboard and voice input are the most common input devices used for creating the environment of virtual reality. “The local database and AR program are used for collecting information of the position of the 3D object” (Behzadi, 2016). The query is send to the local database for identifying the component. The visual C++ and VRML software are used for developing the augment reality environment.

Prototyping of System Architecture

The virtual elements are used for manipulation and interaction of different users in constructing the virtual site. The CAD modelling tools are used for converting 2D objects into 3D objects. The flexibility of the virtual elements are used are adapting according to the scenario of the worksite.

The virtual element sets are used for managing and storing 3D models in the database in the form of data sheets according to the planning rules. “The planning process is used for updating the requirement of the scene” (Ralph, 2013). The data sheets are used for storing virtual elements in the database. The attributes of datasheet for specifying the properties of virtual elements which are categorised as safety margins, active areas, ranges of capacity, connection point, and others.

The planning rules are used for integrating the planning process to create an error prone environment. “The productivity can be maximised by overcoming and planning errors and inefficiency of the planning process” (Webster, 2014). The planning rules should be followed for bringing the accuracy in the construction plan of the work site.

The layout planning is implemented on dynamic or static components. The layout planning algorithms are used for automatic the allocation of resources at macro level. The constraint in layout planning is it cannot generate layout design for micro level component.

The planning of the path is accomplished with rules for material flow, accessing approach to materials, sequence of work, and others. The AR planning is used for integrating the planning of material flow path. The problem solving approach is sued for creating collision free path. The specific object can change its position according to the rules of manipulation. The critical planning is used for creating unique material flow path. The planning rules are used for developing the straightforward design for constructing the virtual work site. The planning of alternatives helps in bringing correctness in the augment reality environment. The identification and visualization are the key technology for providing the new path to the 3D environment. The virtual elements are categorised into accuracy in the placement of tracker, alignment of objects, and movements of users.

The construction of the work site is get affected by temperature, wetlands, and humidity. The environmental constraints should be evaluated in the developing plans for constructing the work site.

Head mounted display, 3D sound system, and feedback devices are the most commonly used display devices in the augment reality environment. The special trackers are used for tracking the orientation of the 3D object.

Rendering and virtualization

The environment of augment reality is used for indicating the behavioural effect of throughput, requirement of manpower, and routing protocols. The allocation of resources is done through the concept of 3D animation and result of statistical report. The tracking is required for knowing the current position of the physical object of real world. The augment reality system is affected by accuracy in the resources, user location, and the objects surrounding the environment. The minimum cost can be calculated of work-in-progress, inventory management, scheduling of the labour, failure of the equipment, and capacity planning.

The space scheduling is used for modelling different activities which are used for constructing work spaces for the development of work site. The geometric attributes of space scheduling focus on elimination of spatial conflicts at micro level. The attributes are designed according to the set of parameters. The specific space is allocated to every object during the planning process. The graphical representation is used for representing active areas, workplaces, and safety margins. The virtual construction is divided into grid. The coarse grid is used for representing rough planning and fine grid is used for representing detailed planning.

The process of simulation depends on designing of static layouts, optimization and designing of materials, accessing of flow path and logistics, designing of material flows, and others. The analytical result is displayed in the form of table, charts, bar graph, and time series graphs. The layouts of the ergonomics of the work place are critically important. The availability of material, resources, and tools should be within the range of the labour and construction workers. The development of virtualization of the construction work site can be designed in two types of simulation which are:

  • The segment reality simulation is used for designing simulation for static objects.
  • External software simulation is used for designing the layout design of the objects stored in database. This simulation depends on the position and behaviour of the object which is stored in the database.

The framework of the AR system is comprised of virtual scene, registration of information for virtual object, database, datasheet composed of attributes, switching technique of 3D image, fusion of virtual and real image, and equipment needed for display. Varieties of objects are available for to represent components in the 3D virtual environment. The size of the virtual object can automatically adjust according to the given scenario.  The first step is to capture image from the real world which is the basis of layout. The second step is to gather relevant information from different sources to register information for virtual objects. This phase deals with adding of objects in the scene of real world. The location and the attributes of data should also be synchronised. The third step is to register information for the switching of movement between the coordinates for describing the location of the virtual objects. The last step is the fusion of real and virtual image. It deals with creating augmented information of the image which is used for displaying objects. The following figure shows the framework of Augment reality:

  • The deployment of serial key frame in the real time acquirement
  • The matching of key frame image and real time optimization should be matched.
  • The third step is the calculation of real time parameters of outer camera and inner camera.
  • The true geo-graphics coordinates should be matched for the rectification and calculation of real time objects. The manual settings are used for the calibration and calculation of location of real time objects.

Tracking system

The projection geometry method is used for constructing the 3D objects for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the 3D environment based on augment reality system. The capturing of real time scene is based on the spatial location of the objects. The accuracy cannot be ignored in capturing of the information related with the 3D objects and real time objects. The reconstruction of the existing image is depends on the complex matching of coordinates from the real environment. The complex matching and the high dependability are helps in giving realization to the virtual objects. The development of augment reality system gives a simulation to the work site which is going to be constructed. The flaws and error can be detected from the model and removed before the implementation in the real world. The visual information gives a real view of the objects and users placed in the real world.

In carrying out research on Planning of Virtual construction site using the concept of Augment reality we use various review techniques. Every researcher implies the concept of augment reality in his own way. The technical system should be developed for planning the augment reality for the effective functioning of the hardware and software. The research studies helps in finding out the applicability of the augment reality in the virtual construction site. The evaluation techniques helps in evaluating the skills required to transform virtual techniques to real world. The objective and subjective indicators are used to observe the related research work. These indicators helps in analysing the output quality, skills, effectiveness of the proactive thinking, smoothness in the flow of information, arrangement of oral interview with the experts, effects on the changing environment, and operational consistency.

This section of the research paper focuses on the findings of planning of augment reality in virtual construction site. The implementation of visualization of architecture, designing process, development of construction process, management of engineering system, and others are used for improving the current state of construction industry. The associated parties should participate in gathering large volume of data to bring accuracy in the proposed system. The virtual elements help in improving the quality of the planning system. The different interfaces are used for storing the activities of different users. The implementation of the AR planner is used for developing animation of the static objects. The behaviour of the static object can be converted into dynamic. The planning rules used in the designing the virtual environment helps in overcoming the occurrence of errors in the project. The augment work space is depending on the data and information which is collected. The human computer interfaces are used for designing the layout for the constructing a building. The AR prototypes are used for planning an application to bring advancement in the construction of the work site. The concept of construction touring, construction rebuilding, and analysis are used for aerodrome construction, renovation, and inspection. The deployment of AR toolkit gives a new environment to the small scale construction site. The fuzzy system is used for sketching the layout of the design in the AR methodology. The 3D sketch is the solution of virtual response. Creation and updating can be possible n 3D environment also similar to the traditional way of sketching.

Hardware and software

The mobile augment reality system is used for designing the campus touring. The system is used for gathering information related with constructing the department of campus. The passive sensor and GPS system is used for the movement of the user. The research is going in the field of events, locus, and development of real scene.

The focus is given on comparing the ground level contour and geographic local model. The compass is used for the inclination of sensor in the system. The tracking system is used for optimizing the position of the real objects. The virtual reality emulators are used for designing the outdoor environment of augment reality system. The magnetic sensors are used for tracking the location of the object in the environment of AR system. Vision tracking is used for overcoming the problem of errors in the proposed system. The three dimensional user interfaces should be deployed on gaining accuracy in the tracking system.

The past events and scene can be developed by using the concept of augment reality in construction rebuilding program. The tourists can be attracted towards the old habitation of the people living in past. It helps in displaying the cultural heritage of the country.

The research and analysis is going in the field of augment reality to developed new prototype for the AR system to implement them on the realistic project. The effectiveness and the quality of the AR system depend on the skills of the planner. The activities like training, collaborative work, and surgery are combined together to achieve the goal of human perception. It helps in overcoming the potential errors in the planning phase and the inefficiencies of the processes which in turn result into the maximization the profit of the enterprise. The operating function can be improved by using the environment of augment reality. The performance indicator should also be given consideration. The problem of placing the tracking component should be resolved to attain the error prone design of the work site.

Conclusion:

In this paper we have focus on the new concept of augment reality for developing plan for construction work site. The technology of AR brings a new revolution in the field of construction. The virtual elements help in improving the quality of the planning system. The planning rules used in the designing the virtual environment helps in overcoming the occurrence of errors in the project. The inclusion of augment reality interface helps in minimizing the failures in the implementation of the proposal. The AR prototypes are used for planning an application to bring advancement in the construction of the work site. The accuracy and reliability is the ultimate goal of tracking of augment reality system. The technology of outdoor tracking is used for upgrading the overall performance of augment reality environment. The GIS system is used for identifying the location of the object. The augment reality system is affected by accuracy in the resources, user location, and the objects surrounding the environment.

References:

Wang, X. (2014). Using augmented reality to plan virtual construction work site. 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: https://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/4246/InTech-Using_augmented_reality_to_plan_virtual_construction_worksite.pdf [Accessed 27 Mar. 2017].

Baker, M. (2016). How virtual and augment reality will revolutionize house building and property marketing. 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: https://www.vmistudio.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/Kerry-Test-VMIWhitepaper-1.pdf [Accessed 27 Mar. 2017].

Regina, M. (2013). What is happening to virtual and augmented reality applied to architecture. 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: https://papers.cumincad.org/data/works/att/caadria2013_043.content.pdf [Accessed 27 Mar. 2017].

Georgel, P. (2010). Is there a reality in industrial augmented reality. 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: https://www.cs.unc.edu/Research/vision/georgel/Pierre_Fite-Georgel/Papers/Entries/2010/10/13_Entry_1_files/WR_in_IAR_camera_ready.pdf [Accessed 27 Mar. 2017].

Behzadi, A. (2016). Using augmented and virtual reality technology in the construction industry. 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: https://www.ajer.org/papers/v5(12)/ZS05120350353.pdf [Accessed 27 Mar. 2017].

Kamat, V. (2009). Visualization in vehicular traffic in augmented reality for improved planning. 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: https://pathfinder.engin.umich.edu/documents/Behzadan&Kamat.CAREER.CMMI.2009.pdf [Accessed 27 Mar. 2017].

Behzadan, A. (2014). Animation of construction activities in outdoor augmented reality. 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: https://pathfinder.engin.umich.edu/documents/Behzadan&Kamat.ICCCBEXI.2006.pdf [Accessed 27 Mar. 2017].

Tollens, L. (2015). Emerging technologies for construction delivery. 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: https://books.google.co.in/books?id=0SRIwyGUHp0C&pg=PA89&lpg=PA89&dq=Research+paper+pdf+on+Planning+of+Virtual+construction+site+using+the+concept+of+Augmented+reality&source=bl&ots=XmlcYtyDwU&sig=f7JSJdL9CbBCdb4okxFLPay6Yk4&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiep-GNkffSAhUHurwKHQ_gB-04ChDoAQgfMAA#v=onepage&q=Research%20paper%20pdf%20on%20Planning%20of%20Virtual%20construction%20site%20using%20the%20concept%20of%20Augmented%20reality&f=false [Accessed 27 Mar. 2017].

Abboud, A. (2013). Architecture in an age of augmented reality. 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: https://www.nawic.com.au/documents/NAWIC/2014/IWD/IWDS2013%20AR%20PAPER%20-%20R%20ABBOUD%20-%20MARCH.pdf [Accessed 27 Mar. 2017].

Mekni, M. (2014). Augment reality: Applications, challenges, and future trends. 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: https://www.wseas.us/e-library/conferences/2014/Malaysia/ACACOS/ACACOS-29.pdf [Accessed 27 Mar. 2017].

Guo, Y. (2015). Application of Augmented reality in Architecture. 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: https://www.isprs.org/proceedings/XXXVII/congress/5_pdf/58.pdf [Accessed 27 Mar. 2017].

Jen, H. (2013). Designing virtual construction worksite layout in real environment via augmented reality. 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: https://www.iaarc.org/publications/fulltext/isarc2006-00010_200605231642.pdf [Accessed 27 Mar. 2017].

Peterson, L. (2010). Augmented reality in architecture and design: Potentials and challenges for application. 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: https://cumincad.architexturez.net/system/files/pdf/ijac20097207.pdf [Accessed 27 Mar. 2017].

Webster, A. (2014). Augmented reality in architectural construction, inspection, and renovation. 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: https://www.cc.gatech.edu/~blair/papers/asce.pdf [Accessed 27 Mar. 2017].

Ralph, S. (2013). Augmented reality for industrial building acceptance. 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: https://data.icg.tugraz.at/~dieter/publications/Schmalstieg_136.pdf [Accessed 27 Mar. 2017].

Waugh, L. (2013). Review and analysis of augmented reality literature for construction industry. 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: https://viejournal.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/2213-7459-1-9 [Accessed 27 Mar. 2017].

Woodward, C. (2010). Augmented and mixed reality. 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: https://www.oamk.fi/hankkeet/moko/docs/woodward_charles.pdf [Accessed 27 Mar. 2017].

Rabbi, I. (2014). Augmented reality tracking techniques: A systematic literature Review protocol. 1st ed. [ebook] Available at: https://www.iosrjournals.org/iosr-jce/papers/vol2-issue2/D0222329.pdf?id=2186 [Accessed 27 Mar. 2017].

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