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Reflect on own values and how these relate to the professional qualities and values of a nurse

Demonstrate an awareness of how health and social care policies/legislation affect the provision of care and equity of access

Discuss the importance of quality assurance and quality improvement in a range of health and social care contexts

Practise within the professional, ethical and legal frameworks that guide nursing practice and safeguarding vulnerable people

Recognise the need to work collaboratively with other professional groups to ensure standards of care for all service users are maintained at a high level

Reflecting on own values for professional qualities and values of a nurse

For more than the last two centuries, healthcare practices have been solely based on an assumption that all types of diseases and disorders mainly take place due to specific etiological causes. These etiological causes include the individuals suffering from the attacks of bacteria, virus and many others. Therefore, healthcare professionals mainly set their goals of treatment in alleviating all the symptoms of the disorders (Benning et al. 2015). However, this approach of healthcare treatment has now been severely criticized as the healthcare professionals are of the belief that only attending to biological symptoms can never help the patients to develop high quality life (Pilgrim 2015). It is also important for the healthcare professionals to consider the psychosocial factors that also contribute to the occurrence of the disorders in the service so that high quality care is provided to the patients. Researchers are of the opinion that instead of maintaining a narrow focus on the biological factors that cause the diseases, health professionals should abandon the simplistic view (Sarafino and Smith 2014). They should focus on the psychological as well as social factors besides the biological factors so that effective treatment can not only be provided but also the social determinants of health be considered to provide best outcome. The essay will mainly show how bio-psychosocial model of care can ensure high quality life in patients and how professionals should adapt them in their care plans.

Recent day healthcare professionals are expected to commit their professional practice by following proper bio-psycho-social model of care. This model of care is seen to expect professionals to act as effective communicator as well as an ethical practitioner in the domain of art and science in the medicinal field. He is expected to train himself in ways by which the professionals can analyze psychosocial aspects that are harming the health of the person beside the biological determinants of health as well as diseases (Wade and Halligan 2017). In such a type of care, it is expected of the professional to extend their healthcare practices beyond the patient where they would include both the family as well as the community and thereby emphasize on the prevention of the illness and promotion of health along with the treatment of the disorders.


Recent researchers are of the opinion that both behavioral as well as social aspects play an important role in the way by which effective healthcare if provided to the community. Psychology as well as sociology is seen to have enormous contributions for ensuring effective healthcare education (Santos et al. 2018). An example can be used to help provide more light on the concept of bio-pschyco-social model of care. One of the patients was admitted to the hospital because of high blood pressure that was talking a toll on his daily life and was gradually becoming life threatening. In such situation, the healthcare professionals should first try to reflect on the pathophysiology of the situation. The patient has high blood pressure because his arteries have become narrow foe which blood cannot flow easily through the arteries. They can also assume that plaque can be also formed in the arteries for which blood is having difficulty in flowing smoothly and resulting in increased blood pressure. Therefore, the healthcare professionals would prescribe medications to the patients by which the blood pressure of the patient would be under control. This is called the biological model of healthcare that mainly includes the professional mainly approaching the treatment of the patient entirely based on the biological determinants. However, such patient can never lead a better quality life as the professional did not try to look for the main causes for which arteries were narrowing up resulting in increased blood pressure. Here the professional should have tried to understand the main psychological factor and the social factors that are resulting in the situation (Edozein 2015). On close analysis, it is found that the patient remains highly depressed due to his stressful professional as well as well as personal lives. He has recently separated from his wife and has lost his job at the same time. He has developed immense depression and anxiety. The society has isolated him and he gets no support from anyone in the society. This has made him addicted to tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption that had affected him negatively. Alcohol though acts as vasodilatation are small levels can result in acting as vasoconstriction in higher level. Therefore, both nicotine and alcohol are the main factors that result in high blood pressure. Therefore, healthcare professionals should also try their best to provide interventions for such situations and counsel him about how to manage such situations effectively (Weischman et al. 2018). Providing him proper resources where he can get help, helping him by providing strategies to overcome alcohol and smoking, giving him the contacts of community care centers, counselors and many other ensure that all his negative aspects leading to poor health are treated. Therefore, only when the healthcare professionals utilize a bio-psycho-social model of care for the patients, then only positive health outcomes would be ensured which will help the patients to provide better quality life (Pincus et al. 2016).

Demonstrating an awareness of healthcare policies


If one closely tries to analyze the advantages of the bio-psycho-social model of care, many important benefits can be noticed. The model if based on a holistic approach that is highly advised by the researchers to bring out the best patient satisfaction for the patients.  The model is also based on the awareness of the levels in nature and the model is also inclusive of the diverse perspectives. The supporters of this model states there is indeed an importance in critically analyzing the different social as well as the behavioral factors that helps in playing an obvious as well as major role in overall human health (Day et al. 2016). Several factors can be noted which indeed have huge contributions in determining the health status of individuals although they can never be considered as biological determinants of health. Researchers have identified certain factors which need to be considered by them while sing bio-psycho-social model of care are stress, anxiety as well as depression in the patients, risk taking behaviors, smoking, excessive drinking, poor eating habits, unhealthy hygiene and many others. All the factors have significant contribution to the occurrence of ill health among the individuals thereby increasing the chances of their exposure to the different types of disorders (Fava and Sonino 2017).

Nursing professionals should consider this model as the comprehensive model that ensures a strengthened relationship between the health and disorders where they would be considering the social, cultural as well as the psychosocial factors that contribute to disorders beside the biological factors. Nursing professionals who are successful in establishing the relationship between the immune system of the humans with that of the social, behavioral and psychological factors that contribute to illness, they can successfully strategies planning which help them provide best care to the patients that have the best outcomes (Henningson 2015). The bio-psycho-social interventions that the nursing professionals will take will thereby target the combination of sociological factors along with psychological and biological factors that results in deteriorating condition of the patient thereby resulting in occurrence of illness. Therefore, it becomes the duty of the nurses to take up interventions and collaborative efforts with the service users. This will mainly integrate different types of evidence-based practices. These practices will be such that it will encompass all the social, psychological as well as medical paradigms that will ensure and accomplish swift recovery (Heery et al. 2015). Therefore, the main objective of the interventions taken by the nurses would be to analyze and identify the proper cases underlying the disorders by mainly evaluating the main reason of biological dysfunction. They should also consider the psychological problems that will be affecting the emotional as well as mental turmoil faced by the patients. They would also assess properly the sociological issues that will include the culture or religion of the patient, his marital status, financial positioning and others that may serve as the root cause of the disorder.

Discussing the importance of quality assurance in healthcare


During placement, a diabetic patient was admitted to the ward that had fallen down the steps of her house. After admitting to the ward, through thorough examination of the patient, it was known that she had faced by the accident when she developed sudden blackness. The main reason was seen to be the reason of hypoglycemia where he had taken the dose twice that day unintentionally by mistake. She was obese having a BMI of 50 that made her difficult to walk and conduct daily activities of life. When she was admitted to the ward, the senior nurse just observed her reports and turned to the junior nurses who were on placement that day. On asking the junior nurses’ point of views, one of them stated that the patient had taken insulin two times within very short period. Therefore, too much insulin in the blood had resulted in breakdown of the glucose to a high level that affected the physiology of the system. Not only has that obesity resulted in aggravation of the condition of diabetes. Therefore, according to her, the patient should be kept under observation and should be provided medication to overcome the situation. This view was criticized by the senior nurse who clearly suggested that the nurse followed a biological model of treatment that does not provide a comprehensive care to the patient and does not address to all the aspects of the patient that needs to be attended to. To this, she clearly stated that only diagnosing obesity and hypoglycemia and then providing medical advises is not enough to tackle the patient. She stated that the patient sociological and psychological systems should be analyzed. The patient leaves alone in the house and remains socially excluded due to her bipolar mood disorders. Her daughters have left her for these and her separation from grand children had made her depressed and isolated from the society. She has not attended high school and does not have proper health literacy about diabetes management. Moreover, she also did not have any knowledge about the importance of proper diet and exercises for which her obesity is constantly on the rise. Therefore, while caring for these diabetic patients, nurses should not only help her condition to stabilize in the healthcare center but at the same time should address all the sociological as well as psychological issues (Shakespeare et al. 2017). She is suffering from depression as well as bipolar disorder and therefore the nurse should arrange for appointments with a counselor to help her overcome the mental disorders. At the same time, it is seen that she does not have proper education about how to control her weight as well as diet. She also does not know the importance of healthy diet and therefore proper health education should be provided to her. The healthcare professionals should also arrange for diabetes educator who will help her to develop knowledge about diabetes management and would have practical sessions of insulin administrations. Moreover, proper appointment schedule should be made with her by whom she would be given regular visits from the healthcare experts to her home. All these would help her develop high quality life. Therefore, in this way, both the psychological as well as social aspects resulting in the contribution of the disorder should also be treated other than the biological determinants resulting in the symptoms (Black and Dosrtyn 2015). These would ensure best health outcomes of the patient ensuring better quality life.

Practicing within the professional, ethical and legal frameworks


From the entire discussion, it becomes clear that bio-psycho-social model is one of the most modern approaches of healthcare that assures the best health of the patient. It ensures high quality life of patients because this model ensures best health and wellness of patients by proper complex interaction of biological as well as psychological and socio-cultural factors. Only providing interventions for the biological determinants do not ensure comprehensive care of the patients. Those individuals in healthcare professionals who also address the social and psychological determinants of health of the patients beside the biological determinants can ensure high quality care and better health outcome. Therefore, nursing professionals should try to search for evidence based papers by which they can develop care interventions by which they can address all the three domains of patient’s life successfully.

References:

Benning, T.B., 2015. Limitations of the biopsychosocial model in psychiatry. Advances in Medical Education and practice, 6, p.347.

Black, R. and Dorstyn, D., 2015. A biopsychosocial model of resilience for multiple sclerosis. Journal of health psychology, 20(11), pp.1434-1444.

Day, M.A., Ehde, D.M., Ward, L.C., Hartoonian, N., Alschuler, K.N., Turner, A.P., Kraft, G.H. and Jensen, M.P., 2016. An empirical investigation of a biopsychosocial model of pain in multiple sclerosis. The Clinical journal of pain, 32(2), pp.155-163.

Edozien, L.C., 2015. Beyond biology: the biopsychosocial model and its application in obstetrics and gynaecology. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 122(7), pp.900-903.

Fava, G.A. and Sonino, N., 2017. From the Lesson of George Engel to Current Knowledge: The Biopsychosocial Model 40 Years Later. Psychotherapy and psychosomatics, 86(5), pp.257-259.

Heery, E., Kelleher, C.C., Wall, P.G. and McAuliffe, F.M., 2015. Prediction of gestational weight gain–a biopsychosocial model. Public health nutrition, 18(8), pp.1488-1498.

Henningsen, P., 2015. Still modern? Developing the biopsychosocial model for the 21st century. Journal of psychosomatic research, 79(5), pp.362-363.

Hollar Jr, D.W. and Rowland, J., 2015. Promoting health literacy for people with disabilities and clinicians through a teamwork model. Journal of Family Strengths, 15(2), p.5.

Pilgrim, D., 2015. The biopsychosocial model in health research: its strengths and limitations for critical realists. Journal of Critical Realism, 14(2), pp.164-180.

Pincus, Theodore, Jacquelin R. Chua, and Kathryn A. Gibson. "Evidence from a Multidimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire (MDHAQ) of the Value of a Biopsychosocial Model to Complement a Traditional Biomedical Model in Care of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis." Journal of Rheumatic Diseases 23, no. 4 (2016): 212-233.

Santos, J.C., Bashaw, M., Mattcham, W., Cutcliffe, J.R. and Vedana, K.G.G., 2018. The Biopsychosocial Approach: Towards Holistic, Person-Centred Psychiatric/Mental Health Nursing Practice. In European Psychiatric/Mental Health Nursing in the 21st Century (pp. 89-101). Springer, Cham.

Sarafino, E.P. and Smith, T.W., 2014. Health psychology: Biopsychosocial interactions. John Wiley & Sons.

Shakespeare, T., Watson, N. and Alghaib, O.A., 2017. Blaming the victim, all over again: Waddell and Aylward’s biopsychosocial (BPS) model of disability. Critical Social Policy, 37(1), pp.22-41.

Wade, D.T. and Halligan, P.W., 2017. The biopsychosocial model of illness: a model whose time has come.

Wiechman, S., Hoyt, M.A. and Patterson, D.R., 2018. Using a Biopsychosocial Model to Understand Long-term Outcomes in Persons with Burn Injuries. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation.

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