1. Discuss and explain King’s Conceptual System Theory.
1. First explain the 3 systems and provide examples of each system
2. Explain how the systems influence goal attainment
3. How could King’s theory help define a clinical quality problem?
4. Apply this theory to a potential practice quality improvement initiative within your clinical practice.
5. How could a quality committee align outcomes with King’s Conceptual System Theory?
6. What additional nursing theory from our readings could also align with an improved quality of practice initiative?
King's conceptual system theory
Imogene King is recognized as across the globe as a pioneer of nursing theory development. Her interacting conceptual system for nursing and goal attainment have been included in almost every dominant nursing theory, and they are told to millions of nursing students. Her primary conceptual systems and theories form the basis of nursing education programs. Imogene theory of goal attainment focuses on how the patient’s goals are achieved through the nurse-client transaction. The role of the nurse in this theory is to attain and maintain a healthy state in a specific society (Alligood, 2010). The goals are developed through communication, interaction and social systems. King’s model can be used as a framework for assessing and maintaining a healthy social system which can help patients achieve goals which are stated. Imogene theory o goal attainment provides methods which can be used to accomplish goals and ensure that people lead a quality life.
The basic concept of the theory is that the nurse should work together with the patient to set specific goals regarding the health of the patients and work towards the attainment of this goals. They both have to develop interpersonal skills which enable them to interact and communicate effectively to attain this life goal. According to King, (2007), there are various factor which affect the attainment of this goals which includes the role which an individual is given to perform to attain it, the time which it has to take to accomplish the target and the space in which people have to work in order to be able to achieve the goals (Wayne, (2014). King was interested in advancing the nursing profession by developing a framework and theory which can be understood and used by all the nurse across the globe in all the situations. Apart from developing the structure and approach, she made herself available to nursing students to help them understand every aspect of nursing and enhance their knowledge in the nursing field. The nurse and the patient can share their views on what should be done to achieve the set goals. She also gave out some essential assumptions which are very significant when using the theory (Alligood, 2017). The first assumption which she gave was that nursing is caring for a human, this assumption is very beneficial as it helps nurses put more efforts while attending a patient as they think it is their responsibility to ensure that they are in functional health status. The second assumption is that nursing goals are made to ensure that an individual or the society at large in good health and lastly that the healthcare professionals and patients should share information, set goals and work towards the attainment of the goals together (Smith & Parker, 2015).
Kings three interacting systems
Imogene King comes up with three interactive systems which are used by nurses and patients to attain some specific healthcare services goals. The personal network is the first system of interaction which is made up of space, image, development, and communication. In this system, each person is a personal system, and they are composed of thoughts and feelings which makes them aware of their existence and be in a position to understand who they are (Gilmore et al., 2015). This system involves the growth and development of an individual from one stage to another in which they can achieve specific life goals. Imogene King second system is interpersonal, and she believed that interaction between individuals makes this system typically. It can be two people interacting with each other or groups of people talking to each other. The more the number of individuals increases the more the interaction gets complicated. The social system is the last system which is more functional as compared to personal; and interpersonal (McEwen & Wills, 2017). This is because it is made up of several interacting systems in which several people from society can interact. This system is made up of several concepts which are used to attain the set goals. Power is the first concept in which people from various setting use the available resources with no restrictions to work towards the attainment of the goals. The position is another concept in which people in the interaction scheme are given some authority over a specific task which they should manage and ensure that it meets its objective.
Kings interaction systems are very essential in goal attainment in every organization; the system is dependent to each other which means an organization needs to have the three interactive system to be in a position to achieve the set goals successfully. Interpersonal systems are very essential in creative, active relationship among individuals in a society (Williams, 2017). Personal and social systems are mostly applied in healthcare institutions to ensure that the goals which are set regarding a patient’s health are met and that the patient health improves. The doctor and the patient plays crucial roles to achieve this goal (King, 1992). They interact, communicate and give opinions on what they should do to meet their health services objectives.
King’s theory is beneficial for dealing with situations which involves communication breakdown. Communication breakdown occurs when there is no trust and cooperation between a nurse and a patient. This can lead to negative impacts in the healthcare sector because it is not possible to achieve the set objectives and goals (Alligood, 2017). King’s theory can be used to enhance communication because it is among the major concepts of the interacting systems. Proper communication is needed in emergency rooms so that nurse cannot end up administering the wrong medication and treatment to a patient which can be harmful to their health.
King’s theory is one of the most significant theories in the nursing sector. Being in the medical area needs physicians and nurses to interact with the patient all the time. By using King’s theory for interacting as a nurse, I have been in able to clear any existing tension between the patients I attend to and me. For instance, considering a case of Mr. X a patient in post-operation, she went through a cholecystectomy surgery and claimed that it was negatively affecting her health. Thus, the first step to help her heal would be identifying if there exists a mutual perception towards his condition. Secondly, I will seek some information that leads to determining the risks that result from his condition and how he sees himself as a post-operation patient (Alligood, 2010). Thirdly, Mr. X and I would establish the issue causing the pain. I realized that he was not interested in operation and walking exercise. The fourth thing that I would do is to teach him about the implication and complications that can be caused by other activities. After this, we would agree on the chosen goals and the set method for attaining them. Therefore, I was in a position of a helping nurse and gave the right direction such as ambulation, deep breathing exercise among others (Williams, 2017). Through King’s theory, Mr. X and I will be able to achieve the set goal, and maybe he will be discharged after 3-4 daycare period.
The theory can as well be used in establishing a committee as it uses interacting systems that the members of the committee may use to get the ideas and opinions of each member. Through King’s theory, individuals in a given committee can be able to identify those with mutual interests through interacting. The committee will also use the interacting theory to know the powers of each member, set its goals, make informed decisions and determine whether the goals have been reached (Sieloff & Messmer, 2013). Also, the committee will also use King’s theory to determine the leadership system that it will adopt.
Kings theory can be aligned with Orem’s Self-care deficit which is a theory of three interrelated parts same as King’s theory. For instance, Orem’s theory of Self-care can be associated with King’s theory as it aims at ensuring enhanced communication between patients and nurses as they deliberate on their goals and plans that can help to achieve the goals (Simmons, 2009). Orem’s theory seeks to identify patient’s deficits and come up with ideas to aid them in attaining good health. The two approaches focus on improving patient’s and nurses’ communication and are goal oriented as well. The existent similarity between King’s and Orem’s theory is that they can be employed to achieve improved nursing practice.
King’s conceptual system theory is essential in helping nurses interact well with their patients. The approach has aided me to have an in-depth understanding of the interaction systems. Through the theory, my relation with patients in care sectors will be improved resulting in better goal achievement. Generally, King’s system theory is applicable in all areas whether in setting up committees in companies or for nursing-patient interaction among others.
Alligood, M. R. (2010). Family healthcare with King’s theory of goal attainment. Nursing science quarterly, 23(2), 99-104.
Alligood, M. R. (2017). Nursing Theorists and Their Work-E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Gilmore, R., King, G., Law, M., Pollock, N., Meredith, P., Kirby, A., ... & Kolehmainen, N. (2015). Goal setting and motivation in therapy: engaging children and parents. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
King, I. M. (1992). King's theory of goal attainment. Nursing Science Quarterly, 5(1), 19-26.
King, I. M. (2007). King's conceptual system, theory of goal attainment, and transaction process in the 21st century. Nursing Science Quarterly, 20(2), 109-111.
McEwen, M., & Wills, E. M. (2017). Theoretical basis for nursing. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Sieloff, C. L., & Messmer, P. R. (2013). Conceptual system and middle range theory of goal attainment. Nursing Theorists and Their Work-E-Book, 258.
Simmons, L. (2009). Dorthea Orem's self care theory as related to nursing practice in hemodialysis. Nephrology Nursing Journal, 36(4).
Smith, M. C., & Parker, M. E. (2015). Nursing theories and nursing practice. FA Davis.
Wayne, G. (2014). Madeleine Leininger’s Transcultural Nursing theory.
Williams, L. A. (2017). Imogene King’s interacting systems theory: Application in emergency and rural nursing. Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Health Care, 2(1), 40-50.
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