All the proposals for improving studies depends on the assumptions that teachers can learn complex models of teaching and implement them. In this context, various philosophical lenses help scholars and practitioners to define and conceptualize the curriculum. The traditional models of teaching are represented regarding a broad array of teaching systems. Each system contains a unique philosophical foundation that relates to the theory of learning regarding related pedagogical methodologies. In this paper, I have articulated the philosophical underpinnings of the curriculum conceptions by framing the arguments regarding the online curriculum by relaying these conceptions to address the needs of learners in an online context.
A curriculum is seen as the broad term as it depends on the perspective of individuals, leaders or organization and the components of the curriculum may vary. According to Astutik, Nur and Susantini, 2016) curriculum may have different types of experiences and skills which include cognitive processes, curriculum as technology and curriculum for social reconstructionism. The cognitive processes in the context of online learning refer to the intellectual capacity or skills, in the process of learning while curriculum as technology refers to the learner's access to the materials. Academic concepts such as self-completing and consummatory encounters identify with particular reason and perspectives planning as an open passage for self-disclosure (Dean & Bergeron, 2015). Social Reconstructionism is spun around the part the understudy plays in the more noteworthy framework as a neighborhood. The teachers and the school have a guarantee to adopt more flexibility. With everything taken into account, the mentor uses the fundamental technique to oversee the course of student. In each of the online courses, the mentor identifies the problem and solve it accordingly.
Goodlad (2014) also observes the substance of informational activities as far-reaching. He portrays educational activities as including both unequivocal and clear enlightening modules. Express informative ventures intertwine all the ordinary parts of school encounters, classes offered, tests are given, instructional materials, and so on. The verifiable informative undertakings are the manner by which bearing takes place and "messages transmitted" through the physical structure and the social affiliations experienced at school.
According to Sterling, Dawson and Warwick, (2018), it is stated that progressive educators were caught in a dualistic relationship which will separate the studies from mainstream society. In this context, Shambaugh said that social reconstruction involves active participation regarding doing as it intends the social purpose for the activities which will be instilled through practice only (2018). Standards of research do not rule the quest for knowledge but, it is brought regarding immediate relation with the human ends. Social reconstruction also acts as the guide regarding experiences within the online learning context. It helps in evaluating the results by thoughtfully asking ourselves important questions. Also, it provides a setting, in terms of real participation by each student in terms of functional living.
According to Astutik, (2016) technology is designed to make advancements in the participant's online arrivals by making quick and easy to produce work that make the work of the tutor the faster, easier and productive. Technology is also proved as helpful in terms of suitability of the online programs in terms of integrated and blended learning as it is cheap to run and create and also seen as the effective one for participants and moderators and it improves the way in which it is deployed and adapted. It also helps learners and participants to review and consolidate ideas in a more focused way (Widosari, Suwandi & Slamet, 2017). Technology also helps the learners in the context of proposed the differential thinking so that the working will be initiated in the form of the learning sequence. So in this way technology is seen as the important context for online teaching and learning as it is seen in term s of deployed, useful and well-rehearsed principles and pedagogies for learning.
The social studies specialists who are concerned with civic education have advocated complex group dynamics model of teaching that will be proved helpful for learners. In Joyce, Weil and Calhoun's model of teaching (2018) it is noted that this model has to qualify in 6 areas which include focus, syntax, the principle of reaction, social system, support system, effects, and applications. According to Joyce, Weil and Calhoun (2018) role play puts in character values on students which will appreciate the development of students at the elementary level and is enjoyable for students in the long run. Role plays can fully successfully comprehend the running events by taking the moral value of the event in terms of the professional ability of students.
In terms of the information processing model of Joyce, Weil, and Calhoun (2018) they are more oriented towards the academic disciplines, their structures and the mode of inquiries. These sources are mainly concerned with the information processing capabilities of the individuals and the systems for improving the capability. Information processing is linked with technology as it provides how the individuals handle stimuli from the environment, by organizing of data and by generating concepts and solutions for problems.
On the other side, the social interaction model is linked with social reconstruction as it forms the conception of society and models that are oriented towards the development of interpersonal relationships. In this model, learners are taught ways of learning that are productive and that foster democracy. The model makes claims that learning occurs or happens within the social settings and also through the modeling of the learners’ behavior in the context of the social exchange. This model reflects the human nature view of the social relations that is seen as the creation for the betterment of society (Joyce, Weil & Calhoun, 2003).
The third family model, which is the personal sources center the individuals in terms of understanding the importance of making reasonable efforts in terms of making connections with the students and their efforts in terms of their achievements. According to this model, each learner is unique and has a set of abilities that distinguish him/her from the rest. It is through this model that aspects of an individual like self-esteem, self-efficiency, acceptance, and the personal and emotional set up being developed. These models of teaching help the learner in developing the highly tuned and more professional professionals, by allowing them to reach to more and more number of students in an effective way. This also provides helps in terms of creating more uniform and varied instructional events that help in understanding the curriculum foci better, as different models will be explicitly matched.
In conclusion, the models of teaching in the context of philosophical underpinnings within the demand of the online curriculum for addressing the needs of learners in the online context represent a wide system of teaching. The idea of improving studies is dependent on the teacher’s ability to learning complex models as well as applying them in the context of learning. There are different definitions given to the term curriculum by various individuals and institutions. However, in this paper, I have used the definition of a curriculum having different types of experiences and skills which include cognitive processes, curriculum as technology and curriculum for social reconstructionism. Besides that, the use of informative activities has far-reaching benefits to the learners, and they engage the learner in tests and assessments, school encounters and class interactions. In such environments, the leaner can grasp and understand better.
Additionally, the models of teaching can be fitted in the five models given by the study carried out that forms a philosophical orientation in terms of learning online. These models of teaching create the process for organizing online courses into an efficient, coherent and focused practice. These models address the needs of learners by adapting the well-structured and appropriate course content and make it interesting from the point of learners.
Astutik, S., Nur, M., & Susantini, E. (2016). Validity of Collaborative Creativity Model. In Proceeding 3 rd International Conference on Reaserch, Implementation and Eduation of Mathematics and Science, Yogakarta 16-17 May 2016.
Dean, M., & Bergeron, L. (2015). Teaching Perspectives in an International Context: Multivariate Analysis of Responses to the Teaching Perspectives Inventory. Global Education Journal, 2015(2).
Goodlad, J. R. (2014). The many faces of lymphomatoid papulosis. Diagnostic Histopathology, 20(7), 263-270.
Joyce, B., Weil, M., & Calhoun, E. (2003). Models of teaching.
Joyce, B. R., Weil, M., & Calhoun, E. (2018). Models of Teaching, (9th Edition ed.). New York, NY: Pearson.
Shambaugh, N. (2018). Developing a Reflexive Teaching Model. In Handbook of Research on Pedagogical Models for Next-Generation Teaching and Learning (pp. 60-81). IGI Global.
Sterling, S., Dawson, J., & Warwick, P. (2018). Transforming Sustainability Education at the creative edge of the mainstream: a case study of Schumacher College. Journal of Transformative Education, 1541344618784375. (2018). Retrieved from https//files.eric.gov/fulltext/ED073965.pdf
Widosari, A., Suwandi, S., & Slamet, R. W. (2017). DISE Learning Model for Teaching Writing to Elementary School Students. Sino-US English Teaching, 14(5), 279-285.