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1. Outline the policy direction that you have decided to implement as a recommendation

2. Who are the stakeholders you will have to engage, and why?

3. Provide possible scenarios for how it could be implemented – weighing up the pros and cons.

4. Recommend an implementation strategy.

5. How will you evaluate the policy after implementation? Outline the key steps.

Overview of Policy Implementation

The first policy to be put in place is the recognition that the right to use affordable, accessible, secure and appropriate housing is a basic necessity for every individual and an essential ingredient of an economically, socially and maintainable environmental community. The Victoria government should apply this policy to solve the issues of housing needs, homeless and the establishment of various housing option. 1

The second policy implementation is the provision of support for those who are vulnerable and disadvantaged in Victoria. The State has to recognize that individuals without homes (homeless) are the most disadvantaged and vulnerable groups in the community. They should also take into consideration that those without homes are at higher risk of contracting a physical and mental illness, trauma, gambling addictions, intellectual disabilities, substance dependence and they are possibly the sufferers of violence. Therefore, the State has a moral obligation and statutory to advocate and address the requirements of the people that are Vulnerable and disadvantaged in the community. 2

The State government has the responsibility of acknowledging the rights of all the community members of using Public spaces while ensuring that the community members enjoy the right of living in a peaceful and safe environment. The state has the duty of encouraging all the people in the community to take part in the community activities and cultural and events. The State should then recognize that some of the socially excluded individuals and Vulnerable have to be given moral assistance to allow them to take part in community activities and have the feeling of higher social inclusion. The policy of inclusion should act to all the older Australia with ill health, aging population and older people who reside in nursing homes.

The prosperity of every site should be supported by the State. The government should also acknowledge that the existence of visibly homeless individuals can affect the prosperity and current business, visitors and resident view of the city. Therefore, the State should come up with changes in order to improve the living standard of the homeless, as well as ensuring the retention of social prosperity and ongoing environmental of the city and the State should support the prosperity of every site and acknowledge that the presence of visibility of homeless people may impact on residents, business, and the community. 4 In addition to that, the State should recognize that the provision of temporary services and the managing of the homelessness crisis require the massive amount of resources. Hence there is the need for long-lasting solutions, for example, the provision of permanent supportive housing is the most suitable strategy that can help in solving people’s homelessness. 6

Key Stakeholders to be Engaged

A state should take regional approach because the major cities in Victoria consist of employment and service and shopping centres, therefore, these places can act as an essential drawcard location for the individuals that live in the State. The state should partner and work with regional areas to ensure that homeless groups are given additional support in those areas. The State should take action and establish policies, and form the partnership with privet and other different organization with the intention of developing infrastructure as well as accommodation for people without homes in the regional areas.

The State should advocate on behalf of those who are vulnerable and disadvantaged in the community. This will enable the State to recognize the importance of advocacy to the communities and organizations to reduce and manage the occurrence of homelessness in the State by providing effective policies and suitable funded services.

Lastly, the State should ensure that there is strong cooperation among the socially disadvantaged and homeless because the provision of empowerment and services is more effective when people partners. Constant consultation and stronger partnerships with service consumer enable co-ordination of activities and services. This can motivate the government to provide services to homeless people in every city council to create and coordinate activities with the consumers to help them exit from homelessness in their communities. The State should also encourage commercial enterprises and local-privet business in every City council to partner with the State government to fight against homelessness. The cooperation among different organization with the government can enable the state to create local solutions to their local councils with the intention of solving the issues of homelessness. 5

The key stakeholders that should be engaged to help solve the problems associated with the homelessness include the following:

State government- the government will be divided into three sectors which include the local, Federal and state government. The government should work together with various organizations to maintain the housing (government housing) for the homelessness through the allocation of the adequate fund. The State government can help in the provision of policies to help solve the issues of the homelessness. Therefore, the state government will provide additional support to the homelessness group thereby reducing the problem among the older Australia.

The local government is a crucial stakeholder because they are the major custodians of space that are in urban areas where most of the homelessness people reside. Majority of the councils fail to offer dedicated services for individuals without homes because most of them lack sufficient resources. One of the functions of the councils is offer services to the communities. Therefore, this makes the local council the critical stakeholders in a plan to end and prevent homelessness.

Possible Scenarios for Implementation

The community- the whole community should be included to ensure a broad and diverse range of involvement in finding the solution.

The three level of government are the key stakeholders in solving the requirements of those who are homeless through: income support, social housing, training and employment assistance and emergency, medium and short-term accommodation.

The business owners- the business owners, will assist in bringing their support with the intention of creating policies that can help solve the issues of homelessness. They will help in the provision of assistance to the people who are homelessness.

Organization- they are key Stakeholders that should be engaged because Organisation like the Mission Australia is useful in supporting and investigating the investments in any housing with the aim of meeting the requirements of older women who are facing family violence. They can also help in the identification of the risk factors that are related to homelessness.

The policy could be implemented by taking into consideration the aims and objectives. The aim of the policy will be to minuses homelessness by improving the welfare of individuals who are homeless and to those who are at higher risk of being homelessness. The policy will also help in supporting and maintaining the prosperity of the cities in the State for the benefit of residential communities and wider business. Homelessness can be reduced and be prevented by solving the factors that cause homelessness, for example, unemployment, entrenched disadvantage and lack of adequate housing; as well as targeting people who are risk of being homelessness for example older individuals in housing stress, children and women leaving violence, individuals leaving care of the State and Indigenous Australia.7 

The objectives of the policy will include mainly emphasis on the factors that will:  help reduce or prevent the homelessness by preventing people who are at risk of facing the issue of homelessness. The challenge is the economic climate that has causes various kinds of implications and the trend will continue as welfare, and the spending of the local sectors will become cult, and the reforms for housing will take full effect.

Another policy objective that should be implemented is by supporting and working with the people at the local homelessness sectors. This should be done by building the capacity at the local level to break the cycle for people who are homeless. For some individuals, homelessness is a secluded event, and it mostly occurs on one occasion and for a short duration of time. For other few people, homelessness is one of the uncertain and chaotic lives of poverty. These people have a tendency of cycling in and out of homelessness; immediately they find the housing, it always takes place for a short term. There is the need for initiating and coming up with appropriate accommodation for the people who are staying in the local areas. 5 The various actions that will ensure the implementation of work and support within the local homelessness sector include the provision of funding program for the advocacy of local services. 8 This will help in solving the needs of the people, for example, dissimilar financial status, and physical and social needs. Funding should be provided to help supply the homeless people with proper permanent accommodations and this will help solve the problems associated with lack of adequate funds for the older people that create the problem of homeless. 15 

Recommendation for Implementation Strategy

The next policy is by promoting and maintaining the use of the asset and public space for the homeless people in the whole community. The State should develop policy with the aim of helping people that are in the streets. 13 This is because a response to the needs of the homelessness that are living in the street will assist in solving the problems of the street children.

The implementation can be made by initiating regional partnership and planning. This will encourage the involvement of business, non-government and government sectors, and communities on a plan which summaries many goals and clear timelines for preventing homeless numbers in Australia. There should be the identification of responsibilities and roles for resourcing and implementation; and a review of the planning process. 18

The State should advocate for improving the right to use the services of mental health for the older people and the entire resident, for example, the communities with the background of trauma and Aboriginal.

The needs of the Tenant who are at higher risk of homelessness in the public and community housing must be a monitor. The partnership between the tenant and the State should be encouraged to promote the good relationship between them. 10

The State should establish additional accommodation to control homelessness for all the People. The problem of homelessness is a concerning issue among the people of Australia, and both local and federal governments should initiate more research to solve the problem and implement different dwelling options to prepare and support all Australians.

The State should allocate funding towards the provision of suitable accommodations that last long and use it in solving the issues of homelessness for example financial insecurities to all the people and inadequate affordable rental accommodations. 17

 The State funding should be allocated for the prevention and reduction of the homelessness. Initiative at the local level should be put in place to solve the issues of homelessness in the community can be prevented. 9 A major effort should be directed toward establishing evidence-based services in all country to stop people, more so the families, the young people, and children from becoming homeless. 8

All the level of the government should work together as a team to improve the adoption of the necessary policy, land supply, taxation reforms and planning to facilitate many dwelling places that can accommodate people without homes. 12

Planning, infrastructure, and resources in disadvantaged locations such as public amenities, public transport and the facilities of the community in an area where there are many underprivileged people. Isolation and social inclusion is a major cause of spatial disadvantaged, and it can lead to homelessness. We all need to take into consideration the importance of planning in various places where people are residing; this will ensure that health, community facilities, accessible transport and education services are well used by all people to prevent the exclusion. 11 

Steps for Evaluating the Policy

Equity and education such as address the issues of distribution of funds to public schools and early childhood, mostly in areas where there are many disadvantage people and ensuring that all the children are engaged. The young and the children should be engaged in training and education programs because they are essential factors of homelessness prevention. 7

Steps of developing the evaluation plan

Step1 Evaluating the effectiveness of strategies that are to be put in place to assist in the implementation of the policies that can help prevent the issues of the homelessness among the people, for example, the success of a strategy has successfully delivered the goals it was intended to perform.

Step2 testing strategic outcomes and service by looking at the changes of the homelessness, whether it has been reduced and/or prevented, for example looking at the sustainment levels of housing and whether the possible risk that is connected to the failures in the sustainment of housing, as well as economic and social exclusion and support needs, has been managed well. The outcome of a specific strategy should bring a positive outcome, for example. i) Homelessness service providers offer the homeless individuals permanent solutions of housing on time. ii) There are sufficient homelessness services that are capable of meeting the growing population of the Australian citizen. ii) Positive perception of residents and workers. iii) The three sectors (government, businesses, and non-organizations) involved in decision making with the intention of minimizing homelessness.3

Step3 Exploring the level to which any effects which are not intended are created by a homelessness strategy or service. Unintended effects may be negative or positive.

Step4 Understanding the entire context to allow for the external factors that are capable of influencing strategic or service outcomes.

Step5 looking at the benefits and cost of services and strategies. The benefits of the strategies that are used in the implementation of the plans should be outline together with the costs which are associated with the service or strategy.

Conclusion

To end the issues of homelessness in Australia, it requires the intervention of the State government and community-wide approaches. Fulfilling the goal of preventing and ending homelessness will require the establishment of suitable strategies with the intention of solving the problem among the people of Australia. There should be proper practices and policies to combat the issues associated with the housing problems. The state should provide funding to the older people and street children to solve their problem. The intervention should aim at helping a particular household shun homelessness. It is true that rising living standard and low income are the primary causes of homelessness among the people of Australia. Therefore, the State government should create jobs and initiate programs that will help solve the problem of homelessness. 

References

  1. Australia Co. An Ageing Australia: Preparing for the Future
    Canberra2013 [Available from:https://www.pc.gov.au/research/completed/ageing-australia/ageing-australia.pdf.
  2. Australia M. Review of Homelessness Australia2015 [Available from:file:///C:/Users/porti/Downloads/Mission%20Australia's%20Review%20of%20Homelessness%202015.pdf.
  3. Bauman A, Merom D, Bull FC, Buchner DM, Fiatarone Singh MA. Updating the evidence for physical activity: summative reviews of the epidemiological evidence, prevalence, and interventions to promote “Active Aging”. The Gerontologist. 2016 Mar 18;56(Suppl_2):S268-80.
  4. Commission AHr. Face the facts: OLDER AUSTRALIANS • 2014 Sydney NSW2001: Australian Human rights commission; 2014 [Available from: https://www.humanrights.gov.au/sites/default/files/FTFOlderAustralians.pdf.
  5. Crane M, Byrne K, Fu R, Lipmann B, Mirabelli F, Rota-Bartelink A, et The Causes of Homelessness in Later Life: Findings From a 3-Nation Study. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B. 2005;60(3):S152-S9.
  6. Dondzila CJ, Perry CK, Bornstein DB. Enhancing Support for Physical Activity in Older Adults: A Public Health Call to Action. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice. 2018 Jan 1;24(1):e26-9.
  7. Duckett S, Willcox S. The Australian health care system. Oxford University Press; 2015.
  8. Fredriksen-Goldsen KI, Hoy-Ellis CP, Goldsen J, Emlet CA, Hooyman NR. Creating a vision for the future: Key competencies and strategies for culturally competent practice with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults in the health and human services. Journal of gerontological social work. 2014 May 19;57(2-4):80-107.
  9. Kuruvilla S, Sadana R, Montesinos EV, Beard J, Vasdeki JF, de Carvalho IA, Thomas RB, Drisse MN, Daelmans B, Goodman T, Koller T. A life-course approach to health: synergy with sustainable development goals. Sustainable development. 2018 Jan 1;96(1).
  10. Segal DL, Qualls SH, Smyer MA. Aging and mental health. John Wiley & Sons; 2018 Jan 16.
  11. Somes T. More and more older Australians will be homeless unless weact now: The Conversation: Academic rigour, journalistic flair; 2017 [Available from: https://theconversation.com/more-and-more-older-australians-will-be-homeless-unless-we-act-now-87685. 
  12. Stewart BW, Wild CP. World cancer report 2014. Health. 2017 Oct 24.
  13. SuperFunds I. AGE PENSION: Industry Super Australia; 2017 [Availablefrom: https://www.industrysuper.com/about/who-we-are/.
  14. The L. Ageing well: a global priority. The Lancet.379(9823):1274.Welfare AIoHa. Australia’s welfare 2015: Australian Government; 2015[24/02/2018]. Available from:file:///C:/Users/porti/OneDrive/Documents/ageing%20assessments/assessment%204/australian%20welfare%202015.pdf
  15. Tually S, Faulkner D, Cutler C, Slatter M. Women, Domestic and FamilyViolence and Homelessness: A Synthesis Report. Australia, Department of Families H, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs 2008. Report : 978-1-921380-11-2
  16. Welfare Aioha. Older Australia at a glance : People at risk ofhomelessness Australia: Australian Government; 2017 [Available from:https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/older-people/older-australia-at-a-glance/contents/diversity/people-at-risk-of-homelessness.
  17. Workers AAos. Ageing in Australia 2013 [Available from:https://www.aasw.asn.au/document/item/4356.
  18. World Health Organization. World report on ageing and health. World Health Organization; 2015 Oct 22.
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