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i.Identify the root cause(s) that lead to the problems using appropriate tools and techniques.
ii.Develop a continuous improvement plan to ensure the problems and issues are not repeated.
iii.Elaborate on the competencies required from PEW management and employees to effectively bring about the change.

Discussion

Precision Engineering Works Pvt. Ltd. (PEW) is the leading company for the manufacture of the plastic module parts for the telecommunication business. The company is operating the business for 30 years and the client of this company are major telecommunication services. There are some of the issues and the problems due to which the company is facing some of the competitive challenges. The paper is concerned about the  about the current business situation of the PEW (Peerally et al.,2017). There are other companies which are performing well in the market and are posing as the challenge for the PEW. In order to find out the problem raising in front of the company, the management  of the company has given three months time. Within this time frame the advisors have to make the recommendations for the improvement of the situation for the company ( Gijo  & Scaria,2014) . In order to do this the root cause analysis of the problem has been done. Based on the root cause analysis the improvement plan has been implemented. In order to adopt the changes in the organization the training of the employees is elaborated. The objective of this approach is to develop the changes in the organizational process of the company so that the PEW can adopt the dynamic marketing condition and improve the overall business.

Precision Engineering Works Pvt. Ltd. is a leading plastic modules parts manufacturing company which provides  plastic parts to the telecommunication business (Timans et al.,2016). The company is a famous name and thus has the clients which are well known names in the telecommunication industry.

Recently , it has been seen that the company is not doing well in the competitive market. The objective is to make the analysis of the situation and  identify the cause of the happening of the situation. In order to find the problem of the Pew , the  root cause analysis is needed to be done.

The profitability of the PEW has decreased to 45% in recent time. It has been seen that the company is not doing well in the competitive market. Though PEW is a famous name in the business sector, there are certain factors which are leading to the degrading situation for PEW. The root cause analysis can be done in order to identify the problems regarding this situation.

It has been seen that the manufacturing of the plastic modeling is an emerging sector in the business industry (Chay et al.,2015). In that case, many companies are investing their money in this business. Earlier, the size was the market was small and Pew has to compete with small number of companies. However, the situation is changing dynamically and the number of competitors are  increasing. This is making the situation competitive for the PEW.

Identification of the root cause

Another concerned  factor regarding this is the pricing strategy of the products. The number of competitors are increasing. In this case, the clients have many options for choosing the service provider. In this case, the pricing plays an important  role in  determining of the future of the business.  The pricing of the products produced by the other companies are less than the products of the PEW. This is the reason the client is going for the cheaper products for the mitigation of the production cost of  the telecommunication goods.  

It can be said that the main causes for the PEW facing challenges for making the new contracts are the increase of the competitors in the market and the comparatively high price of the products produced by the company.

There are various tools for development of the root cause analysis for the company. Some of the tools and techniques for the root cause analysis are- brainstorming, fishbone diagram, flowcharting, affinity diagrams, five whys, and current reality tree and failure mode and effects analysis.

In the brainstorming the opinion of the all members in the team are considered for making the decision regarding a situation.  This option provides the way for considering the opinion from different point of view. In the brainstorming process  the problem can be viewed from the different aspects which leads to the problem way for the solving of the problem is a easier way.

Fishbone diagram is also known as cause-effect diagram. The main objective of fishbone diagram is to identify the root cause of the problem  happening in the organization. In the fishbone diagram the head of the fish denotes the problems and the issues identified in the organization and the company. The backbone of the fishbone diagram points to the problems or the head of the diagram. The causes of the problem will be denoted as the arrows towards the spine (Kellogg et al.,2017). The whole structure looks like the fishbone. The causes of the problem can be solved using the brainstorming process.

Flowcharting is another tool for the root cause analysis. The flowchart can be denoted as the decision tree in this case (Indrawati & Ridwansyah, 2015). This is also known as the business process mapping. The business process mapping uses the flow chart in order to identify the root cause of the problems and the issues in the organization. The pictorial view through the use of the flowchart helps the users to understand the flow of the information and their contribution in the solving of the problem more clearly.

Tools for root cause analysis

Affinity diagrams are also used for the root cause analysis. The diagram helps the people to think creatively on the solving of the critical issues (Selim, Yunusoglu & Y?lmaz Balaman, 2016). The use of this diagram is useful for the development of the new thinking ideas and solving of the problems. The main objective of the affinity diagram is to collect the large amount of data and group them into the different category for the processing (Prashar,2014). The process starts with the generation of ideas. In this case the brainstorming is used for the listing of the ideas.  The ideas are listed in accordingly. The written ideas are grouped into the different categories for the discussion. The header cards are created for all the groups. The diagram is made on the basis of the header cards.

Another popular method for the root cause analysis is the known as “five whys”. This is an interrogative technique for the investigation of the causes of the underlying problems in the organization. This technique is helpful when one issue or the problem has multiple causes. The main objective of these techniques is to make the troubleshooting of the problem and get the conclusion without falling into the logical tarp.

Current reality tree is used for the exploring the current situation in the organization and finding the issues and the causes of the issues.  Current reality tree shows the relationship between the different elements in the organization. The relationship shows the issues and the problems of the organization. The root cause analysis is done on the basis of the brainstorming process (Muralidharan, 2015).  Future reality tree can be made on the basis of the solution for solving the problems and existing issues in the organization. This can be done for the improvement of the current situation of the organization (Viveros et al,2014). This techniques can be used when there are different elements present in the organization which belongs to the different functionality in the operational process of the organization.

Failure mode and the effect analysis is another technique for the  root  cause analysis. It is a highly structured analysis for the analysis of the failure of the system (Al-Tahat & Jalham, 2015). The issues and the problems in the organization  are the main causes of the failure of the projects or the operations in the organization. The main objective of this analysis is to  identify the causes of the failure in order to mitigate them.

Different processes and the techniques have been discussed for the  development of the root cause analysis. However, the brainstorming process will be helpful for the PEW regarding the root cause analysis.

  In this case the use of the brainstorming process has been adopted. In the brain storming process the opinions of the different members of the team has been considered regarding the situation (Estrada, Shunk & Ju,2018). Based on the different opinions from the different members the identification of the cause for the problems  has been detected.

Problems identified:

 There are several improvement plans those can be initiated for the modification of the whole situation. In this case, the identified causes for the challenges for PEW is the competitive market along with the threats from the new  companies and the comparative high price of the products of PEW.

Action taken:

In order to mitigate these causes the management can implement certain plan which includes the improvement of the products and making the products in a cost effective way so that  strategy of the pricing can be done in a proper way.

Follow up and action status:

In order to carry out the pricing strategy and the implementation of the process which will enable the production of the products in an optimized cost certain project planning is needed to be done. The planning of the project needs the analysis of the requirement in a proper way.  In this case the PMBOK guide for the management of the project can be followed (Ghaferi & Dimick,2015). According the  PMBOK there are five stages of the management of the project- the initial stage of the project management is the analysis of the requirements. In this case requirements of the PEW to implement the process that will help the organization to adopt the right pricing strategy and mitigate the overhead cost of the production. The next stage is then planning of the project which includes the making of the blueprint of the execution. In the execution phase the implementation of the process that will help the PEW to improve the overall business situation (Tyagi et al.,2015). The monitoring and the control phase are concerned about the evaluation of the outcome of the project. The development ends with the closing phase of the project.

For improving the quality of the product the six sigma can be applicable in managing of the project. The main objective of the application of the six sigma is to improve the overall quality of the service through the flow of communication of the correct data. The application of the six sigma will help to provide the right information to the users of the products of the company.

Business and strategic management:

The employees are needed to be made aware about the changes in the organizational process. The new technology can be implemented in the organization for reducing the overhead cost of the production. In that case , the employees are needed to be trained to handle the new system (Yang et al,2018). Apart from that the communication plan for the  making the flow of communication between the employees and the management level is needed to be implemented.  The employees at the management level are needed to be aware about the pricing strategy of the products (Tonelli et al.,2016) . In this case the proper analysis of the pricing strategy of the products from the other companies are needed to be evaluated.  It can be said that the right pricing strategy and the mitigation of the overhead cost of the production can improve the business situation for PEW.

Technical Management:

The improvement of the technology is needed to be done through the application of the emerging technology. In this case, the employees are needed to be trained for the handling of the new technology used in the organization.

Leadership:

The whole project is needed to be developed under the proper monitoring of the right leader. Choosing of the right leader will help to merge the communication gap between the team members and the will help to deliver he right outcome of the project.

Conclusion

The paper has discussed   plans for the mitigation of the issues and the problems PEW is facing currently. It has been identified that the increase in the price of the products produced by the PES and the entry of the new competitors in the business market  has made the situation challenging for the PEW. The cause of the problems  has been identified in this case.  Different tools and techniques for the root cause analysis has been described I this case. Regarding the solving of the issues of PEW, the brainstorming process has been adopted in this case. It can be concluded from the above discussion that the solving of the identified problem can help the PEW to gain the competitive advantage in the dynamic  business situation.

Reference

Al-Tahat, M. D., & Jalham, I. S. (2015). A structural equation model and a statistical investigation of lean-based quality and productivity improvement. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, 26(3), 571-583.

Chay, T., Xu, Y., Tiwari, A., & Chay, F. (2015). Towards lean transformation: the analysis of lean implementation frameworks. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 26(7), 1031-1052.

Estrada, G., Shunk, D. L., & Ju, F. (2018). Systematic continuous improvement model for variation management of key characteristics running with low capability. International Journal of Production Research, 56(6), 2370-2387.

Ghaferi, A. A., & Dimick, J. B. (2015). Understanding failure to rescue and improving safety culture. Annals of surgery, 261(5), 839.

Gijo, E. V., & Scaria, J. (2014). Process improvement through Six Sigma with Beta correction: a case study of manufacturing company. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 71(1-4), 717-730.

Indrawati, S., & Ridwansyah, M. (2015). Manufacturing continuous improvement using lean six sigma: An iron ores industry case application. Procedia Manufacturing, 4, 528-534.

Kellogg, K. M., Hettinger, Z., Shah, M., Wears, R. L., Sellers, C. R., Squires, M., & Fairbanks, R. J. (2017). Our current approach to root cause analysis: is it contributing to our failure to improve patient safety?. BMJ Qual Saf, bmjqs-2016.

Muralidharan, K. (2015). Six Sigma Concepts. In Six Sigma for Organizational Excellence (pp. 1-18). Springer, New Delhi.

Peerally, M. F., Carr, S., Waring, J., & Dixon-Woods, M. (2017). The problem with root cause analysis. BMJ Qual Saf, 26(5), 417-422.

Prashar, A. (2014). Adoption of Six Sigma DMAIC to reduce cost of poor quality. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 63(1), 103-126.

Selim, H., Yunusoglu, M. G., & Y?lmaz Balaman, ?. (2016). A dynamic maintenance planning framework based on fuzzy TOPSIS and FMEA: application in an international food company. Quality and Reliability Engineering International, 32(3), 795-804.

Timans, W., Ahaus, K., van Solingen, R., Kumar, M., & Antony, J. (2016). Implementation of continuous improvement based on Lean Six Sigma in small-and medium-sized enterprises. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 27(3-4), 309-324.

Tonelli, F., Demartini, M., Loleo, A., & Testa, C. (2016). A novel methodology for manufacturing firms value modeling and mapping to improve operational performance in the industry 4.0 era. Procedia CIRP, 57, 122-127.

Tyagi, S., Choudhary, A., Cai, X., & Yang, K. (2015). Value stream mapping to reduce the lead-time of a product development process. International Journal of Production Economics, 160, 202-212.

Viveros, P., Zio, E., Nikulin, C., Stegmaier, R., & Bravo, G. (2014). Resolving equipment failure causes by root cause analysis and theory of inventive problem solving. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part O: Journal of Risk and Reliability, 228(1), 93-111.

Yang, J., Zhan, Z., Chou, C. C., Yang, R. J., Zheng, L., & Guo, G. (2018). Root cause analysis strategy for robust design domain recognition. Engineering Optimization, 50(8), 1325-1346.

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