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Background of Tiriri Matangi Island

Question:

Discuss about the Pros and Cons of Managing Endangered Species ?

Tiriri Matangi is an island located in the Hauraki Gulf for the Conservation and management of endangered plants and animal species. The island covers an approximate area of two hundred and twenty hectares. The Tiriri Matangi Island has transformed into an open sanctuary for both Aucklanders and the Rest of the World. The goals and aims of the management plans since 1982-2013 have been implemented. Tiriri Matangi island management plans was first developed in the year 1982, followed by the Tiriri Matangi working Plan of 1997 and then the biodiversity Plan 2013 all with the aim of preserving endangered species of animals and plants. The Management plans have providing quarantine protocols  for the island management which has contributed to the salvage and survival of some of the island affected endangered species.

Predominantly, the fear of extinction is the drive behind management of endangered species. Endangered species could comprise of different species of flora and fauna .Management of endangered species is based on social, Economics and ecological implications (Mazzotti , n.d.).Notably, management of endangered species promotes eco-tourism which translates into government revenue. Further, management of endangered species creates employment opportunities for the staff involved in the management (Bonello,2006)( In addition, endangered species can be a wake-up call on environmental degradation .For instance, population decline among bald eagles for tales the dangers of DDT .Moreover, environmental quality can be monitored through management of endangered species like the Florida Sport fish and largemouth bass population decrease which alerted the world of mercury poisoning in freshwater sources .

According to the Tiriri  Matangi Island Biodiversity Plan,2013,through the management of brush wattles  further spread  has been prevented which is a positive move due to the negative effects of these weed species. Moreover, a lot of research and experiments have been made thereby progressing knowledge on endangered species. Also, management has enabled species monitoring and translocation .Poor management of protected areas has hampered proper management of these endangered species (World Global  ,n.d)..Also ,reintroduction of these species could be costly than conserving(Clun,2017) Further ,interbreeding and population increase has been made easy through centralized management to mean it is easy for endangered species to reproduce due to the close vicinity of reproductive agents as opposed to different locations out in the wild and world(Jameison, Wallis and Briskie,2006)

Further, there’s protection, population health monitoring under management (Illinois DNR ,n.d.)Also, breeding, selective or inbreeding is easier in a centralized setup. However, management can be disadvantageous for gathering information due to pretentious behavior by species and unfavorable living conditions for endangered species. Noteworthy, feeding habits may be affected under seclusion and it may be expensive for the management to run the management operations at conservation areas (World Global ,n.d.).Also, adaptation into new environment may have negative consequences on the species in and out of the conservation area In addition, endangered species may be exposed to ailments leading to population reduction .Negatively, management may limit genetic diversity among the species and the fact that the species are out of their natural habitat could have disastrous consequences on the endangered species population.

Management Plans for Endangered Species

The restoration of the  Tiriri Matangi as a habitat for endangered species began in the year 1984 characterized by translocation of endangered species, re-vegetation and control of invasive species. The restoration of the Tiriri Matangi Island began with the incorporation of the island into Hauraki Gulf maritime Park in the year 1975-78 and gazettement into a recreational and scientific reserve l reserve in1978 and 1980 respectively. Notably, in 1983 a nursery was established with a public vision of restoration which officially began in 1984 with the planting of a six percent vegetative cover (Galbraith and Cooper, 2013)Additionally, the eradication of the Pacific rat(kiore) in 1993 was part of the habitat restoration move .Further ,some plant species were recovered on the island in the year 2004 among them the common gecko. Translocation of endangered species occurred between the years 0f 1973 to 2011.

Since the onset of the restoration program, annual weed control programs have been conducted to restore habitat for the endangered species in the island. Habitat   re-vegetation comprised of re-afforestation efforts and habitat enhancement through nutritional additions .The Tiriri working plan of 1982 advocated for habitat enhancement as compared to natural regeneration (Tiriri Working plan, 1997) Habitat restoration included replanting, use of seed pollinating birds and kiore eradication.

Primarily, The Tiriri Matangi working plan of 1982 sought to create an open sanctuary for the natives of Auckland to explore native plants and animals. The goal was to revegetate the island ,introduce  new endangered  species and to provide a controlled recreational activity. The Tiriri Matangi working Plan of 1997 aim was to restore Tiriri Matangi island as a sanctuary open for indigenous plants and animals reproduction. Also, the plan aimed to protect integrity of indigenous site linked to the Maori existence .The goal of the management plan was to actively enhance the habitat for endangered species. The Tiriri Matangi Biodiversity Plan 2013 seeks to manage endangered vegetation, invertebrates, reptiles, birds, bats, freshwater ecosystems and weed species on the Tiriri Matangi Island.

Further, the management plan is based on increasing population of the endangered species and ensuring their survival having been advocated for by friend of the Tiriri Matangi sanctuary. According to the 1982 working plan the goal was to conserve the Island .Further, the 2013 Biodiversity goal is re-afforestation and introduction of foreign plants and animal species. In addition, the biodiversity management plan seeks to offer a science-based research site for indigenous plants and animals and ensure viability and exemplary performance of indigenous species. Also, increasing endangered species biodiversity and provision of conservation sanctuary for endangered species is part of the objectives mapped out by the Tiriri Matangi management plan. Also, the Tiriri Matangi working plan 1982 advocated for habitat restoration and enhancement.

For the bat restoration program, pregnant bats are captured and the offspring relocated to other island. Following the invasion by argentine ant in 2001, the intense application of the ‘xtinguish ‘ant bait helped restore the ecology of the invertebrates (Tiriri Matangi, 2013)

Notably, Ecological theory subscribes to renewal and restoration of damaged or degraded habitats or ecosystems through human intervention .Primarily, habitat restoration increases the survival chances of endangered species due to the familiarity of the environment. Further, habitat restoration creates suitable environment for the existence of species thereby maintaining a balance of nature such as air quality, nitrogen fixation e.t.c.. In addition, habitat renewal prevent overall environmental degradation which is utmost for survival of all living things.

Positive Impacts of Management on Endangered Species

Pests control is governed by the Conservancy Rodent contingency Plan .For wasps , monitoring and control programs have been implemented to deal with the Asian paper wasps competing for  food in the island .For weed  control, the  conservancy weed control manual procedures and guidelines. Notably, the Tiriri Matangi Working plan 1997introduced the conservancy rodent contingency plan which incorporated the use of rodent free rooms ,inspection of goods and bait locations for monitoring purposes .Further ,monitoring and control programs are implemented to protect the endangered species from pests .Further ,invasive species eradication programs have been effective in Europe and South America. Noteworthy, New Zealand has undertaken two hundred mega eradications (Owens, 2017)Lacing of bait locations with poisonous substances has proved successful for invasive pests globally.

Notably ,the New Zealand government incurred $3.5m in the eradication of invasive mammals in two islands .Ideally, there’s need to embrace technological advancements in controlling invasive pests and mammals in New Zealand such as drones, genetic based biocontrol and drives  and traps with minimal human supervision. For species recovery ,firstly, ,research is conducted to identify causation factors then security measures are put in place to secure the endangered species and then the recovery process begins(Wickes and Crouchley et,al,2007-12Maintenance is the last step to species recovery based on the species recovery optimization framework

Notably, animal reintroduction into the island is governed by advocacy, sanctuary and species management with the aim of providing safety, increase survival chances and furthering awareness. Noteworthy, Massey University and SOTM have collaborated on reintroducing thirty-two captive bred and sixty wild captured gecko s to the Tiriri Matangi Island. Following the release of the Geckos, monitoring will follow thereby affirming the decision whether to reintroduce other species after ensuring the experimental species are able to survive and thrive in the island (Tiriri Matangi Working plan  ,2013)The introduction of captive-bred sixteen captive-born Przewalski’s horses back into the wild by the Mongolian government is an example of animal reintroduction(Laidlow,2001)

Further, animal re-introduction usually involves the release of captive endangered species into the wild after they have been released from seclusion. The first reintroduction on Tiriri island was of the kakariki in 1974(Armstrong, 1999) Further, there was bird relocation, Hihi in 1995 and 1996. Also, Karori wildlife sanctuary re-introduced 94 Bellbirds. According to the Tiriri Matangi working plan of 1997, the re-introduction of reptiles back into the land could be done systemically with species likely to be re-introduced in its early stages as proof of ground eating birds ,followed by species to be re-introduced at the shorelines and rare species which were likely part of the founding species will only be released if the habitat ,security and material for release are available. After which, other species can be reintroduced into the island.

For Birds reintroduction, the guidelines are provided by the Bird conservation programs which stipulate that the reintroduction could be done based on self-introductions and the ability of the endangered bird species to re-establish itself in the Tiriri island. Noteworthy, the Saddleback species established itself in 1984. Further, the Brown teal was reintroduced in 1987 from Curver with successful breeding at the island.

Negative Impacts of Management on Endangered Species

Monitoring and research are vital for species recovery due to the fact that through monitoring the reaction of endangered species under the new location can be monitored and in case of negative reaction the same can be attended to promptly .Further, research has enabled management of endangered species to develop safe species recovery though failed and successful previous research, modifications have been made to make the recovery process smooth and comfortable for the endangered species. Also ,monitoring brings to attention the problems affecting the species thereby prompting recovery .Besides, species recovery process is intertwined with monitoring and research(English Nature,2001)Monitoring offers predictions into species recovery(Campbell,Clark,et.al,2002)Monitoring.                                 

Tiriri Matangi quarantine protocols are put in place to guarantee the safety and survival of endangered species in the island .Noteworthy, severs biosafety measures have been put in place .For instance ,gateways have been erected at departure points with biosafety monitors .entry inspecting  are thoroughly done to detect any biosecurity concerns(Tiriri Matangi plan,2013)in the case of Argentine ant or  Rainbow skink, sourcing of future plants from free infecting sites is done .Further ,freight machinery and auto motives are sanitized to prevent spread of the biosecurity concern according to the DOC framework and guidelines .Also, sealing of shop stock and small scale equipment and tools is effected as a quarantine measure. For weed invasion, there’s constant monitoring and eradication procedures under the Tiriri Matangi weed control manual which prescribes its quarantine procedures .In the case of pathogens, animal translocation and seclusion is implemented followed by screen tests and us of samples methodologies approved by DOC.

Conclusion.

Significantly, there are benefits for managing endangered species. Employment opportunities for island management personnel, revenue for the government, population and genetic diversity of the endangered species have thrived under the management of the Tiriri Matangi Island. However, there are challenges in managing endangered flora and fauna among them poor management ,expensive to run the island sanctuary ,exposure to different diseases by the endangered species among other concerns .Arguably, the pros outshines the cons of endangered species management which has been implemented on the Tiriri Matangi Island. Largely ,the island management plan has sustained the survival of endangered species through habitat and species restoration initiatives and quarantine measure

References

Armstrong, D. 1999. Tiriri Matangi: Restoration programme. Massey University .Retrieved from https://www.massey.ac.nz/~darmstro/tiri.htm

Bonello, J. (2006)  Protecting Endangered Species Helps Reduce poverty.Worldwildlife.Org. Retrieved from https://www.worldwildlife.org/press-releases/protecting-endangered-species-helps-reduce-poverty

Campbell, P.S., Clark, A.J et.al.(2002)An Assessment of monitoring efforts in endangered species recovery plans. Online Library. Retrieved from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1890/1051-0761(2002)012%5B0674:AAOMEI%5D2.0.CO;2/abstract

Clun ,R.(2017)Why we shouldn’t bring back extinct species. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved from https://www.smh.com.au/environment/animals/why-we-shouldnt-bring-back-extinct-species-20170228-gun9dt.html

English nature.(2001)The Species Recovery Programme. English   Nature. Retrieved from https://publications.naturalengland.org.uk/file/111039

Galbraith,  M., and  Hester, C. (2013). Tiriri Matangi -An Overview of 25 years Ecological Restoration . New Zealand  Ecology.Org. Retrieved from https://newzealandecology.org/nzje/3105.pdf

https://www.massey.ac.nz/~darmstro/tiri.htm

Illinois, DNR.(n. d)Benefits to people and Rare/Endangered Species .Illinois Department of Natural  Resources. Retrieved from  https://www.dnr.illinois.gov/conservation/wildlife/Pages/BenefitsToPeople.aspx

Jameieson, I.G., Wallis, G .P .,and   Briskie ,J.V.(2006)Inbreeding and Endangered Species Management :Is New Zealand Out of the Step with the rest of the World?  Otago. Ac. NZ. Retrieved from https://www.otago.ac.nz/threatenedbirdgroup/Publications_files/Jamieson_et_al_2006a.pdf

Laidlaw, R. (2001) Reintroduction of captive-bred animals to the wild: is the modern Ark Afloat? Zoocheck .com. Retrieved from https://www.zoocheck.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Reintroduction-of-Captive-bred-Animals.pdf

Mazzotti, F.K. (n .d) The value of Endangered Species: The Importance of Conserving Biological Diversity .University of Florida. Retrieved from https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/uw064

Owens, B. (2017) Behind New Zealand’s plan to purge all pests. Nature.com. Retrieved from https://www.nature.com/news/behind-new-zealand-s-wild-plan-to-purge-all-pests-1.21272

Tirir Matangi Working plan.(1982)Auckland. Retrieved from  https://www.tiritirimatangi.org.nz/miscellaneous%20documents/TiritiriWorkingplan1982.pdf

Tiriri   Matangi working plan.1997.TiririMatangi.Org.NZ.Retrieved from https://www.tiritirimatangi.org.nz/miscellaneous%20documents/TiritiriWorkingPlan1997.pdf

Tiriri  Matangi Biodiversity plan. (2013).Tiriri Matangi.Org. Retrieved from https://www.tiritirimatangi.org.nz/miscellaneous%20documents/BPFinalSeptember2013.pdf

Wickies , C., Crouchley  ., D., and Maxwell, J. (2007-12).Www.Docs.Gov. Retrieved from https://www.doc.govt.nz/Documents/science-and technical/tsrp61entire.pdf

World Global. (n.d.) Problems with   Current Protected Areas .World Global. Retrieved from   https://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/how_we_work/protected_ar
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