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Write a paper of approximately 2000 to 2500 words (4 pages) which includes at least two references other than your text. Include a title page, headings, introduction, discussion and conclusion following A.P.A. format.

1) Select an event involving a person in the news, whether it be a celebrity or merely a person of interest that is unusual or considered to be different from the norm.  You may find this event by following news sites, twitter, or social media.  Please submit to the drop box for approval prior no later than October 31, 2018. (You must also include the article in the appendix).

2) In your “Introduction”, briefly describe the event and why the person’s behaviour is of particular interest to you.  Following that, outline what you will be covering in your paper.

3) In the body of your paper, use headings to describe the following:

  • Describe the theory of learning you believe best fits the person’s behaviour in this case? (You may need to make some assumptions as to how they might have learned this behaviour)
  • Describe the theory of emotion that best applies and justify your selection.
  • Is there a personality disorder or some other mental disorder that could account for this behaviour? If so, describe along with your reasoning.  If not, outline how stress may have played a role by relating it to a theory of stress.
  • How could others have influenced this person’s behaviour.  Describe a social psychological phenomenon that best describes this.

4) In your “Conclusion”, briefly summarize your findings and outline whether you believe their action was a result of “nature” or “nurture” or both.

Learning Theory

President Donald Trump unleashes false statements just two weeks to the mid-term elections. It is spinning new takes on the truth with increasing regularity and speed in the mid-term elections. They threaten a government shutdown to try to compel Congress to approve money on the southern border. The issue of a small pay raise for federal employees could not be ensnared and U.S military has sent to shut down the southern border. The Trump is facing the problem of doing that on his own so then The Posse Comitatus Act, 1878 has been enacted that restricts the federal government from utilizing the armed forces.

It is stated that Trump has made a false claim of asking for more national troops but never got it. The law enforcement rules and regulation cannot be performed; Middle Easterners are very dangerous people and will give assistance to El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. Trump has also falsely appealed that illegal migrants are given the luxury car and rioting over sanctuary city laws (Thompson, Gusmano & Shinohara, 2018). In the following, and effort has been made to discuss the behaviour of Donald Trump by implementing theories of emotion, stress, learning, personality disorder, and group influence.   

Learning Theory

Social Learning theory fits bets in Donald Trump’s behaviour, as one should learn by associating and observing others through the process of reinforcement, where others support beliefs and convictions. Donald Trump treats people as if they were personal slaves and thereby negative role model for the youth. It disarms and interrupt the behaviour and will not be tolerated or condoned in a society. Trump has been criticized for his behaviour towards women, his hatred and action directed towards disabled people and minority groups (Akers & Jennings, 2015).  

It is predicted that Trump has made various comments about Muslims and immigrants entering the United States “A complete and total shutdown of Muslims entering the United States until our nation’s agents can figure out what is going on”. He has made demanding, false statements to citizens and offensive comments to women. His personality proves that he is recognized to boost himself and his accomplishments constantly while failing and ignoring to see the losses.

It is stated that when circumstances are not successful for him then he moves on to a better opportunity and does not work upon negative aspects of the condition. Trump invest in gaining trust from citizens of the country as he desires more power, authority to manipulate them, which generates this “need for power and achievement” (Cochran, Maskaly, Jones & Sellers, 2017).

This theory explains the behaviour of Trump and just act the way he does as he wants to, but because of the disposition of personality. He denies setback and his failures do not reach his conscious mind. It is evident that all individuals need political and social interaction in their life. He always likes to defy the status quo, he does not care about pleasing others and is quick about taking decisions. Trump will not take advice from people and extremely popular among Republican voters who are attracted to his combination of nativism, populism, and anti-elite resentment. He has shown that youths are being influenced by false hopes and leading them to believe that accept such conditions, which are more likely to behave more aggressively in future conditions (Green & Castro, 2017). 

Theory of Emotion

Theory of Emotion

The theory of emotion, which best applies to the behaviour of Donald Trump is The James-Lange theory of Emotion. It suggests that emotions occur because of physiological reaction to events. This theory interprets that when you see an external stimulus leads to a physiological reaction and your emotional response is relying upon interpreting those physical reactions. In other words, this theory interprets that individual have a physiological reaction to environmental stimuli and their execution of that physical reaction then leads to emotional experience. They believed that it is possible to visualize experiencing an emotion such as anger or fear, which would be a flat facsimile of the real feeling. The physical reaction needs to be present in order to actually experience the real emotion (Kordsachia, Labuschagne & Stout, 2017).

There is no doubt that Donald Trump has hurt many emotions and said many things that would have been political suicide for any other Republican citizens. It is seen that every time he made one of these shocking statements and because of that political analysts have examined that they have to lose support because of it (Lacasse, 2017). Donald Trump has just two weeks earlier to the mid-term elections has addressed the citizens of the United States and keep up all the empty promises and false statements. He has played with the citizens of the country and refers to all attempts by suspected or known terrorists to enter the country, not through a caravan at the southern border.

Donald Trump faces objection within his own party because of mid-term elections (Laird & Lacasse, 2014). Many of the people are facing and fighting with the problems of corruption, drugs, and poverty. It is seen that he had not made any specific plans to resolve the issue and just made false statements to make them realize that they are helping them to deal with the issue. They just made fool of the common people who think that trump raises the level of the country in dealing with the issue of homosexuality, terrorism, and corruption (Sawyer, 2017).     

Personality Disorder

It has been said that Donald Trump is suffering from Narcissistic Personality Disorder, which is a clinical diagnosis and personal dimension. It has been said by professional psychotherapists and psychiatrists that he has a psychiatric disorder on the principle that one cannot do a diagnosis without visiting the office. As, most narcissists are relatively unlikely to identify that they have a disorder and to plan an appointment (Sedikides, Ntoumanis & Sheldon, 2018).  According to DSM-5, Donald Trump with Narcissistic Personality Disorder are facing symptoms that could affect their behaviour: -

  • Grandiosity with beliefs of superior treatment by other individual and trump follow the same.
  • Fixated on fantasies of intelligence, attractiveness, success, and power, etc., which Trump had the most as because of that only he wants to gain citizens trust to win mid-term elections.
  • Self-perception of being superior, admiring, unique, always been a well-known personality and linked with high-status individual and organization.
  • Donald Trump needs continuous admiration from other people and maintains a dignity of power as well as politics (McNally, 2018).
  • He attains a sense of entitlement to get obedience and special treatment from other people, which defines their behavior.  
  • Donald Trump always exploits others, make false hopes in the mind of people, demoralize them to achieve a personal advantage.
  • He is unwilling to understand and share the feeling, needs, preferences, and wishes of others people.
  • Donald Trump is a powerful and notorious businessman with his substantial wealth and he has always remained in the controversy because of his arrogant behavior.
  • He is intensely jealous of other people and it is a conviction that these people are equally jealous and hatred with him (O'Reilly III, Doerr & Chatman, 2018).
  • Donald Trump has an arrogant, assertive, pompous, and energetic personality, which stay him apart from other people, who do not understand any other people emotion instead of him (Ashcroft, 2016).

These symptoms are severe enough to harm the ability of Trump to maintain and develop a meaningful relationship with others and also decrease the ability to function at work. The key question to take concern is despite this, psychiatric disorder, Trump can communicate well enough to the people to be an effective and efficient leader of the world. This is the reason because they do not feel to maintain consensus and screened out by democratic systems of government (Klotz & Neubaum, 2016).

Personality Disorder

Social Psychological phenomenon

Donald Trump, the president of the United States of America is a disgrace to his country on various levels. It is said that not only his policies and politics from tax-cuts, cutting-off assistance to other people, nuclear weapons, and climate change to Palestine are terribly wrong-headed. It is not just his idea of leadership is irresponsible, divisive, and confrontational but it is that trump always deals people with blatant racism, chauvinism, and misogyny (Pettigrew, 2017).

It can be stated that the first move should be put by Trump only as he has given trouble to many people so he needs to connect with the citizens very closely and maintain a healthy and prosperous relationship with others. Then, others should also accept this wholeheartedly and collaborate with him to reduce the gap and issues regarding racism, homosexuality, and poverty (Bobo, 2017).

The social psychological phenomenon is termed as authorities and power should be strictly followed by the president himself and by others as they are in the best position to identify what is good for the society and country. It describes a predisposition of people needs and preferences for the social hierarchy of groups over lower-status groups. In the United States, Republicans start averaging higher on authoritarianism than Democrats.

It is stated that people who maintain a high score in social orientation are progressively tough-minded, dominant, disagreeable, and driven towards attaining power cannot achieve self-respect and self-indulgence. However, Trump should motivate himself and others in contributing towards moving into the right direction and give importance to every people (Inglehart & Norris, 2016).


Their action was a result of nature not nurture, it can be stated as a mixture of both, which governs the force behind the behaviour of Donald Trump. As, there is no need for disagreement about the energetic, assertive, and dominant personality, which is influenced by others.  There are limitations to every theory, as these specific theories of emotion, personality disorder, learning, and social psychology have been proven greatly successful in describing the behaviour of Donald Trump. The president during campaign addresses citizens of United States and told that Democrats would harm our people businesses and take the nation into “chaos” and “poverty”.

Mr. Trump has claimed against Democrats that they are raising our taxes, destroy our businesses and farms. The only reason to do that is to vote-out democrat by such actions and preserve its own seat. He then addresses forward to put plans to promote ethanol, boost Republicans, reduces fuel and concerns regarding pollution. These are the false claims given by them. So, Trump used to understand the matter of concerns to encourage and motivate others so as to achieve success and growth in the country.  


Akers, R. L., & Jennings, W. G. (2015). Social learning theory. The Handbook of Criminological Theory, 4, 230

Ashcroft, A. (2016). Donald Trump: Narcissist, Psychopath or Representative of the People?. Psychotherapy and Politics International, 14(3), 217-222

Bobo, L. D. (2017). Racism in Trump's America: reflections on culture, sociology, and the 2016 US presidential election. The British journal of sociology, 68, 85-104

Cochran, J. K., Maskaly, J., Jones, S., & Sellers, C. S. (2017). Using structural equations to model Akers’ social learning theory with data on intimate partner violence. Crime & Delinquency, 63(1), 39-60

Green, T. L., & Castro, A. (2017). Doing counterwork in the age of a counterfeit president: resisting a Trump–DeVos education agenda. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 30(10), 912-919

Inglehart, R., & Norris, P. (2016). Trump, Brexit, and the rise of populism: Economic have-nots and cultural backlash, 34(4), 67-89

Klotz, A. C., & Neubaum, D. O. (2016). Article Commentary: Research on the Dark Side of Personality Traits in Entrepreneurship: Observations from an Organizational Behavior Perspective. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 40(1), 7-17

Kordsachia, C. C., Labuschagne, I., & Stout, J. C. (2017). Beyond emotion recognition deficits: A theory guided analysis of emotion processing in Huntington’s disease. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 73, 276-292

Lacasse, K. (2017). Going with your gut: How William James' theory of emotions brings insights to risk perception and decision making research. New Ideas in Psychology, 46, 1-7

Laird, J. D., & Lacasse, K. (2014). Bodily influences on emotional feelings: Accumulating evidence and extensions of William James’s theory of emotion. Emotion Review, 6(1), 27-34

McNally, R. J. (2018). Diagnosing at a Distance: Is the Goldwater Rule Still Relevant Today?. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(1), 28-30

O'Reilly III, C. A., Doerr, B., & Chatman, J. A. (2018). “See You in Court”: How CEO narcissism increases firms' vulnerability to lawsuits. The Leadership Quarterly, 29(3), 365-378

Pettigrew, T. F. (2017). Social psychological perspectives on Trump supporters. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 5(1), 107-116

Sawyer, R. K. (2017). Unresolved tensions in sociocultural theory: Analogies with contemporary sociological debates. In Introduction to Vygotsky, 67(8), 157-175

Sedikides, C., Ntoumanis, N., & Sheldon, K. M. (2018). I am the chosen one: Narcissism in the backdrop of self?determination theory. Journal of personality, 89(6). 121-134

Thompson, F. J., Gusmano, M. K., & Shinohara, S. (2018). Trump and the Affordable Care Act: Congressional Repeal Efforts, Executive Federalism, and Program Durability. Publius: The Journal of Federalism, 27(3), 278-291

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