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Question:
Risk acceptance
  1. Provide a table of odds ratios, confidence intervals and significance values for each predictor variable.
  2. How do you interpret the findings for living arrangements?
  3. Provide a preliminary interpretation and conclusion about the influence of the predictor variables on road traffic accidents. In particular, what is the effect of changes (increase or decrease) in “driver aggression” on the odds of experiencing a road traffic accident?
  1. Provide a table of odds ratios, confidence intervals and significance values for each predictor variable.
  2. Again, how do you interpret the findings for living arrangements?
  3. Provide a preliminary interpretation and conclusion about the influence of the predictor variables on obesity at follow-up. In particular, what is the effect of changes (increase or decrease) in the number of parents with university education on the likelihood of later obesity?

Distinguish between different statistical tests, especially in terms of application and interpretation

Develop a sound statistical approach to the analysis and interpretation of public health data and communicate findings in an academic-standard output

Critique public health research on the basis of its statistical methods, analysis and interpretation

Answer:

Question one

  1. Age descriptive statistics

Descriptive Statistics

 

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

AGE

38681

16

59

20.50

4.889

Valid N (listwise)

38681

 

 

 

 

Table 1

 


It can be observed from the table above that the mean age for the participants was 20.5. The youngest participant was 16 years old while the oldest participant was 59 years old.

  1. Frequency for new age category

Statistics

Age category  

N

Valid

38681

Missing

0

Table 2

Age category

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

18 years

11881

30.7

30.7

30.7

19 - 21 years

11666

30.2

30.2

60.9

22 - 25 years

5494

14.2

14.2

75.1

26 or more

3755

9.7

9.7

84.8

system missing

5885

15.2

15.2

100.0

Total

38681

100.0

100.0

 

Table 3

The table above table shows the frequency of age groups. Participants who were 18 years old were 11,881 representing 30.7%. This was followed closely by those within the age of 19 to 21 years. They were 11,666 representing 30.2%. Those who were 26 years old and above were 3,755, representing 9.7% of the total.

Question two

 
Descriptive statistics for the demographics

Age descriptive statistics

Descriptive Statistics

 

N

Sum

Mean

AGE

38681

792845

20.50

Valid N (listwise)

38681

 

 

Table 4

The mean age of the participants was 20.5 while the sum total of their age was 792,845 years.

State descriptive

STATE

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

NSW

15860

41.0

41.0

41.0

Victoria

13571

35.1

35.1

76.1

Queensland

7528

19.5

19.5

95.5

ACT

1722

4.5

4.5

100.0

Total

38681

100.0

100.0

 

Table 5

From the table above, it can be observed that 41% of the participants come from NSW, 35.1% come from Victoria, and 19.5% come from Queensland while the minority of the participants (4.5%) comes from ACT.

Gender descriptive

GENDER

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Male

10449

27.0

27.0

27.0

Female

28232

73.0

73.0

100.0

Total

38681

100.0

100.0

 

Table 6

It can be observed that majority of the participants were females. They were 28,232 in number and represented 73%. The rest were females who were 10,449 representing 27%.

Living arrangement descriptive

LIVING_ARRANGE

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

At home

20840

53.9

53.9

53.9

College/student accommodation

6850

17.7

17.7

71.6

Independently

10991

28.4

28.4

100.0

Total

38681

100.0

100.0

 

Table 7

The table above shows the how participants are accommodated. It can be observed that 53.9% (20,840) were being accommodated from their homes. 17.7% (6,850) were accommodated at the college while 28.4% (10,991) had their own independent accommodation.

Faculty descriptive

FACULTY

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Arts and Sciences

9004

23.3

23.3

23.3

Education

15038

38.9

38.9

62.2

Health Sciences

11729

30.3

30.3

92.5

Theology and Philosophy

588

1.5

1.5

94.0

Business

2322

6.0

6.0

100.0

Total

38681

100.0

100.0

 

Table 8

The table above shows the distribution of the student participants based on their faculties. Majority of them came from the faculty of education (15,038) representing 38.9%. This is followed by students from the faculty of health sciences (11,729) who represented 30.3%. The least number of students came from the faculty of theology and philosophy. They were 588 representing 1.5%.

 
Degree type descriptive

DEGREE_TYPE

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Single

34620

89.5

89.5

89.5

Double

4061

10.5

10.5

100.0

Total

38681

100.0

100.0

 

Table 9

The table above shows distribution of participants by the type of their degrees. It can be observed that 89.5% were pursuing single degrees while 10.5% were pursuing double degrees.

Metro descriptive

METRO

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Metro

27223

70.4

84.4

84.4

Non-metro

5015

13.0

15.6

100.0

Total

32238

83.3

100.0

 

Missing

System

6443

16.7

 

 

Total

38681

100.0

 

 

Table 10

The table above shows the location of origin of the students. It can be observed that majority of them came from metropolitan areas (70.4%) while 13% came from non-metropolitan areas.

Study mode descriptive

STUDY_MODE

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

FT

34770

89.9

89.9

89.9

PT

3911

10.1

10.1

100.0

Total

38681

100.0

100.0

 

Table 11

From the table above, it can be observed that 89.9% of the students pursued full time studies while 10.1% pursued part time studies.

Fee status descriptive

FEE_STATUS

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

Domestic

32238

83.3

83.3

83.3

International

6443

16.7

16.7

100.0

Total

38681

100.0

100.0

 

Table 12

It can be observed that 83.3% (32,238) of the students are domestic students while 16.7% (6,443) are international students.

Question three
  1. Test for the difference in mean for aggression, thrill seeking and risk acceptance scores by gender

Independent Samples Test

 

Levene's Test for Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F

Sig.

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

driver_agg

Equal variances assumed

.117

.732

.083

38679

.934

.004

.050

-.093

.102

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

.083

18712.803

.934

.004

.050

-.093

.102

thrill

Equal variances assumed

.847

.357

-.370

38679

.711

-.005

.014

-.033

.022

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

-.371

18783.250

.710

-.005

.014

-.033

.022

risk_accep

Equal variances assumed

.054

.817

1.571

38679

.116

.078

.050

-.019

.176

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

1.571

18663.180

.116

.078

.050

-.019

.176

Table 13

From the t-test table results above, it can be observed that the p-values computed are large compared to the level of significance (0.05). This means that the mean aggression, thrill seeking and risk acceptance scores do not differ by gender.

  1. Test for the difference in mean for aggression, thrill seeking and risk acceptance scores by metropolitan background status

Independent Samples Test

 

Levene's Test for Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F

Sig.

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

driver_agg

Equal variances assumed

1.060

.303

.714

32236

.475

.048

.067

-.083

.178

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

.719

7029.087

.472

.048

.066

-.082

.177

thrill

Equal variances assumed

1.845

.174

.686

32236

.493

.013

.019

-.024

.050

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

.692

7048.178

.489

.013

.019

-.024

.049

risk_accep

Equal variances assumed

3.228

.072

-.866

32236

.386

-.058

.067

-.189

.073

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

-.874

7040.476

.382

-.058

.066

-.188

.072

Table 14

From the t-test table results above, it can be observed that the p-values computed are large (0.3, 0.17 and 0.07) compared to the level of significance (0.05). This means that the mean aggression, thrill seeking and risk acceptance scores do not differ by metropolitan background status.

  1. Test for the difference in mean for aggression, thrill seeking and risk acceptance scores by study mode.

Independent Samples Test

 

Levene's Test for Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F

Sig.

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

driver_agg

Equal variances assumed

.323

.570

-.309

38679

.757

-.023

.073

-.166

.121

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

-.310

4834.453

.757

-.023

.073

-.166

.121

thrill

Equal variances assumed

.222

.637

.132

38679

.895

.003

.021

-.038

.043

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

.132

4829.635

.895

.003

.021

-.038

.043

risk_accep

Equal variances assumed

.045

.832

-2.269

38679

.023

-.167

.073

-.311

-.023

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

-2.261

4823.706

.024

-.167

.074

-.311

-.022

Table 15

From the t-test table results above, it can be observed that the p-values computed are large (0.57, 0.63 and 0.83) compared to the level of significance (0.05). This means that the mean aggression, thrill seeking and risk acceptance scores do not differ by study mode.

  1. Test for the difference in mean for aggression, thrill seeking and risk acceptance scores by RTA (follow up survey)

Independent Samples Test

 

Levene's Test for Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F

Sig.

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower

Upper

driver_agg

Equal variances assumed

3179.609

.000

-93.863

38679

.000

-5.552

.059

-5.668

-5.436

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

-144.454

11183.466

.000

-5.552

.038

-5.627

-5.476

thrill

Equal variances assumed

1715.363

.000

-92.063

38679

.000

-1.539

.017

-1.572

-1.507

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

-133.493

10036.697

.000

-1.539

.012

-1.562

-1.517

risk_accep

Equal variances assumed

1951.956

.000

-78.154

38679

.000

-4.775

.061

-4.895

-4.655

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

-106.209

9076.181

.000

-4.775

.045

-4.863

-4.687

Table 16

From the t-test table results above, it can be observed that the p-values computed are less (0.00) compared to the level of significance (0.05). This means that the mean aggression, thrill seeking and risk acceptance scores differ significantly by RTA.

Question four

  1. Depression by gender
Table of results

ANOVA

depression  

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Between Groups

.026

1

.026

.280

.597

Within Groups

3555.361

38679

.092

 

 

Total

3555.387

38680

 

 

 

Table 17

The anova results show that the computed p-value (0.57) is greater compared to the level of significance (0.05). This means that the null hypothesis is accepted. It is concluded therefore that null hypothesis is significant at 95% level of confidence.

  1. Depression by metropolitan background status
Results table

ANOVA

depression  

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Between Groups

.010

1

.010

.114

.736

Within Groups

2962.189

32236

.092

 

 

Total

2962.200

32237

 

 

 

Table 18

The anova results show that the computed p-value (0.736) is greater compared to the level of significance (0.05). This means that the null hypothesis is accepted. It is concluded therefore that null hypothesis is significant at 95% level of confidence.

  1. Depression by study mode

Results table

ANOVA

depression  

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Between Groups

.282

1

.282

3.072

.080

Within Groups

3555.105

38679

.092

 

 

Total

3555.387

38680

 

 

 

Table 19

The anova results show that the computed p-value (0.08) is greater compared to the level of significance (0.05). This means that the null hypothesis is accepted. It is concluded therefore that null hypothesis is significant at 95% level of confidence.

  1. Depression by fee status

Results table

ANOVA

depression  

 

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Between Groups

.000

1

.000

.003

.956

Within Groups

3555.387

38679

.092

 

 

Total

3555.387

38680

 

 

 

Table 20

The anova results show that the computed p-value (0.956) is greater compared to the level of significance (0.05). This means that the null hypothesis is accepted. It is concluded therefore that null hypothesis is significant at 95% level of confidence.

Question five

  • Binary logistic regression (RTA and Demographics).

Table of results

Variables in the Equation

 

B

S.E.

Wald

df

Sig.

Exp(B)

Step 1a

Age_category

-.003

.000

42.072

1

.000

.997

GENDER

-.262

.033

64.299

1

.000

.769

LIVING_ARRANGE

-.049

.019

6.801

1

.009

.952

FEE_STATUS

.248

.041

36.290

1

.000

1.282

Constant

-1.673

.031

2885.476

1

.000

.188

a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: Age_category, GENDER, LIVING_ARRANGE, FEE_STATUS.

Table 21

From the results table above, it can be observed that the value of the coefficient for the living arrangement is -0.049. This value is close to zero. It is an indication that there is no association between RTA and living arrangement. To add on, the odds of the predictor variables are tending towards 1, this is an indication that they cause a great variation in RTA if they are increased.

  • Binary logistic regression (RTA and driving distance).

Results table

Variables in the Equation

 

B

S.E.

Wald

df

Sig.

Exp(B)

Step 1a

dist_driving

-.016

.031

.268

1

.605

.984

Constant

-1.885

.024

5937.971

1

.000

.152

a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: dist_driving.

Table 22

From the results table above, it can be observed that the value of the coefficient for the driving distance is -0.016. This value is close to zero. It is an indication that there is no association between RTA and driving distance.  The odd of the predictor variable is 0.94 indicating a strong influence on RTA.  

  • Binary logistic regression (RTA with aggression, thrill seeking and risk acceptance).

Table of results

Variables in the Equation

 

B

S.E.

Wald

df

Sig.

Exp(B)

Step 1a

Driver aggression

.612

.024

661.998

1

.000

1.844

thrill

.516

.078

43.584

1

.000

1.675

Risk acceptance

.596

.009

4017.531

1

.000

1.815

Constant

-17.579

.327

2887.675

1

.000

.000

a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: driver_agg, thrill, risk_accep.

Table 23

From the results table above, it can be observed that the values of the coefficients for the predictor variables are 0.61, 0.52 and 0.596.  It is an indication that there are significant associations between RTA and predictor variables. To add on, the odds of the predictor variables are tending towards 1, this is an indication that they cause a great variation in RTA if they are increased.

Question six

  • Binary logistic regression (OB and Demographics).

Results table

Variables in the Equation

 

B

S.E.

Wald

df

Sig.

Exp(B)

Step 1a

Age_category

-.003

.000

40.576

1

.000

.997

GENDER

-.267

.033

66.548

1

.000

.766

LIVING_ARRANGE

-.012

.017

.447

1

.504

.988

Constant

-1.654

.031

2863.657

1

.000

.191

a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: Age_category, GENDER, LIVING_ARRANGE.

Table 24

From the results table above, it can be observed that the value of the coefficient for the living arrangement is -0.012. This value is close to zero. It is an indication that there is no association between obesity at third year follow up and living arrangement.

  • Binary logistic regression (OB and overweight and depression).

Table of results

Variables in the Equation

 

B

S.E.

Wald

df

Sig.

Exp(B)

Step 1a

depression

1.787

.037

2325.596

1

.000

5.970

BL_owob

-.017

.032

.270

1

.603

.983

Constant

-2.186

.027

6644.566

1

.000

.112

a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: depression, BL_owob.

Table 25

  • Binary logistic regression (OB and edu_par and presence or absence of obese).
 
Table of results

Variables in the Equation

 

B

S.E.

Wald

df

Sig.

Exp(B)

Step 1a

owob_par

1.881

.169

124.423

1

.000

6.561

edu_par

-2.210

.061

1331.774

1

.000

.110

Constant

-2.826

.170

277.272

1

.000

.059

a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: owob_par, edu_par.

Table 26

The odds of the predictor variable (parents university education) is low (0.11), this is an indication that it causes minimal variation in obesity if they are increased.

Cite This Work

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My Assignment Help (2020) Statistical Analysis And Findings [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/pubh620-biostatistics-analysis-of-dataset
[Accessed 03 March 2024].

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My Assignment Help. Statistical Analysis And Findings [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2020 [cited 03 March 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/pubh620-biostatistics-analysis-of-dataset.

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