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Question:
Risk acceptance
1. Provide a table of odds ratios, confidence intervals and significance values for each predictor variable.
2. How do you interpret the findings for living arrangements?
3. Provide a preliminary interpretation and conclusion about the influence of the predictor variables on road traffic accidents. In particular, what is the effect of changes (increase or decrease) in “driver aggression” on the odds of experiencing a road traffic accident?
1. Provide a table of odds ratios, confidence intervals and significance values for each predictor variable.
2. Again, how do you interpret the findings for living arrangements?
3. Provide a preliminary interpretation and conclusion about the influence of the predictor variables on obesity at follow-up. In particular, what is the effect of changes (increase or decrease) in the number of parents with university education on the likelihood of later obesity?

Distinguish between different statistical tests, especially in terms of application and interpretation

Develop a sound statistical approach to the analysis and interpretation of public health data and communicate findings in an academic-standard output

Critique public health research on the basis of its statistical methods, analysis and interpretation

Question one

1. Age descriptive statistics
 Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation AGE 38681 16 59 20.50 4.889 Valid N (listwise) 38681

Table 1

It can be observed from the table above that the mean age for the participants was 20.5. The youngest participant was 16 years old while the oldest participant was 59 years old.

1. Frequency for new age category
 Statistics Age category N Valid 38681 Missing 0

Table 2

 Age category Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid 18 years 11881 30.7 30.7 30.7 19 - 21 years 11666 30.2 30.2 60.9 22 - 25 years 5494 14.2 14.2 75.1 26 or more 3755 9.7 9.7 84.8 system missing 5885 15.2 15.2 100.0 Total 38681 100.0 100.0

Table 3

The table above table shows the frequency of age groups. Participants who were 18 years old were 11,881 representing 30.7%. This was followed closely by those within the age of 19 to 21 years. They were 11,666 representing 30.2%. Those who were 26 years old and above were 3,755, representing 9.7% of the total.

Question two

Descriptive statistics for the demographics

Age descriptive statistics

 Descriptive Statistics N Sum Mean AGE 38681 792845 20.50 Valid N (listwise) 38681

Table 4

The mean age of the participants was 20.5 while the sum total of their age was 792,845 years.

State descriptive

 STATE Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid NSW 15860 41.0 41.0 41.0 Victoria 13571 35.1 35.1 76.1 Queensland 7528 19.5 19.5 95.5 ACT 1722 4.5 4.5 100.0 Total 38681 100.0 100.0

Table 5

From the table above, it can be observed that 41% of the participants come from NSW, 35.1% come from Victoria, and 19.5% come from Queensland while the minority of the participants (4.5%) comes from ACT.

Gender descriptive
 GENDER Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Male 10449 27.0 27.0 27.0 Female 28232 73.0 73.0 100.0 Total 38681 100.0 100.0

Table 6

It can be observed that majority of the participants were females. They were 28,232 in number and represented 73%. The rest were females who were 10,449 representing 27%.

Living arrangement descriptive
 LIVING_ARRANGE Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid At home 20840 53.9 53.9 53.9 College/student accommodation 6850 17.7 17.7 71.6 Independently 10991 28.4 28.4 100.0 Total 38681 100.0 100.0

Table 7

The table above shows the how participants are accommodated. It can be observed that 53.9% (20,840) were being accommodated from their homes. 17.7% (6,850) were accommodated at the college while 28.4% (10,991) had their own independent accommodation.

Faculty descriptive
 FACULTY Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Arts and Sciences 9004 23.3 23.3 23.3 Education 15038 38.9 38.9 62.2 Health Sciences 11729 30.3 30.3 92.5 Theology and Philosophy 588 1.5 1.5 94.0 Business 2322 6.0 6.0 100.0 Total 38681 100.0 100.0

Table 8

The table above shows the distribution of the student participants based on their faculties. Majority of them came from the faculty of education (15,038) representing 38.9%. This is followed by students from the faculty of health sciences (11,729) who represented 30.3%. The least number of students came from the faculty of theology and philosophy. They were 588 representing 1.5%.

Degree type descriptive
 DEGREE_TYPE Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Single 34620 89.5 89.5 89.5 Double 4061 10.5 10.5 100.0 Total 38681 100.0 100.0

Table 9

The table above shows distribution of participants by the type of their degrees. It can be observed that 89.5% were pursuing single degrees while 10.5% were pursuing double degrees.

Metro descriptive
 METRO Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Metro 27223 70.4 84.4 84.4 Non-metro 5015 13.0 15.6 100.0 Total 32238 83.3 100.0 Missing System 6443 16.7 Total 38681 100.0

Table 10

The table above shows the location of origin of the students. It can be observed that majority of them came from metropolitan areas (70.4%) while 13% came from non-metropolitan areas.

Study mode descriptive
 STUDY_MODE Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid FT 34770 89.9 89.9 89.9 PT 3911 10.1 10.1 100.0 Total 38681 100.0 100.0

Table 11

From the table above, it can be observed that 89.9% of the students pursued full time studies while 10.1% pursued part time studies.

Fee status descriptive
 FEE_STATUS Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Domestic 32238 83.3 83.3 83.3 International 6443 16.7 16.7 100.0 Total 38681 100.0 100.0

Table 12

It can be observed that 83.3% (32,238) of the students are domestic students while 16.7% (6,443) are international students.

Question three
1. Test for the difference in mean for aggression, thrill seeking and risk acceptance scores by gender
 Independent Samples Test Levene's Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means F Sig. t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference Std. Error Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper driver_agg Equal variances assumed .117 .732 .083 38679 .934 .004 .050 -.093 .102 Equal variances not assumed .083 18712.803 .934 .004 .050 -.093 .102 thrill Equal variances assumed .847 .357 -.370 38679 .711 -.005 .014 -.033 .022 Equal variances not assumed -.371 18783.250 .710 -.005 .014 -.033 .022 risk_accep Equal variances assumed .054 .817 1.571 38679 .116 .078 .050 -.019 .176 Equal variances not assumed 1.571 18663.180 .116 .078 .050 -.019 .176

Table 13

From the t-test table results above, it can be observed that the p-values computed are large compared to the level of significance (0.05). This means that the mean aggression, thrill seeking and risk acceptance scores do not differ by gender.

1. Test for the difference in mean for aggression, thrill seeking and risk acceptance scores by metropolitan background status
 Independent Samples Test Levene's Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means F Sig. t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference Std. Error Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper driver_agg Equal variances assumed 1.060 .303 .714 32236 .475 .048 .067 -.083 .178 Equal variances not assumed .719 7029.087 .472 .048 .066 -.082 .177 thrill Equal variances assumed 1.845 .174 .686 32236 .493 .013 .019 -.024 .050 Equal variances not assumed .692 7048.178 .489 .013 .019 -.024 .049 risk_accep Equal variances assumed 3.228 .072 -.866 32236 .386 -.058 .067 -.189 .073 Equal variances not assumed -.874 7040.476 .382 -.058 .066 -.188 .072

Table 14

From the t-test table results above, it can be observed that the p-values computed are large (0.3, 0.17 and 0.07) compared to the level of significance (0.05). This means that the mean aggression, thrill seeking and risk acceptance scores do not differ by metropolitan background status.

1. Test for the difference in mean for aggression, thrill seeking and risk acceptance scores by study mode.
 Independent Samples Test Levene's Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means F Sig. t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference Std. Error Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper driver_agg Equal variances assumed .323 .570 -.309 38679 .757 -.023 .073 -.166 .121 Equal variances not assumed -.310 4834.453 .757 -.023 .073 -.166 .121 thrill Equal variances assumed .222 .637 .132 38679 .895 .003 .021 -.038 .043 Equal variances not assumed .132 4829.635 .895 .003 .021 -.038 .043 risk_accep Equal variances assumed .045 .832 -2.269 38679 .023 -.167 .073 -.311 -.023 Equal variances not assumed -2.261 4823.706 .024 -.167 .074 -.311 -.022

Table 15

From the t-test table results above, it can be observed that the p-values computed are large (0.57, 0.63 and 0.83) compared to the level of significance (0.05). This means that the mean aggression, thrill seeking and risk acceptance scores do not differ by study mode.

1. Test for the difference in mean for aggression, thrill seeking and risk acceptance scores by RTA (follow up survey)
 Independent Samples Test Levene's Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means F Sig. t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference Std. Error Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower Upper driver_agg Equal variances assumed 3179.609 .000 -93.863 38679 .000 -5.552 .059 -5.668 -5.436 Equal variances not assumed -144.454 11183.466 .000 -5.552 .038 -5.627 -5.476 thrill Equal variances assumed 1715.363 .000 -92.063 38679 .000 -1.539 .017 -1.572 -1.507 Equal variances not assumed -133.493 10036.697 .000 -1.539 .012 -1.562 -1.517 risk_accep Equal variances assumed 1951.956 .000 -78.154 38679 .000 -4.775 .061 -4.895 -4.655 Equal variances not assumed -106.209 9076.181 .000 -4.775 .045 -4.863 -4.687

Table 16

From the t-test table results above, it can be observed that the p-values computed are less (0.00) compared to the level of significance (0.05). This means that the mean aggression, thrill seeking and risk acceptance scores differ significantly by RTA.

Question four

1. Depression by gender
Table of results
 ANOVA depression Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups .026 1 .026 .280 .597 Within Groups 3555.361 38679 .092 Total 3555.387 38680

Table 17

The anova results show that the computed p-value (0.57) is greater compared to the level of significance (0.05). This means that the null hypothesis is accepted. It is concluded therefore that null hypothesis is significant at 95% level of confidence.

1. Depression by metropolitan background status
Results table
 ANOVA depression Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups .010 1 .010 .114 .736 Within Groups 2962.189 32236 .092 Total 2962.200 32237

Table 18

The anova results show that the computed p-value (0.736) is greater compared to the level of significance (0.05). This means that the null hypothesis is accepted. It is concluded therefore that null hypothesis is significant at 95% level of confidence.

1. Depression by study mode

Results table

 ANOVA depression Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups .282 1 .282 3.072 .080 Within Groups 3555.105 38679 .092 Total 3555.387 38680

Table 19

The anova results show that the computed p-value (0.08) is greater compared to the level of significance (0.05). This means that the null hypothesis is accepted. It is concluded therefore that null hypothesis is significant at 95% level of confidence.

1. Depression by fee status

Results table

 ANOVA depression Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Between Groups .000 1 .000 .003 .956 Within Groups 3555.387 38679 .092 Total 3555.387 38680

Table 20

The anova results show that the computed p-value (0.956) is greater compared to the level of significance (0.05). This means that the null hypothesis is accepted. It is concluded therefore that null hypothesis is significant at 95% level of confidence.

Question five

• Binary logistic regression (RTA and Demographics).

Table of results

 Variables in the Equation B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B) Step 1a Age_category -.003 .000 42.072 1 .000 .997 GENDER -.262 .033 64.299 1 .000 .769 LIVING_ARRANGE -.049 .019 6.801 1 .009 .952 FEE_STATUS .248 .041 36.290 1 .000 1.282 Constant -1.673 .031 2885.476 1 .000 .188 a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: Age_category, GENDER, LIVING_ARRANGE, FEE_STATUS. Table 21

From the results table above, it can be observed that the value of the coefficient for the living arrangement is -0.049. This value is close to zero. It is an indication that there is no association between RTA and living arrangement. To add on, the odds of the predictor variables are tending towards 1, this is an indication that they cause a great variation in RTA if they are increased.

• Binary logistic regression (RTA and driving distance).

Results table

 Variables in the Equation B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B) Step 1a dist_driving -.016 .031 .268 1 .605 .984 Constant -1.885 .024 5937.971 1 .000 .152 a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: dist_driving.

Table 22

From the results table above, it can be observed that the value of the coefficient for the driving distance is -0.016. This value is close to zero. It is an indication that there is no association between RTA and driving distance.  The odd of the predictor variable is 0.94 indicating a strong influence on RTA.

• Binary logistic regression (RTA with aggression, thrill seeking and risk acceptance).

Table of results

 Variables in the Equation B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B) Step 1a Driver aggression .612 .024 661.998 1 .000 1.844 thrill .516 .078 43.584 1 .000 1.675 Risk acceptance .596 .009 4017.531 1 .000 1.815 Constant -17.579 .327 2887.675 1 .000 .000 a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: driver_agg, thrill, risk_accep.

Table 23

From the results table above, it can be observed that the values of the coefficients for the predictor variables are 0.61, 0.52 and 0.596.  It is an indication that there are significant associations between RTA and predictor variables. To add on, the odds of the predictor variables are tending towards 1, this is an indication that they cause a great variation in RTA if they are increased.

Question six

• Binary logistic regression (OB and Demographics).

Results table

 Variables in the Equation B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B) Step 1a Age_category -.003 .000 40.576 1 .000 .997 GENDER -.267 .033 66.548 1 .000 .766 LIVING_ARRANGE -.012 .017 .447 1 .504 .988 Constant -1.654 .031 2863.657 1 .000 .191 a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: Age_category, GENDER, LIVING_ARRANGE.

Table 24

From the results table above, it can be observed that the value of the coefficient for the living arrangement is -0.012. This value is close to zero. It is an indication that there is no association between obesity at third year follow up and living arrangement.

• Binary logistic regression (OB and overweight and depression).

Table of results

 Variables in the Equation B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B) Step 1a depression 1.787 .037 2325.596 1 .000 5.970 BL_owob -.017 .032 .270 1 .603 .983 Constant -2.186 .027 6644.566 1 .000 .112 a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: depression, BL_owob.

Table 25

• Binary logistic regression (OB and edu_par and presence or absence of obese).

Table of results
 Variables in the Equation B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B) Step 1a owob_par 1.881 .169 124.423 1 .000 6.561 edu_par -2.210 .061 1331.774 1 .000 .110 Constant -2.826 .170 277.272 1 .000 .059 a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: owob_par, edu_par.

Table 26

The odds of the predictor variable (parents university education) is low (0.11), this is an indication that it causes minimal variation in obesity if they are increased.

Cite This Work

"Statistical Analysis And Findings." My Assignment Help, 2020, https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/pubh620-biostatistics-analysis-of-dataset.

My Assignment Help (2020) Statistical Analysis And Findings [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/pubh620-biostatistics-analysis-of-dataset
[Accessed 03 March 2024].

My Assignment Help. 'Statistical Analysis And Findings' (My Assignment Help, 2020) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/pubh620-biostatistics-analysis-of-dataset> accessed 03 March 2024.

My Assignment Help. Statistical Analysis And Findings [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2020 [cited 03 March 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/pubh620-biostatistics-analysis-of-dataset.

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