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Internet of Things


Discuss about the Research Development in Information Technology.

Internet of things can be easily defined as the ever growing networks of physical objects which comes with a feature of IP address and internet connectivity (Anagnostopoulos, et al., 2016). It also deals with communication which generally occurs between the objects and various kinds of internet based devices and systems. Intelligent transport system can be defined as the use of use of sensing, control and communication to various kinds ground based transport. It is mainly done to increase the efficiency, safety and mobility. Automated and connected vehicle are known to be most heavily researched technologies of automotive (Wen, 2014). Artificial intelligence is well known term which is generally applied to various kinds of model based on computer and intelligent behavior. Techniques based on AI has been developed and have been applied on range of problems based on robotics, e-commerce and gaming. Robotics is not a research field but also a field with artificial intelligence.

In the coming pages of the report a literature review has been done on internet of things, intelligent transport system and connected autonomous devices and other topics like AI and robotics (Likhachev, and Ferguson, 2017).  Around twenty research paper has be analyzed for the literature review on the above mentioned topics.

Internet of things

Internet of thing is nothing but a concept which is totally depended on computing. It mainly describes the idea or logic which allows various kinds of physical objects to be connected to internet and can easily identify themselves to other kinds of devices (Michalski, Carbonell, and Mitchell, 2013). This term is generally associated with RFID which is a well-known method of communication which is inclusive of various kinds of sensor technologies and QR codes (Wortmann and Flüchter, 2015). IOT is considered to be significant because by the help of this an object can easily represent itself and can easily become greater by itself.

RFID stands for Radio frequency identification is nothing but the use of radio waves which is used for reading and capturing information which is stored or attached in a tag of an object. This technology allows tags to be read from a large distance and tag does not need to direct in the line of sight of reader which is tracked (Michalski, Carbonell, and Mitchell, 2013). RFID is generally consisting of two parts that is a tag or label and a reader. RFID tags generally consist of transmitter and receiver which are embedded in it. RFID components on the various tags consist of two parts that is microchip for storing and processing of information and an antenna which is used for transmitting and receiving of various kinds of radio signals.

Intelligent Transport System

An electronic product code is nothing but a universal identifier which provides a platform which can be easily used for unique identification of physical objects. The identity is designed to be unique in nature for physical objects from all around the world (Weber and Weber, 2013). In most of cases EPCs cases are embedded in RFID tags which can be used for tracking of various kinds of objects which is inclusive of items of trade, documents and fixed assets.

Intelligent transportation system

In the last few years’ intelligent transport system has a wide impact on the life of the people with scope of improvement in the field of safety of transportation and mobility. It also aims in improvising productivity with the help of advanced technologies. ITS consist of sixteen type of technology based system (Klassner, 2012). This type of system is further divided into intelligent infrastructure based system and intelligent vehicle based system.

Based on various kinds of literature which are available there are three kinds of issues which are encountered like lack of traffic management system, security and vehicle operation, vehicle to vehicle co-ordination and adoption of new kinds of technologies. Traffic management system is generally designed for large mass of traffic in an efficient way (Hu et al. 2012). Due to presence of large number of vehicle the crowd increases and complexity of management system also increases. Failure in management system may result in decrease in mobility, reduction of consumption of fuel and pollution. Homeland security system and vehicle operation generally deals with security and issues of traffic jam (Likhachev, and Ferguson, 2017). It generally helps in tracking of vehicle and identification of vehicle on real time basis. Vehicle to vehicle co-ordination and implementation of technology is considered to be an important aspect of ITS. Vehicle to vehicle coordination generally focus on technologies which will control the collision and also provide a coordination of trips which is planned by various kinds of drivers.

To overcome the various kinds of issues the solution has been provided like implementation of properly programmed traffic management system which mainly aims in the implementation of GPS technology by which congestion in a particular can be known and so traffic can be easily diverted as per the needs (Xia, et al. 2012). The solution to second which is discussed above is the implementation of wireless communication networks with various kinds of vehicles. This will provide an environment which can be used for tracking of vehicle by providing a unique identification to each vehicle so that they can be identified uniquely. The solution to last problem is the implementation of wireless communication between various vehicles by making use of Bluetooth, Wi-Fi and other kinds of sensors that will easily provide a platform where vehicle can easily interact among themselves.

Connected Autonomous Devices

There are some advantages and disadvantages of intelligent transport system like when this technology is used efficiently it can reduce traffic congestion, safety and security of roads and lastly integration of various vehicles (Ge, 2014). There are some kinds of disadvantages like failure of system may result in stoppage of vehicle movement, security issues related to data of passenger and vehicle.

Connected Autonomous Vehicles

Mobility and safe of transportation systems are considered to be important topic which is based on various kinds of interest in the domain of transport. Connected vehicle which is previously known as IntelliDrive creates a platform where two-way communication where communication between vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to infrastructure is possible (Frazzoli, Dahleh and Feron, 2012). Vehicle which are equipped with this type of communication devices and infrastructure which are working under environment of control vehicle creates a platform where it is possible to collect information of traffic like individual vehicle along with share information with other kinds of equipped vehicle and managers which are associated with it.

In many cases it is seen cooperation between vehicle and infrastructure are totally based on environment of connected vehicle. It also claims to provide benefits to environment of connected vehicle (Xia, et al. 2012). A cooperative vehicle intersection control system provides a platform where vehicle and intersection control can easily work for improvisation of traffic operation when the various kinds of vehicle are considered to fully automated.

AI and Robotics

Artificial intelligence can be defined as the area of computer which mainly deals with creation of intelligent machines which work or act like humans (Frazzoli, Dahleh and Feron, 2012). Some of the activities related to artificial intelligence are recognition of speech, learning, planning and solving of various kinds of problems (Brooks, 2016). Research which are associated with artificial intelligence are generally technical and specialized in nature It focuses on certain number of areas like knowledge, reasoning, solving of problems, perception, planning, ability for manipulation and moving of objects.

On the basis of AI (Artificial Intelligence) robots carry out a large number of function like perception, reasoning, learning, decision making and lastly interaction based on human robots.

Perception – It not only focus on taking of data from the environment but also transformation of it into knowledge which is again used for interpretation and modification of behavior (Frazzoli, Dahleh and Feron, 2012).

Reasoning- It focuses on having a proper conclusion from the data which is generated or taken from the perception.

Artificial Intelligence

Learning-  With the help of new kinds of experiences various kinds of robots needs to have a proper idea regarding the perceiving and receiving of information which can be helpful for obtaining various kinds of experiences (Hu et al. 2012).

Decision making: It is nothing but the ability for providing priority to data which can be considered to be safe and effective in various domains of autonomous application (Klassner, 2012).


From the above discussion can be easily concluded that this report is all about literature review on various kinds of topics related to IT and Research development. In the discussion portion of the report an idea has been provided regarding four major areas like internet of things, intelligent transport system and connected autonomous vehicle and AI and robotics. In internet of things portion an idea has been provided two topics like RFID and EPCs. Intelligent transport system can be easily sub divided into two important aspects like intelligent infrastructure dependent system and intelligent vehicle system. Two of the above mentioned topics has been discussed in details in the above pages of the report. Apart that in connected autonomous vehicle an idea has been provided regarding technologies used in connected vehicle environment. In the last section an idea has been provided regarding use of artificial intelligence in robotics.


Anagnostopoulos, C.N.E., Anagnostopoulos, I.E., Loumos, V. and Kayafas, E., 2016. A license plate-recognition algorithm for intelligent transportation system applications. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent transportation systems, 7(3), pp.377-392.

Brooks, R.A., 2016. Achieving Artificial Intelligence through Building Robots (No. AI-M-899). MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB.

Frazzoli, E., Dahleh, M.A. and Feron, E., 2012. Real-time motion planning for agile autonomous vehicles. Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, 25(1), pp.116-129.

Ge, H.X., Dai, S.Q., Dong, L.Y. and Xue, Y., 2014. Stabilization effect of traffic flow in an extended car-following model based on an intelligent transportation system application. Physical Review E, 70(6), p.066134.

Hu, J., Kong, L., Shu, W. and Wu, M.Y., 2012, December. Scheduling of connected autonomous vehicles on highway lanes. In Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), 2012 IEEE (pp. 5556-5561). IEEE.

Klassner, F., 2012, February. A case study of LEGO Mindstorms'™ suitability for artificial intelligence and robotics courses at the college level. In ACM SIGCSE Bulletin (Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 8-12). ACM.

Likhachev, M. and Ferguson, D., 2017. Planning long dynamically feasible maneuvers for autonomous vehicles. The International Journal of Robotics Research, 28(8), pp.933-945.

Michalski, R.S., Carbonell, J.G. and Mitchell, T.M. eds., 2013. Machine learning: An artificial intelligence approach. Springer Science & Business Media.

Weber, R.H. and Weber, R., 2013. Internet of things (Vol. 12). New York, NY, USA:: Springer.

Wen, Y., Lu, Y., Yan, J., Zhou, Z., von Deneen, K.M. and Shi, P., 2014. An algorithm for license plate recognition applied to intelligent transportation system. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 12(3), pp.830-845.

Wortmann, F. and Flüchter, K., 2015. Internet of things. Business & Information Systems Engineering, 57(3), pp.221-224.

Xia, F., Yang, L.T., Wang, L. and Vinel, A., 2012. Internet of things. International Journal of Communication Systems, 25(9), p.1101.

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