Industry and Company background
Hospitality industry is considered to be very dynamic industry in Australia and also across the globe. The hospitality industry has the ability to shape the economy of Australia. Hospitality industry in simple words can be understood as an organization that has the ability to satisfy the needs and demands such as food and beverages as well as accommodation facilities. Hospitality industry aims to satisfy the demands of the diverse group of people from time to time. For this purpose continuous guest and host interactions takes place in this industry (Chih-ChingTeng, 2013).Hospitality industry is not a new concept people are travelling and using hospitality industry since ages hence, its roots are very deep. Hospitality industry has huge potential and it is a billion dollar industry which is largely influenced by the disposable income of the people as well as the availability of the customers (Knani, 2013).The hospitality industry is proved to provide employment opportunities many people as well as it also contributes to the economic growth and prosperity of the country (Vasquez, 2014).The hospitality industry of Australia is considered to be blooming majorly because of the increasing tourism in the country. It is believed that because of the blooming of this industry many other sectors of the country are also experiencing growth and development. For example, the construction industry, the food and beverages industry as well as the tourism sector. Apart from this the retail industry of the country is also directly impacted by the hospitality industry. Along with this the transport sector and the entertainment sector of the country also experiences changes influenced by the changes in the hospitality industry (Australian Government, 2017).In the first three quarters of 2016 nearly $1.7 billion hotel transactions were undertaken in Australia (Hotel Management, 2016).The hospitality industry in Australia provides employment opportunities to more than 300000 individuals. Apart from this the hotel industry of the country is one of the most important shoppers of the commercial products and services of the country and hence facilitates economic activity within the country. Apart from this community development is also undertaken because of the improving hospitality industry of the country. As the hospitality industry is blooming it has also increased the employment opportunities in the country. Hence, it is believed that the hospitality sector of Australia has great potential that needs to be explored by the industry experts (SIEC, 2016).To achieve this it is essential to improve the employee performance of this industry as well as to take efforts to train and develop the employees and retain them. This majorly depends upon the recruitment and management of the employees (Faldetta et al., 2013).This is the main reason that employee turnover is considered as one of the most difficult problem of the hospitality industry.
Purpose and Problem Statement
Employee turnover is amajor problem that is faced by sector including the hospitality sector. This is so because the direct impact of employee turnover can fall on the productivity and financial performance of the industry. Employee turnover is the greatest challenge in front of the strategies of human resource management as well as towards the organizational performance(Yam et al., 2018).Employee turnover in simple words can be understood as the number of people leaving organization on a yearly basis. It is very important to keep a check on the employee turnover within an organization or in an industry so that necessary measures can be adopted in order to avoid the negative impacts on the industry and the economy as a whole. Turnovers can be voluntary as well as involuntary but the main point to consider is the negative impacts attached to such turnovers (Mayhew, 2018).Employee turnover can negatively impact the profitability of the organization which may result to decrease in the resources of the industry(Hofthuis et al., 2014).It has been found that hospitality leaders lack in proper relationship development with the employees and fail to understand the employee job satisfaction, employee engagement, as well as undertaking necessary employee motivation efforts because of which the employee turnover increases drastically. The main aim of this research is to evaluate the causes behind the increasing turnover in the hospitality industry of Australia. Depending upon this various methods will be analysed that will help to manage the increasing employee turnover in a strategic manner. This research will also analysethe relationship being developed between the employee motivation, employee engagement, and employee compensation and employee turnover. Management of the employees is a very important task and hence, it is considered as an important reason behind the increasing employee turnover is considered to be poor management (Marcum, 2018).Hence, the main problem statement of this research revolves around the identification of the reasons behind the increasing employee turnover, its negative impact on the industry as well as how it can be managed in a strategic manner.
Significance of Research
Employee turnover is very important issue and challenge that is faced by the human resource department as well as the industries as a whole. Therefore, the findings of this research will hold importance to different industries as well as the human resource departments to deal with this issue. The findings of this research will help the hospitality leaders to adopt strategies n plans that will help them to preserve skilled employees and ultimately minimize the employee turnover rate in Australia. According to Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), it has been found out that the highest number of employee turnover in Australia is from the hospitality industry that is the accommodation and food and beverages industry (Reserve Bank of Australia, 2012).Hence, this research has exclusively given attentionto the employee turnover within the hospitality industry and how this problem can be solved. The outcome of this research will help the leaders to bring a paradigm shift in the hospitality industry by adopting social change with the help of identification and implementation of the strategies that holds the ability to reduce employee turnover (Mohanty & Mohanty, 2014).Other significance of this research is that it will help in improving the work life of the employees as well as will also help in reducing their stress level as this research aims to facilitate business practices improvement within the hospitality industry (Kumar & Chakraborty, 2013).
Term of reference
- What are the main causes behind employee turnover?
- What are the employee turnover intentions?
- What are the major factors that contribute towards employee turnover?
- How employee turnover can be managed effectively?
- What are the negative consequences of employee turnover on the industry?
- To identify the main causes behind employee turnover
- To identify the employee turnover intentions
- To identify the major factors that contributes towards employee turnover
- To identify the different ways to manage employee turnover
- To identify the negative impacts of employee turnover over the industry
The Dependent variable in this research is employee turnover and the independent variable includes, job satisfaction, employee motivation, employee engagement, work environment, and employee compensation. Employee turnover is majorly dependent on the factors like job satisfaction, compensation, motivation, working environment as well as the involvement of employees in the activities and in the decision making process. Hence, these factors are considered as independent. The following research will majorly focus on these factors and how it influences the employee turnover within the industry. The research will also establish the relationship between these factors and how improvement in these factors have a direct positive impact on the reduce employee turnover rate.
Causes and factors behind employee turnover
In order to reduce employee turnover rate it is crucialto identify the factors behind the employee turnover. Following are some of the main factors that cause employee turnover within an organization:
Compensation is considered to be an important factor that has a direct impact on the rate of employee turnover. Employees work in an organization with an intention to get paid for the work done by them (Gary, 2011).It has been proved that if this factor is not fulfilled accordingly then this becomes one of the most important reason for the employees to leave the organization. Compensation as well as external rewards in the form of incentives, commission or bonus is been seen as a motivation to the employees and also influences them to give their best towards the organization (Zhang, 2016).Compensation is required by the employees in order to have a proper lifestyle as well as this is also seen as a value given by the organizations to the employees. It has been proved that other factors like job security, loyalty towards organization, etc. are indirectly influenced by the employee compensation factor. Hence, it is argued that employee compensation plays a very important role behind the increasing employee turnover (Silaban & Syah, 2018).Pohler (2015) undertook research to find the relationship being shared between the financial incentives and the employee turnover rate. The author in this research concluded that there is a negative effect of managerial pay for performance on the relationship being shared by employee and the management and as a result it leads to high employee turnover within the organization (Pohler & Schmidt, 2015).
Job satisfaction can be seen asa crucial factor that influences the decision of the employee related to staying or quitting the job. Hence, it is believed that job satisfaction level of employees has the power to shape the employee turnover rate within an organization (O’Connor, 2018).It has been proved that the behaviour of the supervisor can influence the decision of the employees whether to quit a job or not. This is so because the behaviour of the supervisors greatly impacts the job satisfaction level of the employees (Mathieu et al., 2015).It has been stated by AlBattat (2014) that in the hospitality industry it has been seen that the higher the level of dissatisfaction within the healthcare staff the higher is the level of employee turnover. The author has proved this with the help of Mobley’s model of 1977 that states that, job dissatisfaction can lead to increased employee turnover. Hence, it has been suggested by the author that the healthcare institutions should take efforts towards improving the factors that directly impact the employee turnover rates like proving better working conditions, offering the right pay scale, focusing on training and development as well as rewarding the outstanding performances (AlBattat et al., 2014).
It has been seen that employees like to perform in an environment that provides them with a sense of belonging as well as makes them feel that they have a sound control on their work environment. This automatically facilitates employee motivation and as a result the employees wish to work longer with the organization (Wells & Thelen, 2002). Hence, it is believed that organizations that provide a healthy and friendly environment to work develop a sense of trust and loyalty among the employees towards their organization reducing the rate of employee turnover (Umamaheswari & Krishnan, 2016). It has been argued by Markey (2012) that the managers can shape the quitting intentions of the employees by improving the quality of the work environment. The managers should focus to include the quality of work environment within the policies of the organization so that a culture of good working condition can be adopted (Markey et al., 2012). Rumman (2012) in his research has concluded that the work environment have a direct effect on the job turnover within the five star hotels. It has been suggested by the author that the hospitality industry should focus on the factors that improves the work environment as it helps the organizations to move towards gaining more stability and increasing the productivity within the sector by retaining the highly skilled staff (Rumman et al., 2013).
It is seen that motivation tools play a very crucial role in getting things done from the employees in an efficient manner. Motivation is one of the most important factors when it comes to dealing with the issues of human resource management. Employee motivation has a direct impact on the behaviour of the employees towards the organization and can shape their intentions towards quitting the job (Biswakarma & Sharma, 2015). Employee motivation includes many different sub factors like, job satisfaction, pay scale, career development offered by the company as well as employee value being enjoyed within the company. All these factors combine to provide motivation to the employee. If these conditions are not fulfilled then there are very high chances that the employee will leave the job leading to high employee turnover rate (Pradifa & Welly, 2014). Employee motivation is very important factor in hospitality industry this is so because there is a frequent contact with the employees within this industry. These employees directly come in contact with the clients or customers hence, in order to delivery high performance it is very important to keep the employee motivated (Marshall et al., 2015).
Employee engagement is directly related to employee turnover rates. If the employee engagement is low it has been seen that in those organizations the employee turnover rates are higher. High level of employee engagement make the employees feel more empowered and hence the chances to stay within the organization increases (Karatepe et al., 2013). It is a proved fact that the higher the level of employee engagement the higher is the level of the employee’s job satisfaction. This also facilitates the employee’s commitment toward the organization. This will improve the efficiency of the employee and will make the employee feel that their work is being valued. As a result the employees will stay longer with the organization (Biswas & Bhatnagar, 2013). Balakrishnan (2013) has established a direct relationship between employee engagement and the retention of the employees. . The author has discussed that if the organization takes efforts towards engaging the employee in different activities of the organization and in the decision making process then there are chances that the employee turnover rate will reduce (C.Balakrishnan et al., 2013).
Hence, it is important to take into consideration these different factors while planning to reduce employee turnover.
Employee turnover intentions
Bryant (2013) has defined turnover of employee as the rate at which employees within an organization leaves the job and the act of replacement taken by the organization by hiring process. This turnover can be voluntary or involuntary. If the employee turnover rate within an organization is high then it has negative impact on the performance of the company and may cost very high to the organization. Hence, it has been suggested by Bryant that the organizations should take steps to understand the employee intentions behind this and should accordingly adopt strategic measures to reduce the employee turnover rate (Bryant & Allen, 2013).Employee turnover intention in simple words can be understood as the behavioural attitude of a person who is willing to leave the organization(Awang et al., 2013).The success of the hospitality industry highly depends on the effective recruitment of the employees, the training and development of the employees as well as the proper management of the employees which helps in retaining the employees within the industry. It has been seen that depending upon the seasonal fluctuations the managers of the hotel industry hire as well as remove the employees and because of this it has been seen that the hotel industry is not able to maintain a balance between the labour and the demands of the market. According to Brown (2015), it has been found out that the employee intentions are highly influenced by the management techniques adopted by the hotel managers and leaders to value the work of the employees as well as the training provided by the organization (Brown et al., 2015).Gellatly (2014)discussed that there is a direct relationship between the organizational commitment and the employee turnover intention. It has been argued that the work relations maintained by the employee greatly influence the employee’s intentions towards turnover. In order to prove this the author explained the organizational commitment under three headings and they are affective, normative and the continuance organizational commitment. It was proved that the employees that have high affective and normative commitment are less likely to leave the organization(Gellatly et al., 2014).AbuKhalifeh& Som(2013) discussed that the employee intentions towards turnover is influenced by the employee’s engagement level towards the organization. Employee engagement has direct impact on the performance of the organization as well as the motivations of the employee. Increased employee engagement has direct positive impact on reducing the employee turnover in the organization. This can be improved by factors such as leadership skills, well qualified human resource professionals as well as the retention of the best employees within the organization(AbuKhalifeh & Som, 2013).It has also been found that the personal factors also affect the employee’s turnover intention. Factors like age, gender, educational qualification as well as the number of years within the organization, marital status, etc. influences the turnover intention of the employees. It has been seen in the case of women that becauseof the reasons like taking care of their family or giving birth the turnover rate among the women is higher as compared to the male counterparts (Liu & Wang, 2006).Another personal reason is that, the employees that have higher educational skills tend to achieve lower satisfaction levels at the organization and as a result have negative attitude towards the organization. The turnover intentions of such employees are very high and as a result the employee turnover is increased within the organization (Ma et al., 2003).Hence, in order to deal with employee turnover it is very important to take into consideration both the personal as well as organizational factors behind that influences the employee turnover intentions.
Consequences of employee turnover
High turnover can provide with negative non-financial and financial results. It can become a hurdle in maintaining the level of quality, productivity and the profitability of the organizations. In small companies, it can create problem as it is not possible to accomplish the daily functions while having less number of staff in the company. This issue can be resolved when the company is able to maintain the adequate number of staff in the company for performing the different function of the company in an effective manner (Advameg, Inc., 2018). The employee turnover is one of the enemies of business. The cost associated with the employee turnover is not able to be reported in income and expenditure statement of company.
It has been identified by Achoui & Mansour (2007) that negative and positive both consequences can be experienced by the organization due to the employee turnover. The cost related to the training, recruitment, selection and loss of production are tangible and negative consequences of the employee turnover. The intangible cost as a negative consequence experienced by the organizations includes workload impact, moral impact and the interruption in the performance. Apart from this, the loss of the financial and non-financial cost is experienced by organizations like cost of equipment and material, cost of time of people, loss of productivity and cash outlays. The other costs are difficult for the organizations to estimate that affects the performance of the organization in a negative manner like damaged morale of the employees and the loss of customers (Achoui & Mansour, 2007).
The cost of employee turnover is helpful in evaluation its effect upon the organization but there are some business features that need to be considered. The employee turnover can influence service quality or the products offered by the company to the customers and can harm the customer service. The lack in the quality and the customer service can give rise to the risks such as loss of the contracts in industry and the loss of customer relationship which can eventually affect the competitive advantage of the organizations in a higher proportion. (Curtis & Wright, 2001).
According to Gawali (2009), employee turnover causes low morale and the lack of motivation. The employees can look for the other organizations for the employees when there is no such opportunity is provided to the employees for the future promotion and growth. The lack of the motivation in the organization to the employees can also affect the turnover. The retention of the employees is possible for the organization when they are provided with the effective cross departmental trainings and the opportunities for the career growth in the organization (Gawali, 2009).
Sometimes, the employee turnover can be advantageous for the organizations. The employee turnover can motivate the organizations to look for the new and talented employees in the organization. The organization can focus upon providing the advanced training to the new employees in order that they can execute better and can contribute in the success of the organization. This can help the organization to experience less expensive replacements, innovation, higher quality, displacement of the poor performer, adaptability, high performance, flexibility and the opportunities to encourage talented employees in the organization in an effective manner (Mello, 2011).
Managing employee turnover
The retention of the employees in organization can be a challenge for the leading organizations. It is important to understand the requirements of employees to establish the ability to manage the level of employee turnover. When the organizations put the efforts to retain the employees by offering interesting work, value driven management and the opportunities for the career growth and personal growth, the employee may be seeking the growth in their salaries specifically related to the market. Hence, it is highly important for the organizations to understand and identify requirements of employees from the organization for meeting demands of employees and retain the employees in the organization (Mello, 2011).
For managing the employee turnover, the organizations should increase the satisfaction level of the employees. The understanding related to increasing the employee satisfaction level and the ways to increase satisfaction of employees is significant. It is important to analyse the factors that help the employees to get motivated and attain the satisfaction because every employee in the organization is motivated by different aspect. The need of every employee is different hence understanding the needs of the employees are essential. The organizations should design the retention program through analysing the needs of the employees to enhance the effectiveness of the program (Mello, 2011).
According to Ongori (2007), the strategies chosen for reducing the employee turnover need to be appropriate so that it can help in diagnosing the problem in an effective manner. The employee turnover can be the result of poor selection of the strategy to manage the turnover as it may not provide with the effective result to the organizations. The failure of the organization to identify the causes behind the intention of exit of employees from the organization results in the employee turnover. The organizations need to take the important actions that can help in addressing the issues. The management of the organization can identify the factors responsible for the employee turnover with the help of the exit interview. These interviews can help in effectively providing with the information and the organization can put the efforts to enhance the processes or the functions that are ineffective in the perception of the employees (Ongori, 2007).
The organization can introduce the new compensation plans, job customization, job redesigns, hiring new employees who can stay in the organization for long term, and strengthening the social ties. These practical strategies are highly effective in managing the employee turnover in the organization. All these strategies should be planned and implemented in the organization as this can provide with the ability to the management to ensure and reduce rate of employee turnover in an effective manner (Cappelli, 1997).
The effective recruitment plays an important role retaining the talented employees in the organization. The continuous motivation, career development, training and incentive systems can help in retaining employees in organization for a long time. It is important for the management of the organization to focus on enhancing the communication process in order to eliminate the high turnover rate in the organization. This can help in enhancing the ability of to retain the employees in organization (Deery, 2008).
The workforce engagement is also an important strategy that can help in retaining the employees and reducing the turnover rate in the organization in an effective manner. The effective employee retention strategies can help in attaining the profitability as well as the competitiveness in the market. The improved work environment, better opportunities of employments and the career advancement can help in enhancing the ability of the organization to reduce the employee turnover and retain the employees. The employees always look for the better opportunity in order to grow and achieve more, hence it is important to focus on meeting the needs of the employees so that the employees can stay for long in the organization. The positive work environment helps in increasing the probability of the employees to stay for long in the organization. Hence, the organizations should emphasize on providing with good working environment to employees in organization. It can help in reducing the turnover rate of the employees in the organization in an effective manner(Ongori, 2007).
The retention of the employees requires setting up the effective benefits and compensation. The organization should work with the employees so that the current data related to the industry pay packages. The organizations should also focus upon developing the policies related to flexible work schedules, benefits and bonus structures so that the rate of the employee turnover can be reduced. The timely appraisals to the employees for their extra ordinary performance in the organization as it can help in motivating the employees. This is because when the employees feel motivated and satisfied by the processes that are followed by the organization for the benefit of the employees, it makes it easier for the employees to make the decision to stay in organization for long time (Cappelli, 1997).
There are mainly two research methods used to carry out the research study that are primary research and secondary research. Primary research method includes the collection of the data from the subject or the area of research by the researcher. The primary research method helps in collecting first hand and original the data and the information related to the research topic. The researcher has to obtain the information from market place to meet objectives of research study(Reserach Optimus , 2018). This research method is considered as a cost effective data collection method. This method of research is beneficial as researcher can target specific group from which the useful information can be obtained easily. Selecting the primary research method can provide with the effective and accurate information to the researcher. The methods that are used for collecting the primary data are: surveys, interviews, focus groups, observations and field trials.
Secondary research method is one of the common methods that are used by the researchers to obtain data and information related to research topic. This method of research includes the utilization of the information collected by the other researchers or obtained through the other primary research(Adi Bhat, 2018). The past research studies by the different research act as the secondary data. The researcher can obtain the secondary data from the secondary sources such as journal articles, reports, newspaper articles, magazines, websites, books and the other publications. This research method can help in obtaining the data in small period of time as well as at low cost.
Chosen research method
In this research study, secondary and primary both methods of research will be used for collecting the data and the information related to the research topic in an effective manner. The primary research method is selected as it will help in gathering the accurate and original data. This is a cost effective method and the data collected will be able to be controlled. The secondary method is chosen as this will help in collecting the data from the past studies which will contribute in obtaining the objectives of the research. The sources of secondary data that will be used are journal articles, reports, conference papers, websites and books.
There are mainly two types of research approach that are qualitative research approach and quantitative research approach. The qualitative research is considered as the approach that emphasize on obtaining the information related to the perceptions, opinions and views of the people. The researcher can obtain deep information with the help of this research approach. The experiences, of the people can be understood with the help of this approach. Quantitative research approach helps in collecting the data and transforming the data into numerical form for the purpose to perform the statistical calculations and obtain the conclusion from the collected data in an effective manner.
Chosen research approach
For collecting data and the information related to research topic, qualitative and quantitative both research approaches will be used. The qualitative research method will help in obtaining the in-depth information, opinions and the experiences of the participants in an effective manner. The quantitative research method will help in gathering the data in the numerical form and draw out the conclusions from it in an easier manner.
Quantitative Data collection tools
The data collection tools provide with the support to collect the data in easier manner. The different types of quantitative data collection tools are surveys and experiments. All these tools help in obtaining the data in the numerical form. In this research study, the quantitative data collection tools that will be used are survey. Surveys are the instruments that are helpful in collecting the data using the set standards(Bhat, 2018). The standardized questions are involved in this tool and helps in exploring a particular research topic. It helps in collecting the basic information related to demographics, attitudes, opinions and behaviours. The survey question will include the close ended questions. In the research study, the responses of the survey will be collected using likert scale. The survey questionnaire will be developed considering the topic of the research so that objectives of the research study can be met effectively. The survey will also help in collecting the data from the large number of people.
Qualitative data collection tools
The different types of quantitative data collection tools are observations, interview and focus groups. These tools help in obtaining the detailed information related to the opinion, attitude and behaviour of the people. In this research study, interview will be conducted as it will help in obtaining the in-depth information from the participants. It will help in obtaining the useful information related to the research topic in an effective manner. The interview will contain open ended questions. Participants will can express themselves and present their views.
Sampling and Sample Size
Sampling method is considered as the procedure that is used for selecting the sample members from the target population. There are three methods of sampling: stratified sampling method, random method of sampling method, systematic method of sampling method, convenience method of sampling method and cluster method of sampling method (StatTrek.com , 2018). In this research study, random sampling method will be used in order to select sample members for survey. This method will help in providing the equal chance to each member of population to get selected for the survey(StatPac, 2017). The sample members will be selected randomly from the total population.
For the purpose to select the sample members for the interview, the convenience sampling method will be used. The interested and the available people from the total population will be selected for the interview.
The target population that will be considered for selecting the respondents for the survey will be employees of the hospitality industry in Australia that will be selected using the random sampling method.
The target population that will be included for the purpose to select the participants of the interview will be the managers in the hospitality industry in Australia using the convenience sampling method.
For survey, the sample size that will be considered and selected using the random method of sampling is 40 from total population. With the help of the convenience sampling method, the sample size that will be selected for the interview is 5 people out of the total population.
The questionnaire will be sent to participants through e-mail. The responses of the participants will also be collected with the help of e-mail from the participants. It will help in saving as well as help in saving the cost. The electronic means of distributing the questionnaire is one of the best methods that can help in collecting the responses of the participants in an easier manner. The participants can provide with the responses at any time they want as per their convenience. The questionnaire will be including around 20 questions related to the factors considered in the research study. The questionnaire will be in the format of likert scale. The participant will be able to response to the questions by five point likert scale.
Ethical considerations are most important part of research. It is important for the researcher to make sure that all the ethical obligations are fulfilled during the research study. Following the ethics is important in order to perform the research in a right manner.
- No participants will be harmed in any manner during the research
- The participants of the research will be respected and their values will be considered highly.
- The privacy of the participant will be ensured by all means. The information of the participants will be protected.
- The consent of the participants will be obtained prior the study. The participants will be provided with the important and sufficient information related to the research.
- The participant will be allowed to step out from study. The participants will not be pressurized by any means.
- The data of the research will remain confidential.
- The work of other authors used in the research study will be acknowledged.
The research study will help in identifying the main causes of the employee turnover, employee turnover intentions and factors that contribute in employee turnover in Australian hospitality industry. The identification and understanding related to this area will help in realizing the need to manage the employee turnover. The research study will also focus and identify the methods that can be used in order to manage the employees turn over in an effective manner. Apart from this, the research study will also help in understanding the negative consequences of the employee turnover upon hospitality industry. The research study will benefits the people associated with the hospitality industry through providing with the knowledge to manage the employee turnover rate in an effective manner. The strategies that can be used by the organization in managing the turnover rate will be identified as a result of the research study. The effectiveness of the strategies for retention of employees and reducing the rate of employee turnover that organizations in the hospitality industry can implement will be determined with the help of the research study.
Timeline and Gantt chart
The introduction will provide with the information related to the industry background and the issue that the industry is facing
Research purpose and research significance
The purpose of research study will be explained. The benefits of research and contribution of the research to the people associated with the industry will be stated.
Research questions and research objectives
The research question and research objectives will be presented.
The method that will be used to conduct the research study will be discussed in this section.
The approach that will be used to conduct the research study will be proposed.
Research data collection tools
The methods and the tools used for the purpose to collect data for research study will be proposed in this section.
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