Get Instant Help From 5000+ Experts For
question

Writing: Get your essay and assignment written from scratch by PhD expert

Rewriting: Paraphrase or rewrite your friend's essay with similar meaning at reduced cost

Editing:Proofread your work by experts and improve grade at Lowest cost

And Improve Your Grades
myassignmenthelp.com
loader
Phone no. Missing!

Enter phone no. to receive critical updates and urgent messages !

Attach file

Error goes here

Files Missing!

Please upload all relevant files for quick & complete assistance.

Guaranteed Higher Grade!
Free Quote
wave

Discussion: Breast Cancer

Discuss about the Breast Screen Program Australia.

Breast screen Australia can be defined as the breast cancer screening program.  The Breast screen Australia program’s objective is to detect unsuspected breast cancer in women at an early stage by the process of screening mammography. The aim of the program is to reduce the number of   deaths and illness caused by breast cancer. The aforementioned program entitles women who are aged 40 and above to free screening mammography every two years (Welch, Prorok, O’Malley, & Kramer, 2016).

It has been estimated that breast cancer has affected a majority of women population in Australia and has been identified to be the most common type of cancer which has affected Australian women. According to the results of a survey, it has been identified that in the year 2013,9581 women in the age group of 50-74 in Australia had been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer.  Breast cancer has been identified as the single most common cause of death of Australian WOMEN after lung cancer. The program, Breast Screen Australia has been well received by the women of Australia and more than fifty percent of the female population in Australia has actively participated to get them screened.  However, it can be said that the program has not had much effect on the indigenous population. Participation of Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait islanders in the program, Breast Screen Australia has been significantly low (Oeffinger, et al., 2015).

Breast Cancer can be defined as one of the most common types of cancer which originates in the ducts of as well as in the lobules. However, in rare instances breast cancer can also originate in the in the connective tissue which connects the ducts and the lobules of the breast.  It can be said that breast cancer happens to be the most common form of cancer affecting an average of one out of four women.  However, the prevalence of the disease is more common in developed countries as compared to developing nations (Myers, et al., 2015).

It can be said that according to the reports of Australian Institute of Health and Welfare that Breast cancer can be considered to the most common form cancer and which constitutes 28% of the types of cancer affecting women. Occurrence of Breast Cancer has been identified in 124 women per 10000 women in Australia (Zajac, 2016).

The factors that cause Breast Cancer are not known however, many risk factors that aim breast cancer in women have been identified. One of the most prominent factors that causes breast cancer has been identified to be age. Occurrences of breast cancer are most common in women belonging to the age group of over 50. Hormonal and reproductive factors are also contributing causes of breast cancer (Freimanis & Yacobozzi, 2014). Some of these factors include: not having given birth to children, giving birth at old age, menopause at an old age. Hormone replacement therapy and oral contraception have also been identified to increase a small risk of breast cancer (Mathew & Sibbering, 2018).  It can be stated that a family history of Breast can cancer can increase a woman’s chances of developing the same, however according to the report provided by Breast Cancer Australia 2015 it can be said that 8 out of 9 women who develop breast cancer do not have a mother or sister who is a victim of breast cancer. According to the research done by (trove.nla.gov.au, 2018)it can be sated that family history as a contributory factor of Cancer in Australia can be classified in three categories:

  • Slight or average risk- 95 percent of the women population belongs in this category. The women in this category have no family history or a very weak family history of cancer. It can be said that nine out of ten women in this category are less likely to develop cancer.
  • Moderate Risk- Less than four percent of the female population belongs in this category. Women in this category have a moderate risk of developing breast cancer due to a strong family history. Examples of such family history include first degree relatives on one side of the family.
  • Potential High Risk- Less than one percent of the women fall in this category. Women who have a strong family history which includes first and second degree relatives on either side of the family and additional factors on the same side of the family.

Impacts of Breast Screen Australia

Breast Screening Detects Breast Cancer early

It can be stated that free breast screening is available to the women population in Australia belonging to the age group of 50-74 years age group by the program Breast Screening Australia. The women population who belong to the age group of 40-49 are eligible to get tem screened, however they are not actively targeted (DeSantis, Ma, Bryan, & Jemal, 2014).

It can be stated that like other population based screening programs, Breast Screen Australia aims to detect unsuspected breast cancers which would have otherwise gone unnoticed. The programs aims to detect breast cancer by the use of screening mammograms and therefore reduce morbidity in women.  Breast cancer in women allows them to access diagnostic and treatment services at an early stage. Detection of breast cancer at an early stage can even be cured with the latest treatment services available. In the process of screening mammography, radiologists review the images of each of the breast to detect any unsuspected or suspicious characteristics which require further inspection.  The process of screening mammography is not however diagnostic in nature.  Screening mammography has been found to be more effective in older women as their breasts become less dense after menopause. It is also one of the main reasons why women in the age group of over 50 are more prone to develop breast cancer.

Such process of mammographic screening is not however considered to be effective in women who are younger than 40. This is because the breast tissue in younger women are more dense and therefore it becomes difficult to identify any development of cancerous cells.


Breast Screening mammography decreases morbidity and morality

It can be said according to (NBOCC 2009)  that lower morbidity from breast cancer can be achieved by detection of the cancer at an early stage as it gives the patients the options to choose from the different  treatment options available. As provided by the reports of NBOCC 2009,  it can be stated that the program Breast Screen Australia has detected almost 59 percentage of the breast cancer occurrences in women. Only 28% of the all the occurrences of breast cancer has been detected outside the program. Treatment of breast cancers detected by Breast Screen Australia is done mostly by breast conserving surgery which is closely associated with decreased morbidity.

Breast Screening effectively benefits mortality as detection of breast cancer at an early stage has been proved to increase survival rates among victims of cancer (Uicc.org., 2018). It had been estimated that effective breast screening programs has reduced the rates of mortality rates among women by 21 – 28% (Cancerscreening.gov.au, 2018). It can be said in accordance with the reports of International Agency for Research on Cancer 2015 that that mortality rates has been significantly reduced in Australia due to Screening Mammography. These benefits of mortality have been reflected on the women who have been targeted by the program Breast Screen Australia. 

Conclusion


Screening and re screening

Mammography which is X-ray of the breast is the test that is used in breast screening.   The active participation of women in the program Breast Screen Australia is an indicator of the program’s performance.  Women in Australia have also recognized the need to get them screened as they have realized the effects of breast screening to reduce morbidity and mortality. Participation of women in the program are measured over a time period of two years which is aligned with the two year recommend screening interval of the program. It can be stated that the percentage of women who return for a re- screening after the two year interval is also measured. However according to Breast Screen Australia program although the recommended screening interval is 24 months( two years),  it is estimated that twenty seven months is a reasonable time period which is required to assess any new developments and women to respond to invitation to respond to such screening process (aihw.gov.au, 2018).     

Conclusion

Thus to conclude it can be said that breast cancer is the most common form of cancer that affects women all over the world. Occurrences of breast cancer are common in women belong in the age group of 50 and above. Breast Cancer has been identified as the most common cause of death of female population in Australia after lung cancer. The program Breast Screen Australia has been initiated by the government of Australia to do mammography screening of women in every two years to detect any suspicious and unnoticed growth of cancerous cells in the mammary glands. The process however, is not diagnostic. Breast screen Australia has been well received by the majority of the population and the evidence of the same can be exhibited by the high rates of participation.

aihw.gov.au. (2018, March 25). Home - Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Retrieved from aihw.gov.au: https://www.aihw.gov.au/

Cancerscreening.gov.au. (2018, March 25). Cancer Screening - Breast Screening. . Retrieved from Cancerscreening.gov.au. : https://cancerscreening.gov.au/internet/screening/publishing.nsf/Content/breast-screening-1

DeSantis, C., Ma, J., Bryan, L., & Jemal, A. (2014). Breast cancer statistics. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 64(1), 52-62.

Freimanis, R. I., & Yacobozzi, M. (2014). Breast cancer screening. North Carolina medical journal, 117-120.

Mathew, J., & Sibbering, M. (2018). Breast Cancer Screening. In Breast Cancer Management for Surgeons . Springer, Cham.

Myers, E. R., Moorman, P., Gierisch, J. M., Havrilesky, L. J., Grimm, L. J., Ghate, S., & Kendrick, A. (2015). Benefits and harms of breast cancer screening: a systematic review. Jama, 314(15), 1615-1634.

Oeffinger, K. C., Fontham, E. T., Etzioni, R. H., Michaelson, J. S., Shih, Y. C., & Wolf, A. M. (2015). Breast cancer screening for women at average risk: 2015 . guideline update from the American Cancer Society. , 314(15), 1599-1614.

trove.nla.gov.au. (2018, March 25). Breast cancer risk factors [electronic resource] : a review of the evidence / Gianluca Severi and Laura Baglietto. . Retrieved from trove.nla.gov.au: https://trove.nla.gov.au/work/28385849?selectedversion=NBD44716176

Uicc.org. (2018, March 25). 2014 World Cancer Congress Report available . Retrieved from Uicc.org. : https://www.uicc.org/2014-world-cancer-congress-report-available

Welch, H. G., Prorok, P. C., O’Malley, A. J., & Kramer, B. S. (2016). Breast-cancer tumor size, overdiagnosis, and mammography screening effectiveness. New England Journal of Medicine, 375(15), 1438-1447., 375(15), 1438-1447.

Zajac, P. (2016). Breast Cancer Screening. Osteopathic Family Physician, 8(5).

Kuchenbaecker, K. B., Hopper, J. L., Barnes, D. R., Phillips, K. A., Mooij, T. M., Roos-Blom, M. J., ... & Goldgar, D. E. (2017). Risks of breast, ovarian, and contralateral breast cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Jama, 317(23), 2402-2416.

Lauby-Secretan, B., Scoccianti, C., Loomis, D., Benbrahim-Tallaa, L., Bouvard, V., Bianchini, F., & Straif, K. (2015). Breast-cancer screening—viewpoint of the IARC Working Group. New England Journal of Medicine, 372(24), 2353-2358.

Campbell, B. (2018). Beyond Breast Cancer: An exploration of the experiences of middle-aged female breast cancer survivors in Australia.

Beckmann, K., Duffy, S. W., Lynch, J., Hiller, J., Farshid, G., & Roder, D. (2015). Estimates of over-diagnosis of breast cancer due to population-based mammography screening in South Australia after adjustment for lead time effects. Journal of medical screening, 22(3), 127-135.

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

My Assignment Help. (2019). Breast Screen Program Australia: Early Detection And Reduction Of Morbidity And Mortality. Retrieved from https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/the-breast-screen-program-australia.

"Breast Screen Program Australia: Early Detection And Reduction Of Morbidity And Mortality." My Assignment Help, 2019, https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/the-breast-screen-program-australia.

My Assignment Help (2019) Breast Screen Program Australia: Early Detection And Reduction Of Morbidity And Mortality [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/the-breast-screen-program-australia
[Accessed 01 March 2024].

My Assignment Help. 'Breast Screen Program Australia: Early Detection And Reduction Of Morbidity And Mortality' (My Assignment Help, 2019) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/the-breast-screen-program-australia> accessed 01 March 2024.

My Assignment Help. Breast Screen Program Australia: Early Detection And Reduction Of Morbidity And Mortality [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2019 [cited 01 March 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/the-breast-screen-program-australia.

Get instant help from 5000+ experts for
question

Writing: Get your essay and assignment written from scratch by PhD expert

Rewriting: Paraphrase or rewrite your friend's essay with similar meaning at reduced cost

Editing: Proofread your work by experts and improve grade at Lowest cost

loader
250 words
Phone no. Missing!

Enter phone no. to receive critical updates and urgent messages !

Attach file

Error goes here

Files Missing!

Please upload all relevant files for quick & complete assistance.

Other Similar Samples

support
Whatsapp
callback
sales
sales chat
Whatsapp
callback
sales chat
close