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The Emergence of Neolithic Revolution

Question:

Discuss about the Effect of Neolithic Revolution.

Neolithic Revolution is regarded to be a miraculous transition in human society. This particular revolution led to the pervasive transformation of human society from a custom of barbarous hunt and collection to one of cultivation and civilization. The formation of these scattered communities instigated humans to inculcate the interest to monitor and probe the lifecycle of plants (Gellner 2017). The above cognizance gradually piloted the art of cultivation of flora. It can be said that the advent of the Neolithic Revolution led to the emergence of some illustrious developments in human antiquity such as the origination of the wheel, the sowing of the grain produce and the evolution of round hand script, arithmetic, selenology and agronomy. This research essay paper demonstrates the fact that Neolithic Revolution had brought a change in the life of our ancestors.

Neolithic Revolution has indeed bought a significant change in the life of all our ancestors. The phenomenon of Neolithic Revolution had originated in the pre-historic times; somewhere back twelve thousand years ago. Like the animals, previously, humans were accustomed to the hunter-gatherer conventional more. Humans were extremely proficient in sustaining themselves through a ferocious means of livelihood. The concept of social civilization, which at present we abide to, posthumously, was an alien belief at that time (Gellner 2017). The prevalent notion of survival at that time can be better expressed through this phrase-The survival of the fittest. Sometime at that prehistoric period, Neolithic revolution developed, bringing a drastic change in the livelihood practices of the Homo sapiens. The main change, which was brought by the occurrence of Neolithic Revolution, was the inception of agriculture. The development in agriculture propelled the construction of urban settlements and communities. The human population also ballooned from six million to more than eight billion (Shiva 2016). This drastic change in the population can be attributed to the suitability of the environment and the availability of resources to practice cultivation of crops and animal husbandry.


There is no definite cause behind the emergence of Neolithic Revolution. A revolution, of such a magnitude, the substantiality of which is unparallel to any other revolution has no proper genesis in the books of the history (Fisher, Simon and Matt 2013).   Reportedly, people in the Far East took up cultivation practice because the climactic conditions in those regions demanded so. The final ice age period led to the destruction of the previous soil composition and thereby the citizenry of that region stated to experiment with various style of cultivations. The seasonal requirements were found to be the most fitting in that region and resultantly the people started to exercise the cultivation of yearly plants like cereals (Olsson, Ola and Christopher 2012).  Apart from the Far East, the other regions of the world started to follow the cultivation method because of the fear of the exhaustion of the natural resources. The increasing scarcity of the natural resources led the inhabitants of the other region to adopt home-origin agriculture procedures. Notwithstanding the causes of the happening of this striking revolution, Neolithic Revolution, itself, has brought a resplendent change in the life pattern of our ancestors.

The Advancements of the Neolithic Revolution


The harvestation of plants was one of the major changes brought by the Neolithic revolution. The origin of the crops like barley, maize, wheat and millets can be related back to the history of the Middle East region (Olsson, Ola and Christopher 2016). Back to nine thousand years ago, the wild cereals and figs were primarily sown in Syria. In addition to this, there have been traces of the plantation of fruits and fig plants in another Middle-Eastern country, Jordan. China is especially popular for the cultivation of rice. Chinese people are said to be extremely fond of consuming rice as a part of their daily meal. The practice of the cultivation of the Chinese people’s best-loved meal can be related to the inception of the Neolithic revolution. In fact, the world’s first known paddy cultivation area was unearthed in the eastern part of China in the year 2007 (Talhelm et al. 2014). The sophistication and the superior artisanship shown in carving out the rice field attested the fact that the prevention tactics of flood and fire outburst were already subsisting in China, courtesy to the pervasive spread of the Neolithic Revolution. If the focus is shifted on to the South American region, it can be found that the cultivation of corn and squash were practiced by the inhabitants of that region. Specifically, the Andes region have shown lucid indicators of the practice of potato cultivation, somewhere back to the era of the agricultural revolution. Therefore, Neolithic revolution had completely changed the lifestyle of humans by making them familiar with the art of agronomics.


The domestication of animals was another salient change brought by the outcome of the Neolithic revolution. Previously, humans never came to direct contact with animals, unless and until when they face any sort of a threat or they are about to be attacked by an animal or such (Smith et al. 2014). Apart from this, another time when humans came into direct combat with the animals, where, when they were engaged in livelihood hunting. Generally, humans and animals dwelled in distinct settlements and both were plainly wary of each other’s presence. Animals such as cows, goats, pigs and others were found to be reared in the countries located in the belt of the Fertile Crescent (Broushaki et al. 2016). The Fertile Crescent comprises the locations of Ottoman peninsula, Persia and Iraq. According to the historians and the archaeologists, the Fertile Crescent was known to be the instigator of the Neolithic Revolution. The timeline for animal husbandry is expected to fall in the range of fourteen thousand to eleven thousand years ago.

Cultivation and Urban Settlements

Neolithic revolution is also credited with the reformation of the Stone Age society. Various reports and articles show that the expansion of the agricultural practices to the European countries spearheaded the population growth of the northern and the Scandinavian countries of Sweden, Norway, Germany, Denmark and Finland (Ammerman, Albert and Luigi Luca 2014). This fact has been proven on scientific basis. In the modern times, the Northern Europeans are rumored to be big enthusiasts of dairy farming. Before the onset of animal husbandry in the European countries, the European population was incapable of digesting raw or unprocessed milk (Curry 2013). Due to this, the population suffered from malnourishment, protein deficit and growth deprivation. However, with the onset of the animal husbandry practice in East Europe, a metamorphosis for lactose forbearance occurred among the Northern Europeans and thereby it strengthened the populace of the Northern countries and saved it from eradication. Therefore, in this aspect, it can be said that the Neolithic revolution changed the life of our ancestors.


Conclusively, from the above analysis, it can be deduced that the concept of Neolithic Revolution has necessarily changed the face and essence of the human society. From historic evidences, it can be seen that at the beginning, that humans were no less than Neanderthals, in their life customs, social habits and thought process. Had not the phenomenon of the Neolithic Revolution originated in the life history of humans, then it would have been vastly impossible for humans to enjoy a posh and such a convenient lifestyle. Humans would still have been living a nomadic, uncultured and rustic lifestyle. If a larger picture is pictured in this context than it can be seen that the astounding developments and success achieved by humans in the present era such as visiting the moon, sending spaceships to the universe and building nuclear technology, would have been a distant dream. Resultantly, Neolithic Revolution or Agricultural Revolution had definitely brought an amazing reorientation or change in the lifespan of our ancestors as well as of the entire human population.

References

Ammerman, Albert J., and Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza. The Neolithic transition and the genetics of populations in Europe. Princeton University Press, 2014.

Broushaki, Farnaz, Mark G. Thomas, Vivian Link, Saioa López, Lucy van Dorp, Karola Kirsanow, Zuzana Hofmanová et al. "Early Neolithic genomes from the eastern Fertile Crescent." Science 353, no. 6298 (2016): 499-503.

Curry, Andrew. "The milk revolution." Nature 500, no. 7460 (2013): 20.

Fisher, Simon E., and Matt Ridley. "Culture, genes, and the human revolution." Science 340, no. 6135 (2013): 929-930.

Gellner, Ernest. "The savage and the modern mind'." Horton, R. and Finnenegan, R., op. cit (2017): 162.

Olsson, Ola, and Christopher Paik. "A western reversal since the Neolithic? The long-run impact of early agriculture." (2012).

Olsson, Ola, and Christopher Paik. "Long-run cultural divergence: Evidence from the Neolithic Revolution." Journal of Development Economics 122 (2016): 197-213.

Shiva, Vandana. The violence of the green revolution: Third world agriculture, ecology, and politics. University Press of Kentucky, 2016.

Smith, Pete, H. Clark, H. Dong, E. A. Elsiddig, H. Haberl, R. Harper, J. House et al. "Agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU)." (2014).

Talhelm, Thomas, Xuemin Zhang, Shige Oishi, Chen Shimin, Dechao Duan, Xiaoli Lan, and Shinobu Kitayama. "Large-scale psychological differences within China explained by rice versus wheat agriculture." Science 344, no. 6184 (2014): 603-608.

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