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Here, the following research questions will be answered

  • How can the building painting process works more efficiently using new technologies?
  • How can the current process enhance and works better in time management/process optimization?
  • How can the current process works better in optimize a new product?
  • How can the environmental stress reduce the usage of new technologies?
  • How much the cost gets low with the new product?

SolidWorks: A 3D CAD Software


CPR group of company took the first step in the process of Optimization. Solid works is a 3D CAD software that is used in designing the automation application in mechanical design. It allows the designers to quickly draw the experiments with dimensions and features and sketch the ideas. The designing process is coved by the SolidWorks from design to technical communication. Solid works also include the data management in the designing process. The productivity of our design can be increased by the SolidWorks. It is an integrated software with intuitive design. A better cost-effective products can be delivered by this software. This 3D CAD software allows the user to draw a solid form. It is a solid modeler and it make use of parametric approach to create 3D solid models. In this report, design and fabrication is made for pc3 cabinet by using a stainless steel metal. The pc3 cabinet is designed with the specified shape and dimensions. With the space provided, the load-bearing capacity of the pc3 cabinet will be checked.

The problem with this solution is to set a new product that can use for the painting process. This can't help in innovating at CPR group of the company but it will have a new innovative product in paint equipment trending in the market.

All aspects of development product process with a seamless, sustainable design, communication, and integrated workflow-design. The integrated software work and intuitive design interface work together and give the focus on innovation. In solid works, building the model usually starts with a 2D sketch (3D sketches also available). Points, arcs, lines, conics, and splines are available in the sketch. The drawings can be created either for assemblies or for other parts. Views of the solid model are automatically generated (Budkin and Erofeev, 2011).

To design the pc cabinet in the solid works, start a new part using inches and make enable the sheet metal ribbon. Check next to sheet metal and right click on the ribbon. Then make the material to 1060 alloy by right click material on browser then select 1060 alloy in the list (Weisel, 2004).

On the top plane, a new sketch is been started

Now draw 200mm rectangle centered on the origin is designed.

The length and breadth is drawn (200mm)

For Clamp space design, the measurement and the software image is shown below

Make the thickness of the sheet metal. Use standard metal thickness. To complete select green check.

Design and Fabrication of PC3 Cabinet

Click the flange tool and set the dimension.

The various dimensions of pc cabinet design is shown below

 Finally, the pc cabinet is created in solid works with CAD. The final outcome in the solid work tool is shown in the below figure.

To obtain the stress-strain coves of the model about bending compression tests and pure compression tests in order to performed tests on rolled steel. Steel specification are follows (Busby, Ilevbare and Andresen, 2011): tensile 490 N/mm2<strength<610N/mm2, yield stress>325N/mm2, and elongation>22% (, 2018) (Blackstone, 1774). Tests are carried out under some temperatures (Scan2CAD, 2017) (Becker, 2011). Testing temperatures are

Plate thickness: 6mm and 4.5mm

Rated temperature: 400,500,550,600 C

Plate thickness: 9mm    

Rated temperature: 200, 300, 400…, 800 C

When load increases stress also increased from 0.3%/minute to 10%/minute at 0.005 strain at high temperature (Kao, Sung and Chen, n.d.). Calculation of pure bending compression tests compression tests is given by the equation (Merritt, 2011).


σ-compression stress

E – Young’s modulus

With the experimental results, the calculation models of load curve agree (Sciencing, 2018).

In pure compression test, the loading system is used. Two steel struts and an oil; cylinder are consists in the loading system (The Constructor, 2018). For producing axial force set horizontally produced by the oil cylinder. The inclined plates are set between the spice men and the load cell, to maintain the loading direction as the center axis (Aguirrebeitia et al., 2018). For the pure compression test, the first step is to produce a uniform stress distribution over the cross-section of the spice men direction (Gupta et al., 2017). The second step is to maintain the prescribed temperature and to heat the spice men without loading (, 2018) (, 2018)

In the below figures, pure compression tests results are shown (, 2018) In these figures, X axis shows the strain in the testing portion up to maximum stress and the Y-axis shows at the testing portions average compressive stress (Agapov, Golovanov and Aidemirov, 2018)

In basics of formulation, we propose the below equation for the stress-strain curve of local bucking (Zhu, Zhu and Mao, 2016)

b- breath

t- thickness

Using fiber model numerical analysis can be employed, from the equation 2. Under local buckling strength of the steel structural members can be expressing. From the below figure, the Y-axis represents stress multiplied by the width-thickness ratio and the X-axis represents the average strain.

Sheet metal is simple metal which forms a very thin and flat parts. It is one of the basic forms of metalworking and this could be used to cut and bent into various different shapes. Millions of objects are produced using this material. The Thickness of the material differs for many products, even though least thickness is represented as foil or leaf and the pieces thicker than 6mm are represented as the plate.

Sheet Metal Bending

The Rolling process is the result of the material used in the manufacturing process. The stainless steel sheets are available in various forms at standard sizes they are usually sold in the form of flat and rectangular structure. The initial step in this process is to cut the sheet in the prescribed shape and they are sized blank for the larger sheet.

Sheet metal processes can be divided into two major classifications and one minor classification

Shearing processes– It is the processes where the shearing forces are applied to cut, fracture, or separate the material. Punching is a process in the shearing process using a die and punches where the interior part of the sheared sheet is to be removed. Blanking is a process of using a die and punches where the external part of the shearing operation is to be removed. Perforating is the method used in punching a number of holes in a sheet. Partition is the method where shearing the sheet into two or more pieces. While in Notching the edges are removed Whereas in Lancing tab is left without removing any material

Forming processes –It is the method through which the metal are formed with a specific shape without any defect such as excessive thinning and the cracks in the metal. This method also consists of the process of blending and stretching where the material shape can be extended (Tomesani and Donati, 2012). Bending is the forming process which causes the metal sheet to undergo the required shape change by bending without failure. Stretching is a part of the forming process which causes the sheet metal to undergo the required change in the shape by stretching without failure. Drawing in the forming process causes the sheet metal to undergo the shape change by drawing without failure.  Roll forming is a method through which a metal strip is bent as it gone through a series of forming rolls.

Finishing processes – It is the method through which the final product can be improvised.

The process sheet metal bending can be done by placing the steel metal die up at the correct place of the baggage. After placing the steel metal, the machine is going to bend the part of the metal until it converts into a V-shape (, 2017). This operation can be done either manually or automatically (Weisel, 2004). The method which we call as air-bending, the metal part is not bent in the V shape rather we left this in the air. There will be a spring option for bending (HINO, 2012). The steel part can be drawn by using solid lines and dotted lines. The boundaries are characterized by the solid lines and the dotted lines characterize the bending area. The metal parts which are going to design is done by using a state-of-the-art sheet. In this design, it will prefer the boundaries of the metal sheet (Koz?owski and Niemczynski, 2016).

Sheet Metal Forming

The practical images of sheet metal bending step by step process is shown below.

The sheet metal is inserted into the machine practically and the image is shown below.

The metal is now inserted into the machine and is screwed it inside the machine for the further processes.

The design which we are going to develop the pc cabin is parallel design system called as Bendcad. It designs the features of the system. The parts of the steel parts are going to represent by this design system. If we are using flat pattern system and we need to bend means, the dimensions of that steel part will be changed and cannot be regained (Kern Lasers Systems, 2017). Our system will be useful in so many representations. The following representations are the 1-D representation, 2-D representation, then the 3-D representation. Generally, 1-D representation is castoff for nesting and punching process, 2-D is used for shearing and punching process and 3-D is used for the process of bending (Elrefaey, 2015). After the three process will complete only we will the dimension fourth (Swift and Booker, 2013) (, 2017).

The process of the planning system has developed by using the five factors. They are

Operations planner

In this feature, we are going to generate the possible ways of bending. It is going to evaluate the cost of the manufacturing (Han and Alzamora, 2011).

Tooling System

In this system, it helps to punches the system. It is going to check the performance interference of the tools and the parts. Each part of the tool will get bent and the complete layout will be seen in the machine (Designs and Revisions, 2017). 

Grasping System

In this system, we can detect the grippers and where the gripper’s position will be perfectly fitted in the machine (Gupta et al., 2017).

Motion Planner

This planner is having two types of systems. They are Fine Motion Planner and Gross Motion Planner. The Gross Motion Planner will determine the movement of the robot and fine motion planner will help to determine the drawing part after it gets bends (Xie and Xu, 2011).

Open Architecture Controller

The low-level machine operations are controlled by using the shelf engineering workstation. This machine can be replaced by the bending machine controllers. This controller will give feedback to the system (Okayasu S, 2017).

The features of the metal bending are directly and indirectly related to the geometry part. The geometric entities which we are going to use are Hemming bend, Internal tab, Essential and optional collinear bend, Taller flange, Shorter/longer bend, Outside/inside bend, bend graph, Channel, Part overhang and Louver and Dimple, Corner, Large-radius bend, (Wang et al., 2014).

Stress-Strain Curves of Local Buckling and Pure Compression Tests

The expensive computation and reasoning can be eliminated by the above features used in our system (Xie and Xu, 2011). The goal of our system is to get output with the features consists of a sequence of bending, which type of tool you have selected, which type of grasping workpiece you are doing. The major problem where we are going to get is in the bending process. When we are going to bend the first metal sheet. It is going to be very difficult and sometimes it will make impossible to bend the sheet. At this type, we will take so many processes to come out of the difficult (Kumar and Hussein, 2017).

Sheet metal welding

Comparing with the developed countries our country is still lagging behind using the machinery. They will prefer manual process than the automation process. Here we are using automation process. The automation process is used for the steel metal welding. The automatic machine is used for the TIG welding (Hu et al., 2013).

TIG welding

The full form of TIG welding is Tungsten inert gas welding. It is also known as Gas Tungsten Arc Welding. It is used for the electrode which is not consumable. The construction of TIG welding can be seen in the below figure.

The above figure shows the complete setup of the TIG welding. The TIG welding which is done manually will be the very difficult and dangerous process. Because we will use very thin metal sheets to weld. We have to weld the short arc length. It will be very difficult to weld manually. There should be keen observation and very high care to be taken while doing this process. So we are going to prefer the automation process (Chen, 2011). The welding process can be seen in the below figure.

The typical process of welding in the industries is shown.

The TIG welding process is used to cut the metal sheets of thickness 1.2 and 1.5 mm. The shapes which are used for this process is the cylindrical and conical shape. There are many advantages in the automation TIG welding.

While doing welding of the gun operator, it will produce fumes of tungsten which affects the health of the people.  This will get reduced if we use automation process.

The welding will be done perfectly in the straight line without the shaking of the operator.

  • The operator will be safe without any hazards.
  • There is no need for the filler material. It will do welding with or without that filler.
  • The disturbances will be low for the TIG welding.
  • The Spots cannot be seen in the TIG welding.
  • The quality of the welding will be very high (Duflou, n.d.).

As there are some advantages definitely there will be disadvantages. The disadvantages present in the TIG welding is

  • The consumption of the electrode will be high.
  • The deposition of the weld will be oxidized
  • There will be a presence of the arc in the welding process.
  • After welding, there will be the presence of tiny holes (Suzuki, 2011).

Design of the belt

Centre distance= 3.5 × diameter of larger pulley

Length of belt= L = 2C +

Length of belt= L = 2C + (π(D2+D1))/2+?(D2-D1)?^2/4C

C- Centre distance

D1 and D2 - Diameter of pulleys

Design of pulley:

The design of the pulley can be find out by using the formula


N2 and N1 - number of pulleys

Design of lead screw

The design of the lead screw can be calculated by using the formula



T – Design of the lead screw

N – Number of turns



Before starting the operation, the TIG welding will be in the OFF position. The torch will be attached to all sides of the mechanism. The distance between the surface of the metal sheet and the electrode will be adjusted. This will be adjusted by using the nuts and bolts which are present in the machine. After that, the supply will be provided to the motor and the motor starts running. The torch which is present in the machine will cuts the metal sheet surface automatically till the surface sheet gets to the end point   (Manly, 2013). After the completion of welding in the forward direction. The new metal sheet will place and again it will move in the reverse direction. Like this, the process will continue to work (Bako, Abdulkadi and Babawuya, 2014). The forward, reverse direction process and the stopping of the torch will be done by using the switch called R/F switch. You can be seen the mechanism in the following below figure.

We can see the difference of manual welding and automation welding in the following below table.

Steel will be used for so many decorative purposes. The steel will be highly suitable for all the decorative purposes and to form any type of structures. The steel is preferred to use in all type of sectors because it will look like modern and very attractive (Bako, Abdulkadi and Babawuya, 2014). It will be very hygienic and easy to clean. It will give long life. It can be recyclable. There are some methods to make the steel in the proper manner (Swift and Booker, 2013).


Sanding is the very simple method. Here we are going to rub the metal surfaces aggressively to make the surface smooth. Different type of media is used for the rubbing (Fang, 2014). The media will be attached to the plate or the backing paper. The grains will be cut into small medias. This small piece is called grit (Govender, Möller and Curle, 2014). The small and fine particles will be achieved when the grit will be higher and hence we can do rubbing easily for that small particles.

Ultrasonic Polishing

For making the metal sheet furnishing, it will be very difficult to do manually. We won’t get into some holes and corners. So we are going to use the ultrasonic polishing. This is a very smooth and fine shaped tool. It will work in the frequency of 30 KHz (Bako, Abdulkadi and Babawuya, 2014). The tool is having a very small tip. This tip will not touch the surface but it will create a pressure. With the help of the pressure, the surface will get polished. You can be seen in the below figure.

Sand Blasting

The sandblasting will work in the high pressure. Here we are going to use some abrasive media for making the surface furnished. With that help of the media under high pressure, we are going to mold the metal into the proper shape. It was having so many advantages like the strength of the metal will be increased. The metal will be the corrosion resistance (Janarthanan, Mahendran and Gunalan, 2015).

The pc cabinet is needed for remote network access from the warehouse or factory floor. The pc cabinet is designed to any type of pc. The key locking door is maintained on the lower and upper front doors. There are two types of key provides for pc cabinets. The changeable gland platter with relief at the lower rear of the pc cabinet offers easy and protected cable entry (Valberg, 2010). The pretreated stainless steel is coated with the form of RAL 9005 black surfaced, a low-gloss- polyester powder coat. There are three accessories are provided named as

  1. PC Cabinet Caster Kit
  2. PC Cabinet Shelf
  3. PC Cabinet Rack Angle`

The PC Cabinet Caster Kit is shown above.

PC Cabinet Rack Angle is shown above

The practical image of the final product is provided above.

The pc cabinets have a self-trimming boundary flange which permits for comfortable and clean set up into settled openings. The pc cabinets are also provided with tops for free-standing and finished ends installations (LI, 2013). The pc cabinets could be equestrian on a worker constructed base or the supplied with a stainless-steel-metal base (Choudhuri, 2012). The doors cover ¼th of” thick security plate. An Entire front part of the door is formed and punched from 1 piece of 18 instrument stainless-steel. A stainless-steel sliding doors and dual pane doors are also obtainable. Two point’s knob padlock entries are also presented (Bako, Abdulkadi and Babawuya, 2014).


The pc3 cabin has proved in the building construction to reduce 2.5% time to the painting process even it depends on painter speed. Overall time taken to painting process is 7.2 seconds per square meter in which the time reduction is an 88%. This method is possible to the newly designed product. After time reduction, the new product helps to reduce the workplace stress since there is no release and helps to increase the overall quality of the product. Some of the analysis has been proven. CRP produce full-featured work. The pump is selected to handle up to 4.5 L/min therefore up to 2 products can be connected to the pump. To deliver the good results using painting and maintenance service. The product is designed and delivered at low cost. Some changes are made to the product. The morphological chart tool is used to solve the problem with possible points.


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