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Discuss about the Engineering Project For the Experimental Setup. 

Literature Review

The vehicles that travel in the roadways release more amount of energy or power when they climb a speed breaker. This speed breaker is used for controlling the speed of the vehicles. The purchase and usage of vehicles has been increased by 20 percentage for last 10 years. Then this usage of vehicles has been increased the traffic in all areas. Because of the increased number of speed breakers, if a new device is introduced in the speed breakers to make the energy of the vehicles that has been spent on the speed breakers can be generated into an useful electricity. The principle that has been used in the generation of the electricity using speed breaker is the conversion of the potential energy into the electrical energy. In this paper, the things that are going to be explained is the Literature review of other articles on the generation of electricity by the use of speed breakers, methodology that can be used in generating the power and then the experimental set up for the power generation. The energy that is stored in the systems are called potential energy. This potential energy is taken and it is being converted to various forms of energy like kinetic energy. The methodology that is used in the generation of the electricity is being explained in the methodology section. The vehicles travel through roadways when touch the speed breaker, the potential energy has been exposed out on the speed breakers. Then by the up and down motion of the speed breaker makes the shaft to rotate with springs of the coil. The energy that is produced in the shaft is sent to a dynamo which converts the kinetic energy into electrical energy. A vehicle with the weight of about 1 ton will go up to 10 cm in height is capable of producing approximately 1 kilowatt of electricity.

The electricity is generated from the speed breakers using different mechanisms. The Rack and Pinion mechanism is used in this paper. The author of the article says that this Rack & Pinion mechanism acts in a better way for producing energy with highest amount of efficiency. This article shows that this is not a conventional type of energy. This finds the mechanism of using a shaft which is used to produce energy for every rotation (Gupta et al., 2016).

According to (Prabu, 2015), the crisis of energy is considered to be a great bottleneck in supplying the resources of energy to an economy. A crisis can get developed because of the actions that are taken by the industry like strikes of the union of the company and some government policies. The main reason for the energy crisis is the over consumption of energy. It is necessary to innovate new technologies to produce electricity, so that the future generation can get the energy for use.

Methodology

The paper on the Generation of Electricity with the use of speed breakers use the roller mechanism for producing the electricity by using speed breakers. They replace the speed breakers with the use of another simple mechanism. When the vehicle pass over the speed breakers, the rollers in the breakers spin because of the movement of the vehicle on it. These rollers are already connected with a generator that produce electricity. For every rotation the roller sends the energy to the generator, which is used for producing the electricity. This can be used in the bridges of toll booth or in the parking of vehicles (Hossain et al., 2015).

In the today's world, the fuel energy is in great demand. The scarcity of the resources for the future generation creates a panic mode for the society. Considering both conventional and non-conventional energy, the electricity demand has been in increasing rate. The generation of electricity using some innovative techniques has to be introduced. The research of our project is about producing the electricity using the speed breakers.

The aim of our research is performed to achieve the following goals

  • To produce the electricity from the speed breakers in the roads by using an effective technique called Rack-Pinion mechanism.
  • To avoid the scarcity of electricity in future.
  • To eliminate the crisis of shortage in using the electrical energy.
  • To innovate a new technology for producing the electricity.
  • To reduce the cost of energy by using some simple mechanisms to produce electricity for street lamps which saves the energy in day time and used for lighting the street lamps in night times. 

The generation of electricity using some innovative techniques has to be introduced. The research of our project is about producing the electricity using the speed breakers. There are 4 mechanisms for producing the electricity using the speed breakers that exist in roads. The name of the mechanisms are as follows

  • Roller Mechanism
  • Hydraulic Mechanism
  • Crank-Shaft mechanism and
  • Rack-Pinion mechanism.

From the above 4 techniques, the most effective technique that can be used for producing the electricity from the speed breakers is the Rack-Pinion Mechanism (Gupta et al., 2016).

Rack and pinion is the type of gear used for converting the number of rotational motion into the linear motion (Rack and Pinion Mechanism, n.d.). It is considered as a type of actuator and it is comprised of two gears. Rotational motion that is being loaded in the pinion will make the rack to move. The limitation is the distance that it travels. This type of rack and pinion mechanism is usually used in the steering systems of cars or other vehicles that rely on steering mechanism. Here in our research, this effective mechanism is used for generating electricity from the speed breakers of the highways. The produced electricity is useful to glow the lamps that exist in streets. Considering all other four mechanisms, this rack and pinion mechanism is considered as a very effective technique. This technique is easy to manage and the management cost is very effective in this mechanism. This mechanism is considered as both user friendly and eco-friendly (Sailaja, Raja Roy and Kumar, 2015).

Equipment Required for Generating Electricity from Speed Breakers

The electricity using the speed breakers is represented in the above diagram. The process can be divided into 6 stages to achieve the output. The stages that are used in the generation of the electricity is explained below in detail (Gupta et al., 2016).

The speed breaker set up is going to be explained in this section. The speed breakers are arranged in the highways to control the speed of the vehicles that travel through roadways. The vehicles move upon the speed breaker then the energy called potential energy is released (Hossain et al., 2015). When the vehicle weight is loaded in the speed breaker, then the linear motion is received and given to the arrangement of the rack and pinion (Sailaja, Raja Roy and Kumar, 2015).

Shafts, pinions and spur gear are arranged for the generation of the electricity (Sailaja, Raja Roy and Kumar, 2015). The vehicle when touches the speed breaker, a kind of load is applied on the setup of the speed breaker is then transferred to the arrangements of rack and pinion. The motion that is applied in the speed breaker is then converted as a motion of rotary by the use of the arrangement of rack and pinion. The diagram that represents the rack and pinion mechanism is represented below (Hossain et al., 2015).

The dynamo or generator plays an important role in the generation of the electricity. The spring that is to be fixed in the Rack and Pinion is based on the vehicle's weight. There are two shafts arranged in the spring and is is fixed by the use of a bearing. The shaft is produced by a steel which is mild in nature. This shaft is attached with a sprocket in it which is responsible for the rotation. The sprocket in the one end is connected with the another sprocket which is placed in the other shaft. The shaft that is in lower position contains a gear in it. The gear is being fixed in the dynamo and this is responsible for rotating the D.C generator which is used for generating the electricity (Gupta et al., 2016).

The output energy that is generated using the generator is taken out. This energy is have to be stored in any device. This electrical energy produced using the dynamo is stored in the diode which is arranged next to the generator. A diode is used for directing the produced electric current in a single direction and this is used to avoid the spreading of the energy into various directions. Diode has both positive and negative ends. The produced electricity is allowed to flow from the anode end to the cathode end. The diode is used for the conversion of alternating current (AC) into direct current (DC) (Gupta et al., 2016). The diode is responsible for the conversion process of the current from AC current to DC current (Study.com, 2017).

Data Analysis

The storage of energy is then used for charging the battery. Then the battery gets charged using the direct current passed into it. The battery is then connected with the inverter. The inverter is used for converting the produced Direct Current into the Alternating Current. The inverter is capable of converting the 12 voltage D.C current into the Alternating current of about 230 volt. If the capability of the battery is increased then the rating of the power will get increased (Gupta et al., 2016).

The voltage of about 230 volt is the output given to the LED lights to glow in the highways. This energy makes the LED in the streets to glow during the night time. The output from the inverter is made to glow the Light Emitting Diodes. The full arrangement is arranged in the highways and this arrangement is completely done within the floor. The speed breaker is the only thing that is arranged above the surface of the land. Thus the working principle and methodology is explained step by step according to the stages of producing the electricity (Gupta et al., 2016).

  • The mechanism of Rack and pinion is more precise as they have only few parts and fewer pivot points. As the number of parts get reduced then the weight of the rack and pinion gets reduced.
  • This is easy to manage to manage and this mechanism has the immediate response (Study.com, 2017). 

The equipment that are required for producing the electricity using the speed breakers are listed and tabulated below by specifying the name of the manufacturer.

No.

Equipment

Model

Manufacturer

1

Rack and Pinion

2000mm stainless steel

India Mart

2

Shaft and Spring

25 mm or 3/8 drive

Alibaba Private Ltd

3

Bearing

Bearing 6313

ARB bearings

4

Dynamo or Generator

DC Dynamo

India Mart

The weight of the vehicle and height of the speed breaker are to be taken as inputs.

The mass of the vehicle = 600 Kg (Approximate value)

Height of the Speed Breaker = 9 cm

Work done = Force * Distance

Force = mass of the vehicle * 9.81

= 600 * 9.81

= 5886 N

Distance that is travelled by the vehicle = Height of the speed breaker

Height of the speed breaker = 9 cm

Output = Work done per second

        = (5886 * 0.09)/60 seconds

        = 8.829 Watt

Power that is generated by the one vehicle for 1 minute is about 8.829 Watt

Power produced for 1 hour = 8.829 * 60 = 529.74 Watt

Then the power that can be produced for one day (24 hours) = 529.74 * 24

= 12713.76 Kilo Watt

The results and calculations shows that 12713.76 Kilo Watt Power can be generated using the vehicles that pass by one speed breaker for one day (Gupta et al., 2016).

Project tasks are shown in below.

Task Name

Electricity generation through speed breaker

   Project Requirements

   Analysis Project Requirements

   Prepare Technical Documentation

   Assign resources to the Project

   M1 Start of the project

   C-modelling

      Fabrication Details

      Fabrication Models showing inner parts

      Materials used

      Specifications

   Accessories Required

      Rack and pinion

      Sprocket

      Drive Arrangements

      Best Arrangements

      Other acceptable arrangements

      Least Recommended Arrangement

      M2 All s/w and h/w requirements approved

      Sprocket Dimensional Specifications

      Kick off review

   Chain Drives

      Chain Drive Design

      vibrations

      Avoiding vibration

      Chain Types

      Chain Failures

   Wheels and Springs

      Freewheel

      Flywheel

      Springs

      Mid-term review

      M3 Production approval.

   Design parameter's and limitations

      Output Power calculations

      Design Specifications

      Sprocket wheel and chain

      Springport Gears

      M4 all designs approved

   Cost analysis

      Material cost

      Labour cost

      Other Expenses

      M4 Field testing review and modifications complete

   Project Completion

      Green light Review

      Prepare Final Documentation

MS Project file is attached here.

Conclusion

The usage of both conventional and non-conventional energy is increasing. So the demand in using the oil, petrol and gas has been increased. In this way, the usage of electricity has also been increased which paves the way for demand in electricity. By the end of this 20th century or during the starting of the 21st century there may occur a scarcity in the electrical energy. So it is required to use some innovative techniques to generate electrical power. The electricity has to be produced by using the speed breakers of the highways. The literature review is performed on various articles that explained the various mechanisms to produce electricity using the speed breakers of the highways. All the types of mechanism that are used for generating the electricity is defined. Out of 4 mechanisms, in this project the electrical energy generation is performed by using the effective technique called "Rack and Pinion" mechanism. The Rack and Pinion mechanism is being explained in detail. The mechanism is easy to manage and this process is considered as an eco-friendly process. This project's aim is to schedule the processes that are involved in the generation of the electricity using milestones. The starting and end date of each processes are specified using MS Software implementation. The process of generating the electricity is explained step by step in detail and the diagrams are represented for the mechanism and working model of the electricity generation.

References

B Damor, A., V. H Chaudhari, V., P.M Tadvi, P. and R.R. Patel, R. (2012). An Experimental Study of Generation of Electricity Using Speed Breaker by Hydraulik Mechanism. International Journal of Scientific Research, 2(11), pp.161-164.

BIDWELL, M. and HENNEY, A. (2004). Will the New Electricity Trading Arrangements Ensure Generation Adequacy?. The Electricity Journal, 17(7), pp.15-38.

Electrical4u.com. (2017). Diode | Working and Types of Diode | Electrical4u. [online] Available at: https://www.electrical4u.com/diode-working-principle-and-types-of-diode/ [Accessed 14 Oct. 2017].

Electrical engineering Community. (2017). What is an Inverter?. [online] Available at: https://engineering.electrical-equipment.org/electrical-distribution/what-is-an-inverter.html [Accessed 14 Oct. 2017].

Electricity-Generating Wind Turbine from Electric Bicycle Motor. (2016). International Journal of Technology and Engineering Studies, 2(4).

Electronic Circuits and Diagram-Electronics Projects and Design. (2017). How an Inverter works - Working of inverter with block diagram & explanation. [online] Available at: https://www.circuitstoday.com/how-an-inverter-works [Accessed 14 Oct. 2017].

Ersoy, S. (2017). Rack and Pinion Reciprocation Mechanism. [online] Mekanizmalar.com. Available at: https://www.mekanizmalar.com/rack_and_pinion.html [Accessed 14 Oct. 2017].

Gupta, A., Mittal, N., Pal Singh, P., Arora, R., Dhakar, R., Chand, P. and Mangal, P. (2016). Electricity Generation from Speed Breakers. International Journal of Electrical and Electronics Research, 4(1), p.5.

Hossain, S., Das, C., Hossan, M. and Jarin, S. (2015). Electricity from Wasted Energy of the Moving Vehicle Using Speed Breaker. Jurnal Teknologi, 73(1).

MAKI, M. and WATANABE, M. (2009). GUD-01 A study on New Type WN Rack and Pinion(GEAR UNIT DESIGN AND APPLICATIONS). The Proceedings of the JSME international conference on motion and power transmissions, 2009(0), pp.529-533.

Miri, M. and Golestanian, R. (2009). A frustrated non-contact rack-pinion-rack device. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 161, p.012038.

Partridge, I. and Gamkhar, S. (2012). A methodology for estimating health benefits of electricity generation using renewable technologies. Environment International, 39(1), pp.103-110.

Prabu, G. (2015). Electricity Generation by Speed Breaker. International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, [online] 4(5), p.10. Available at: https://www.ijareeie.com/upload/2015/may/136_ELECTRICITY.pdf [Accessed May 2015].

Rack and Pinion Mechanism. (n.d.). [online] Available at: https://www.polyu.edu.hk/ic/training_materials/flip/Rack%20and%20Pinion%20Mechanism.pdf [Accessed 14 Oct. 2017].

S., S., S., K. and C., T. (2015). PREDICTION OF INDIA’S ELECTRICITY DEMAND USING ANFIS. ICTACT Journal on Soft Computing, 05(03), pp.985-990.

Sailaja, M., Raja Roy, M. and Kumar, S. (2015). Design of Rack and Pinion Mechanism for Power Generation at Speed Breakers. International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, 22(8), pp.356-362.

Study.com. (2017). What is a Diode? - Definition & Types - Video & Lesson Transcript | Study.com. [online] Available at: https://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-a-diode-definition-types.html [Accessed 13 Oct. 2017].

Understanding Electric Demand. (2017). [online] Available at: https://www9.nationalgridus.com/niagaramohawk/non_html/eff_elec-demand.pdf [Accessed 19 Oct. 2017].

WhatIs.com. (2017). What is diode? - Definition from WhatIs.com. [online] Available at: https://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/diode [Accessed 14 Oct. 2017].

Winters, T. (2008). The Rising Cost of Electricity Generation. The Electricity Journal, 21(5), pp.57-63.

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