The healthcare of the aged individuals is a sensitive issue as it is seen that the service the elderly people receive from the government regarding medical support in various developed and developing countries is not at all up to the mark and a strong quality control is needed. The healthcare services of the elderly people in underdeveloped countries are so poor that it is beyond imagination of the people of some developed countries. It is widely seen that the mortality rate is increasing rapidly in some countries and the difference in health care of the elderly people has not gone unnoticed by the authorities of the global healthcare societies. Thus, it can be seen that the management or the board of directors would imply more regulations and protocols into the healthcare services industry for the aged individuals. In the land of Australia, the healthcare of the aged individuals has been subsidised by the federal government before a few decades, and after that, various legislatives were introduced into the existing norms and protocols in this particular sector. In this case, it is most unfortunate that various complicated regulations steered disorganization and complexities in this sector and the quality of the medical services being provided to the elder people have degraded in the past few years. Recently the government of Australia has recognized the importance of healthcare services of the aged people by the intervention of Department of Health and Aging, and has thus, placed the health and well-being of the senior residents of the nation as one of the six strategic objectives. This is to make it sure that the elderly Australians can choose and get access to the community based or residential healthcare organizations.
The leadership in clinical organization serves as a solution to the inadequate compliance with the healthcare policies of the aged people and also regarding the assurance in the quality of the medical support being provided to the elderly population. It is a fact that, the challenges for the compliance of healthcare policies of the aged people are actually involved with scarcity of guidance, training and motivation. The leaders of these medical organizations include medical officers or other medical staffs with relevant experience and ability to guide the professionals in technical aspects that are appropriate for providing medical support to the elderly population. The financial instability of the medical care unit for the aged people is an issue in this sector. Along with this, the physical and psychological burnouts can easily fight with intrapersonal communication and counselling of the leaders and help the aged population. This paper sheds light on the various aspects of the hurdles involved in the healthcare system of the aged people. The paper further highlights the possibilities to overcome those difficulties by establishing supportive and compassionate leadership in the healthcare service for the aged people.
Healthcare management, training and development, leadership management and research tool
Healthcare system is one of the most important sectors for every individuals of the society and everyone deserves to get a medical support when needed. Unfortunately, in some cases, it is widely seen that there are various disparities between the health care systems, especially regarding the health care services for the elder population in various countries. As an example, it can be said that there is a lack of detailed policies and protocols regarding healthcare of the elder population. It is seen that the healthcare system has stepped forward effectively and along with it, the priorities of the healthcare have changed a lot. The recent emphasis on providing the quality and safe healthcare services to the elderly population is dealing with multiple complicated healthcare needs can be said is an appropriate example of it (Abdelhak, Grostick, & Hanken, 2015).
Numerous healthcare policies serve the specified needs of the aged patients. Implementing those policies and regulations may change the situation of the medical care for the aged population. The primary issue in this context is the scarcity of the kind efforts and compliance in the medical staffs to enforce those policies regarding medical support for the aged population. The need of leadership management in the general healthcare workforce for the elderly people can change the entire scenario and can help the professionals of this field to understand the importance of their roles as the provider of medical services for the aged population.
In an average Australian context, it is seen that the percentage of the people seeking medical support over 70 years of age has increased almost ten times in the last decade, and it is increasing day by day. Thus, the need of residential healthcare system for the aged population would expand rapidly and would definitely meet the demands, which are also escalating in a rapid manner. From various case studies, it is evident, that the biggest hurdle in providing quality healthcare to the aged population is the scarcity of the training of the health staffs for the development purpose (Kenney, 2012). Thus, proper guidance and leadership would help to attain a medical support system of higher standards. This paper might become the first step towards determining the leadership needs in the medical sector for the elderly population.
For more than 40 years, the federal government of Australia has provided financial support to the cost of medical support for the elderly population of Australia and various government grants for the capital costs of providing the residential healthcare for the aged people were available. In the year of 1997, the legislation governing the residential aged care in the land of Australia was reformed (Katzenbach, Steffen, & Kronley, Cultural change that sticks., 2012). The Aged Care Act 1997, building on the previous regulatory frameworks, has established a new regulatory framework creating significant compliance obligations for the health care service for the aged people and also makes the availability of public funding contingent on compliance by medical service providers with wide-range of requirements (Andersen, 2014). The much needed government intervention to uplift the quality of the residential healthcare for the aged people along with the protection of the interests of the consumers has been justified for the reasons mentioned below:
- Residents of the aged healthcare organizations are vulnerable and desperately in need of a leadership and protection within the organizations.
- Regarding social equality issues, Government would have to manage all the aspects of the availability and access to the medical services.
- There are some information asymmetries, which result in parties to a transaction having unequal access to related information(Borkowski, 2015).
In today’s market, the problem arising in the medical care system is that, the aged population is getting deprived from the basic medical support they deserve in most cases. In this context, the authorities of the healthcare units, both Australian and global authorities are giving attention to this issue, as it is the responsibility of our society (Liebler J. G., 2016). The implementation of numerous policies and regulations in various countries throughout the globe has not actually very bright future of improvements. Especially in the sector of residential medical care units for the aged persons, it is seen that, there is a huge lack of training for development among the staffs and the lack of understanding the policies are creating issues. The situation is in need of a strong leadership and guidance to get out of this trouble. This paper highlights the limitations to the effective implementation of the medical care plans regarding the residential sector, and explores how it can be resolved by implementing a leadership management within the general workforce. The paper can be seen as a primary documentation of the need for leadership management in the medical care sector especially designed for the aged population (Ling, Brereton, Conklin, Newbould, & Roland, 2012).
Systematic reviews are very applicable to the clinical settings by the virtue of being highly time saving and extensively intricate research techniques, which allow the researcher the freedom to involve extreme research work without prolonging the tenure of the research work. A technique is specifically designed for constructing a precise and comprehensive summary of the literature that bears relevant connection to the research questions that were chosen for the study and that provides accurate data to make sure that there is 100% accuracy in the study design. The data extracted from the systematic review are generally considered to be the most dependable and transferable source of information from insignificant data and to find the answers to the clinical questions more precisely. Thus, this might be the best research design regarding the evidence based medical research practices. It is a fact that, systematic reviews make the research work unequivocal and it is completely dependent on qualitative data analysis techniques omitting the quantitative data to avoid any chances of inaccuracy or prejudice (Salmela, Eriksson, & Fagerström, 2012) . Thus, this research study has chosen the systematic review technique in order to get the conceivable result regarding the need of leadership and management to be implemented regarding the healthcare support for the aged population.
The aged healthcare system of Canada and Australia is a lot similar. In this case, it is seen that, recently there have been some major change in policies in both the countries. Canada and Australia both have federated systems within a similar looking division of powers between the provincial and central or state governments regarding healthcare of the aged population (Kulik, Ryan, Harper, & George, 2014). In most of the nations, it is seen that the governance models are in effect creatures of provincial and state laws. In both the countries, in Canada and Australia it is seen that to attain efficiency regarding the medical units especially for the aged population, the use of health resources and hindrance to the pace of cost escalation can be seen. The government of both the countries are trying to imply an innovative leadership management to boost the quality of the service given to the aged population in both the countries. In Australia and Canada, it is seen that there are many renowned doctors and other medical staffs, but somehow the aged population fails to receive proper medical support due to various issues (Oliver, Foot, & Humphries, 2014). It is seen that in Canada, the population is not a major problem regarding this issue and they have enough learned medical staffs, but all they need is a proper leadership management and using that they can develop rapidly and provide excellent medical healthcare support to the aged people of the nation. It is seen that after implying a leadership management, in last two years, Canada has achieved a lot success compared to the other nations. The same goes with Australia, as in Australia too, there are many scholars in the medical sector and all they want is a proper leadership management and some new policies. In United Kingdom, the scenario is quite different (Martin & Learmonth, 2012). In U.K there is a government sponsored universal healthcare system known as National Health Service and NHS consists of a series of publicly funded healthcare systems in the land of England. The healthcare system of UK is one of the most efficient healthcare systems across the globe, and it is seen that they are maintaining their success in this field in a way that is incomparable with other first world countries. It is seen that government of England regarding healthcare support and efficiency ranks first in the list and that is something that the residents of England can take pride of. (Reid, Coleman, Johnson, & Fishman, 2010). UK is incomparable with providing medical support to all the residents of their nation and service to the aged people is the first priority in their department. It is seen that, aged people who live in rural areas and who comes from affluent background have a better life expectancy, and live healthier life that any average urban resident of England (Szebehely & Trydegård, 2012).
NHSM does not have any particular policies addressing regarding medical supports to the aged population and quite astonishingly, according to Szebehely & Trydegard (2013) they are doing great without having such policies for them. In some cases, in rural and remote regions of England, sometimes some aged people do not get proper medical support as the medical staffs could not reach up to them due to the remoteness of those areas and sometimes the medical staffs do not receive proper information about them in advance. These are the minor issues that the medical board of England are facing nowadays and it is a sure thing that the developed medical board of England would surely look into this matter and resolve it in no time. In England, there are some medical programs specifically designed for some different purposes, and the Strategic Health Authorities have an ambition of providing the best medical support to the regional aged patients and also to boost the capacity of ailing more aged people in residential sector. The Countryside Agency aims to make the medical support for the aged people who reside at the countryside or in remote areas of the nation and they take care of the medical aid, and that is only for the aged population of the nation. In England, it is seen that there is no specific policies, but what their government implemented, is that they have employed specific leadership management to the medical sector for the aged population. In the year of 2004, the government of England has introduced a framework regarding the quality control issues regarding providing medical support to the aged population of the country. This specific framework provides incentives for improvement in the quality of medical aid for the aged population. In England, there are some side effects to the government’s approach towards the medical support for the aged population, and those include lack of medical instruments, reduce in population’s tendency to seek professional help, and above all the government’s inability to provide medical support to the aged population at government’s expenses. It is a fact that, if government tries to provide free medical service to the aged people, the aged population who has lesser spending capability would come up and seek professional help from the medical board.
(Source: "Public Financing of Long-Term Care: Federal and State Roles", 2017)
Overall ranking of the nations regarding providing medical support
Source: (Young, Mudge, Banks, Ross, & Daniels, 2013)
Aged population in America is increasing
It is seen that Australian and Canadian systems of medical care especially for the aged population has gone through many significant changes within last two decades. It is a matter of fact that various challenges regarding rising costs, the quality of care and access and the moral of the general healthcare workforce present in medical system of both the countries. These issues are being acknowledged to demand far more than a structural solution. It is seen that, greater attention of the federal government is needed in this sector to change the behaviour of some medical staffs and thus the metamorphosis would be complete.
Source: (Szebehely & Trydegård, 2012).
Assumption of elderly population in future
(Source: "Health Care Professionals | Continence Information", 2017)
Average expenditure regarding health issues
In countries like Australia, Canada, United States and England, they all have specific government funds for the ailment of elderly population of their respective countries. In Australia, the government funds are not sufficient for the medical support of all the aged population and neither the government funding of Canada is appropriate to take care of all the aged individuals. It merely 40 to 60 percent of the aged population receives the government aid and the other individuals have to pay their own bills regarding health issues. In this scenario, there has been a trend that many aged people who are not that affluent choose not to seek any medical helps as they fear that they cannot afford. In Canada, almost same scenario is found and aged people there are in real distress regarding this issue. In this case, Englandand United States of America’s position is much better that these nations. On an average, in many European nations, they have better infrastructures and efficiency regarding solving the medical issues specially related to the medical support for the aged people. In England, the government takes full responsibility of the elderly population and they do not expect that the aged people would bear the cost of their medical expenses of their own. In most of the cases, the elderly people of United Kingdom are medically treated free and it is seen that in general the health condition or life expectancy of British people are greater than people from Australia and Canada are. In U.K, the funding is very systematic, on the other hand, in the countries like Australia and Canada, it is common that the matter of funding is not very transparent and for that, the elderly population has to suffer. On the other hand, in United States of America, almost 12 percent of the population belongs to the elder age group and federal government of America has implemented social security for all the citizens. Thus, the aged people of America are benefitted by government aid, and along with that, the condition of the medical support for the aged population is above satisfactory level. It is seen how with a systematic leadership management the medical care for the aged people in United States has improved with time.
Most of the aged people of the age group of sixties to seventies contribute immensely to the socio-economic condition of the society, and if their well-being is harmed than it would be a loss for the entire society. It can surely be a matter of concern when in industrialized countries like those that Canada and Australia aged people are getting deprived of getting proper medical support from the government and this is a real matter of concern. In a developed country like Australia, the aboriginal people are not at all getting the much-required medical support from the health department. In today’s world equality must prevail and especially in the matter of providing healthcare services, especially to the aged people. There should be some policies regarding this issue and that should state that all the aged people of the nation should get the necessary medical support from the government and other medical organizations. The elder people must get the needed medical support free as in today’s market it should be the duty of the government to take care of the aged population for the betterment of the society.
Thus to conclude, it can be said that medical care for the aged population is a very sensitive topic nowadays and the government and other medical organizations must look into this matter with increased concern. In developed countries like Australia and Canada, aged people are facing trouble in receiving proper medical support and this is something unacceptable for the society. Especially aged population who reside at the remote rural areas of these nations faces most issues receiving medical support. In these nations, they are in most cases well equipped and there are many scholars in medical sector, but the lack of proper leadership management they are being unable to provide proper medical support. Training and development is a major thing to improve the medical field if this sort. The governments of Australia and Canada must try to improve the condition by employing a department to lead these medical staffs so that they can provide medical support to the aged population without a hitch.
The aged care is an integral part of the healthcare sector, and it is often dealt with unethical and biased method of action. This sector is the most uncared and overlooked part of the total healthcare system in the majority of the countries. The healthcare societies and the government both have shown signs of reluctance regarding the betterment of the medical support for the elderly population. The needs of this aged population must not be overlooked and various organizations must come forward for the improvement purposes of the aged care in various nations. This paper investigates the benefits of systematic and effective leadership and management in the healthcare system for the aged population for the betterment of the medical conditions of the aged people across the globe (Liebler & McConnell, 2016). In the country like United Kingdom, the healthcare system for the aged people has been better than before and majority of the aged population in there are content with the service they are receiving from the government and other medical organizations (Katzenbach, Steffen, & Kronley, 2012). In some countries, the healthcare support for the aged people is over the satisfactory level and in some countries the medical condition of the age people are below the satisfactory level and this is something unacceptable. When it is seen that in many developed countries aged population has to face this kind of problems, then those organizations need strong leadership management, as they already have required medical staffs according to the statistics. In the year of 2015, it is seen that the community of the elder population of England showed great faith for the National Health Service, and that sums up how good the medical condition of the aged people are in England. On the other hand, in Canada, it is seen that there are many scope in healthcare industry to develop. In Canada, Doctors and other medical staffs are working very hard to improve the medical condition of the aged people but like Australia, they also need a strong leadership management for the betterment of the medical support for the aged population. To be specific, in Canada, aged population has to wait for an excessive time for the needed medical support at times, and sometimes the doctors do not receive adequate information regarding the patients they need to cure. These things happen only for the lack of proper leadership management (Young, Mudge, Banks, Ross, & Daniels, 2013). In Australia, white skinned aged population receives somewhat better medical facilities. On the other hand, the aboriginal people of Australia does not get the much needed medical support in most of the times, and the reluctance of the government and various medical organizations towards them is not serving the purpose. Their medical conditions are getting worse day by day.Thus, it is highly recommended that the medical staffs of Australia, Canada should follow the medical care structure of United States and United Kingdom and learn how with effective leadership management these two nations excelled in the medical care sector for the aged population. It is an undeniable truth that though there is abundance of medical staffs and equipment’s available in the developed countries like Australia and Canada, without leadership all the good things are getting wasted and the aged people who served the nation and made contributions behind the growth of the nations are now suffering, and this needs to be stopped. The management of the medical care for the aged people in the countries like Australia and Canada should consider introducing a proper leadership management in those cases for the further benefit of the aged people as well as for the nation.
( Source: "Health Care Professionals | Continence Information", 2017)
Share of GDP regarding medical expenses for the elderly population
In this section of this report, I would like to name the individuals without whom I would not have completed this assignment. Primarily my faculty members helped me a lot with this assignment and along with them; my friends helped me whenever needed for this assignment. Then I would like to thank my parents and almighty for giving me the opportunity to complete my assignment.
Abdelhak, M., Grostick, S., & Hanken, M. A. (2015). Health Information-E-Book: Management of a Strategic Resource. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Andersen, R. M. (2014). Improving access to care. Changing the US health care system: key issues in health services policy and management. CA: Jossey-Bass , 33-65.
Borkowski, N. (2015). Organizational behavior, theory, and design in health care. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Katzenbach, J. R., Steffen, I., & Kronley, C. (2012). (2012). Cultural change that sticks. Harvard Business Review , p. 8.
Katzenbach, J. R., Steffen, I., & Kronley, C. (2012). Cultural change that sticks. Harvard Business Review , 8.
Kenney, C. (2012). Transforming health care: Virginia Mason Medical Center's pursuit of the perfect patient experience. CRC PRess.
Kulik, C. T., Ryan, S., Harper, S., & George, G. (2014). Aging populations and management. Academy of Management Journal , 929-935.
Liebler, J. G. (2016). Management principles for health professionals. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Liebler, J. G., & McConnell, C. (2016). Management principles for health professionals. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Ling, T., Brereton, L., Conklin, A., Newbould, J., & Roland, M. (2012). Barriers and facilitators to integrating care: experiences from the English Integrated Care Pilots. International journal of integrated care , 12.
Martin, G. P., & Learmonth, M. (2012). A critical account of the rise and spread of ‘leadership’: the case of UK healthcare. Social science and Medicine , 281-288.
Oliver, D., Foot, C., & Humphries, R. (2014). Making our health and care systems fit for an ageing population. King's Fund.
Reid, R. J., Coleman, K., Johnson, E. A., & Fishman. (2010). The group health medical home at year two: cost savings, higher patient satisfaction, and less burnout for providers. Health affairs , 835-843.
Salmela, S., Eriksson, K., & Fagerström, L. (2012). Leading change: a three?dimensional model of nurse leaders’ main tasks and roles during a change process. Journal of advanced nursing , 423-433.
Szebehely, M., & Trydegård, G. B. (2012). Home care for older people in Sweden: a universal model in transition. Health & social care in the community , 300-309.
Young, A. M., Mudge, A. M., Banks, M. D., Ross, L. J., & Daniels, L. (2013). Encouraging, assisting and time to EAT: improved nutritional intake for older medical patients receiving protected mealtimes and/or additional nursing feeding assistance. Clinical nutrition , 543-549.
Public Financing of Long-Term Care: Federal and State Roles. (2017). ASPE. Retrieved 8 October 2017, from https://aspe.hhs.gov/basic-report/public-financing-long-term-care-federal-and-state-roles
Health Care Professionals | Continence Information. (2017). The Canadian Continence Foundation. Retrieved 8 October 2017, from https://www.canadiancontinence.ca/EN/health-care-professionals.php