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The introduction of antibiotics saw the health industry get relief on resistance against bacterial infections. Several researchers such as Alexander Fleming, a famous bacteriologist in Britain discovered that penicillin present in mold limited the growth of bacteria (Shallcross, L. and Davies, D. 2014, 881-891) The studies conducted by Fleming helped Howard Florey, an Australian scientist in developing large scale production of penicillin to treat bacterial infections in the human population (Shallcross, L. and Davies, D. 2014, 881-891). In the United Kingdom, recent studies indicate that the widespread microbial resistance is in both the public and private health sector. The main drug-resistant microbe is Staphylococcus aureus commonly referred to as golden staph. Also, a case study conducted in Papua New Guinea shows that the increased cases of antibiotic-resistance are resistant tuberculosis, a condition which affects a large population: even though health professionals are on the lookout to help combat the issue. The growing case of bacterial resistance is therefore attributed to the one-way discovery of antibiotics suitable for humans since its emergence way back in the late 1940s. However, today researchers are proposing the use of microfluid technology to combat the bacterial resistance (Ling, L. et al., 2015, 455-459). Interestingly, a survey conducted by the World Health Organization indicates that several medical interventions increase the susceptibility to infection with antibiotic-resistant microbes. Again, a report by the WHO suggests that consumption of short term medication increase the resistance of bacteria in the human body as compared to drugs administered in the long term.

As much as humans are struggling to overcome difficulties in their life through financial investments, it is important for people to acknowledge that their biggest investment is their body. Ensuring health safety of your body is one major step towards achieving any set goals in life. The human body is structured in a way to protect itself from certain illness. For instance, when attacked by bacterial infection the body will produce antibiotics to destroy the bacteria and restore back to normal the health status. Therefore, it is important for health professionals and relevant health organizations to create awareness on the need for the use of manufactured antibiotics: as overuse and under dose may result in bacterial resistance to the prescribed drug. Moreover, it is important to create awareness of the difference between bacterial and viral infection to help in combating the increased cases of antibiotics-resistant bacteria. That said ideas in this paper, therefore, seek to illustrate the causal agents of antibiotics resistant bacteria with detailed examples given. Importantly, the article is divided into different parts for readability purposes. First, the paper outlines what antibiotics and bacteria are and discusses viral and bacterial infections. The second section illustrates how antibiotics resistance arises. Thirdly, the article provides a rationale for research areas to facilitate a new frontier against bacterial infections. Furthermore, the paper will discuss the positive and negative impacts of using antibiotics. Finally, the paper will summarize the presented details by referring to the stated thesis statement and supporting the positive effects of using antibiotics as shown below.

How antibiotics resistances arise?

Antibiotics resistance occurs when there is overuse and misuse: for instance overuse is when antibiotics are used on viral infections the virus develops resistance to the used drug due to continuous exposure while misuse is the use of antibiotics as growth facilitators in animals. The effect results in bacteria evolving and adapting to the newly provided conditions hence gene mutation occurs in their successive generations. Genetic changes in bacteria develop resistance in a couple of ways such as: making the cell wall impervious to antibiotics, modifying the targeted bacteria thus rendering it unmatched with the administered antibiotic, and by producing chemicals that render the antibiotics ineffective (Llor, C. and Bjerrum, L. 2014, 229-241).

Research areas to facilitate development of frontier defense upon bacterial infections

Several researchers such as Fleming and Florey have harnessed mechanism to help combat the antibiotic resistance by bacteria without driving resistance. The researchers have in turn resulted in the implementation of strategies such as the inclusion of vaccines, the discovery of new antibiotics, and improvised tools for diagnoses to prevent antibiotic bacteria resistance. The discussion is as shown below.

The advantage of using vaccines over antibiotics is related to the fact that the vaccines set up the human immune system to produce antibodies which fight back infection. A shift in the type of disease causing microbes allows the vaccines to produce appropriate antibodies to match the threat. That said, the next section emphasizes on the need for integrating new antibiotics in the health system.

The discovery of new antibiotics calls for analysis and evaluation of Selman Waksman, a reputable American scientist and the founding father of antibiotics (Sorlozano, A. et al., 2014, 1033-1038). The model recognizes modern day scientists need to harness the use of synthetic antibiotics and the soil bacteria as they occupy all environmental niches. However, challenges resulting from the inclusion of synthetic medicines is a breach upon the target cell wall and change in the genetic makeup thus development of resistance. With that in mind, it is important to recognize the need for inclusion of improvised tools for diagnosis as a measure to prevent antibiotic bacteria resistance.

Improvised tools for diagnosis

There is a growing need for implementation of new diagnosis tools to monitor and assess the bacterial infection among patients. The diagnosis tools should restrict the use of specific antibiotics in treating patients with particular infections. (Weber, T. et al., 2015, 15-26). For instance, a monitor tool for assessing bacterial infections should not be used to assess viral infection in patients. Similarly, the devices will monitor the use of antibiotics in patients from the time of admission to discharge. Furthermore a discussion on the significant role of antibiotics highlights both the negative and positive impacts associated with use of antibiotics as shown below.

Today the society is embracing technology and so is the health sector. Technological advancements such as the use of microfluid have been proposed to combat the increased rates of bacterial infection: the model entails use of fluids in the laboratory for DNA analysis and identification of microbes. During the process harmful bacteria is mapped and denatured using the fluids on an electric microscope. However, the model is facing challenges from both the disease and the uptake of ideas by patients. Therefore, there is a growing need to analyze the following issues so as to understand the advantages and disadvantages of using antibiotics in treating bacterial and infections: doctor’s role in medical prescriptions.  The cultural beliefs related to the use of antibiotics to cure a cold and flu, patients failing to complete prescribed dose, and the use of antibiotics in animals (Chantziaras, I. et al., 2014, 827-834). The mentioned ideas can only be utilized to the best of knowledge through creating awareness either by use of word of mouth, holding seminars, or use of health-related websites. The section will discuss the significance of antibiotics use in humans, crops, and livestock as shown below:

Research areas to facilitate development of frontier defense upon bacterial infections

The introduction of antibiotics in plant development has seen the emergence of genetically modified food to supplement the growing population across the world. The mechanism sounds good because it is a substitute for main meals, but it also has limitations. The modified foods such as cultured sugarcane and kales  have decreased the nutritive value, high levels of toxin due to the continuous use of herbicides , and antibiotic resistance, therefore, posing a danger to the human health when consumed (Ghorbani, B. et al., 2016). Additionally, researchers have confirmed that GMOs can interbreed with the original plants grown on organic manure thus increased cases of hybrid vigor hence extinction of the first life form. Moreover, reports by WHO indicated that eating GMOs induced with antibiotics is a gamble where outcomes cannot be predicted.

Food allergy

A report by the health ministry in the UK asserted that GMOs had allergic reactions on the skin when consumed: the study was done using GM soy. The soy saw the food production increase while increased cases of allergy reactions on the skins recorded in users. Also, a study was conducted on mice that consumed the soy, and it indicated broken digestive system and improved immune system. The findings were that the BT toxin used to preserve and kill pests were responsible for the genetic mutation in bacteria present and the allergy reactions on the skins of consumers.

Studies show that cultured food contained less nutritive value as compared to live plants (Ghorbani, B. et al., 2016). The ideas alluded to the fact that GMOs had nutrients indigestible by humans. For instance, engineered Canola indicated plenty of vitamin A and reduced vitamin E as contradicted to organically produced Canola which had more Vitamins A.

Increased toxicity

Scientific researches indicate that interbreeding of plants to obtain GMOs in the lab can result to increased levels of toxins. The ideas are supported by evidence from the continuous use of antibiotics to increase yields at the expense of the human health. Resultantly, the growing use of chemicals such as herbicides may alter the conditions in the metabolic tract by denaturing the bacteria presents or rendering them resistant to antibiotics produced by the body.

Environmental degradation

The environment is at risk when GM crops are introduced. Genetically modified crops tend to be resistant to herbicides and may, in turn, affect the plant cover due to the increased and continuous use of pesticides. Again, the practices pave the way for the emergence of weeds that cannot be controlled. Likewise, constant use of pesticides affects the soil by altering the soil pH. Moreover, GM crops affect the pollination process and may make bees wiped out.

Notably, animal test using GMO crops indicated adverse outcomes. For instance, in the UK rats feeding on GM potatoes had reduced liver, testicles, hearts, and brains. The food not only tampered with their immune system but also damaged their white blood cell structure rendering them susceptible to infections.

Improved quality and taste

GM crops induced by antibiotics as growth facilitator recorded to be tastier than organically produced plants. For instance, GM animal feeds are of great taste and have a longer shelf life.

Use of vaccines to prevent infections

The case study in the UK on GM soy showed the plants were resistant to drought and survived harsh weather conditions: an advantage to farmers on large scale and small scale. Again, the GM soy had a high resistance to diseases as compared to organically produced soy.

Nutritive value

Not all cultivated crops have indigestible nutrients. Some crops like soy have soluble vitamins necessary for the body. Moreover, large scale production of GM crops in third world countries is needed because most third world countries have deficiency diseases related to vitamin A and iron. Also, GM golden rice has high nutritive value compared to the white rice. Additionally, Gm golden rice is said to prevent blindness to people suffering from lack of Vitamin A. That said, the next section pays attention to antibiotics in livestock.

Mostly antibiotics are administered in animals in two forms: through feeds or injections. The most common method is through feeds. Therefore, the pros associated with animal feeds include: antibiotics induced in animal feeds such as tetracycline used to increase their body weight by approximately 5%. Livestock feeding on feeds induced with antibiotics have a stronger immune thus resistant to diseases. Again, the shelf life of animal products accessing animal feeds induced with tetracycline is longer. However, the model has several limitations such as the continuous use of antibiotics feeds result in pathogen resistance to antibiotics produced by the animal's body and the one administered. Also, studies indicate that most antibiotic resistant cases in humans are a result of feeding on animal products with antibiotic feed content (Blaser, M. 2014). A deviation from livestock shows how high dosage of antibiotics in poultry led to increased resistance to Salmonella present in eggs and meat.  With that in mind, it is important to recognize the significance of animal testing using antibiotics.

Today several research firms are using animals to find drugs and treatment to improve health care. On a positive note the researchers have proved possible in testing cancer, insulin, vaccines, and HIV/AIDS: hence advancements in combating the mentioned issues through the diagnosis of drugs. Secondly, animal testing scientifically improves human life as it allows the farmers to know which antibiotics to use on commercial meat. The idea has seen most communities support the agenda as it substitutes the use of people in testing health complications with the antibiotics. Thirdly, the testing of diseases affecting human in animals ensures the safety of drugs before allocating to health amenities. The perspective saves human lives as animals are sacrificed on behalf of humanity. Lastly, animals are chosen for antibiotics testing because they are affordable.

During testing several animals are kept captive at the expense of human population and killed during experimentation. Secondly, it is uneconomical when the testing using antibiotics in animals reveals the results and the animal products are not consumed due toxicity. Conducting research on animals is expensive. For instance, during experimentation, the animals need to be housed, fed, and treated. Moreover, the animals require a good amount of cash to be purchased.

Integration of new antibiotics in the health care

The human population is of interest for studying the effects of antibiotics as it offers extensive analysis of aspects ranging from a personal perspective to a family integration on antibiotics use. The human body is home to more than eight types of microorganisms which ensure the proper working of cells. Antibiotics do come in different forms such as pesticide, detergents, animal feed, and pills (Abula, T. and Kedir, M. 2017, 18). The primary role is to denature or limit existence of harmful microbes. However, during allocation effects can be positive or negative. Positively the antibiotics will fight the bacteria infection and restore the body back to normalcy while negatively the antibiotics can make the available bacteria in the body mutate and be resistant to drugs. In hospitals, antibiotics such as penicillin are used during and after surgeries to prevent or kill the growth of bacteria in the treated area (Abula, T. and Kedir, M. 2017, 15). Also, precautionary measures play a significant role in preventing infections by bacteria. For instance, a simple task of washing your hands before eating can save you future problems. Research indicates that public gatherings are a hot bed of bacteria breeding and spread as people interact at different levels. Likewise, Marcia is of the opinion that sports conferences are breeding bases for harmful bacteria like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (Ahovuo-Saloranta, A. et al., 2013, 114-119).  

The superbug is a deadly antibiotic-resistant organism that is resistant to most dugs. Once it manifests in your body, the outcomes cannot be estimated as it has a high affinity for resisting currently available antibiotics (Chantziaras, I. et al., 2014, 827-834). The author goes ahead to say that prevention of bacterial infection is directly proportional to the use of antibiotics for a particular ailment. Another important point of discussion is the prescription offered by health professionals. Reports by the WHO show that most doctors today give an antibiotic prescription to patients without paying attention to the causal agent of the infection (Blaser, M. 2014). And the issue has seen doctors offering medicines to viral infections of the respiratory tract such as cold and flu. The result is an antibiotic resistant virus which poses a risk to the health of the patient. However, the issue is not on doctors alone as similar cases have been recorded in patients failing to complete the prescribed drug hence the bacteria re-emerges. According to Dr. Newland, the chair of the Pediatric Infectious Disease Society is of the opinion that estimated 51% of antibiotic prescriptions by doctors in the US are either useless or wrongly prescribed.

Analysis of the human respiratory system shows that the gut has bacteria that are safe. Therefore, when a doctor prescribes antibiotic medication, the harmless bacteria block the drug. Continuous exposure to the drugs makes the bugs develop resistance to the drugs and in turn pass the traits to harmful targeted bacteria. Being a broad topic of discussion health professionals need to create awareness on the means through which the human population is susceptible to bacterial infection as germs are everywhere. For instance, analysis of health care system and the resistance of bacteria to medication show that TB resistance in Papua New Guinea poses a challenge to the Australian population due to human movement and interaction (Sorlozano, A. et al., 2014, 1033-1038). Similarly, interactions at the international airport in the UK facilitate the spread of viral infections such as cold and flu to different persons traveling to different destinations. To that end, it is wise to conclude that the human population, as well as animals and crops, are at a significant risk of exposure to continuous use antibiotics. However, the use of microfluid technologies for the nucleic acid based and environmental analysis of antibiotic resistance reduces the risk associated with overuse and misuse of antibiotics.

Improvised tools for diagnosis

To that end it is considered wise to support the notion that antibiotics are of great importance to the human population, crop development, and livestock keeping despite the short listed economic and social disadvantages. In the human health care system antibiotics have proved to be of significant value in treating deadly bacterial infections hence the term golden. For instance, the use of penicillin after surgeries has helped reduced bacterial infection on the wound. Also, the low gastrointestinal impacts of antibiotics render them safe to be used by all humans (Hawker, J. et al., 2014, 3423-3430). For example, antibiotics can be used to stabilize acid levels in pregnant women without posing any danger to the fetus. Moreover, microcline antibiotics have proved to be the best in germ eradication. This idea follows the broad antibacterial range associated with the antibiotics in different forms such as soaps.    

However the term ‘era’ is used because the regime of production of new forms of antibiotics stopped. In agriculture the use of antibiotics has several advantages which profit the human survival through provision of nutritive and quality food. The same model is experienced in livestock keeping as best adapted breeds are produced through induced antibiotics feeds or as growth facilitator hence fetching high economic value. With that in mind it is important to appreciate the advantages brought about by antibiotics through creating awareness on the impacts of overuse and misuse to allow enjoying the fruits of the ‘golden medicine.’

Conclusion

The emergence of antibiotics in the late 1940s has seen the drastic improvement in the health sector where several dread diseases are treated. Selman Waksman's work on discovering the significance of soil bacteria in treating bacterial infections provided a platform for conducting researches in the plight of finding new antibiotics. Progressively, scholars such as Alexander Fleming and Howard Florey made discoveries in support of Selman's work. However, the use of antibiotics faced significant challenges from drug-resistant microbes which are continuously exposed to the drugs. As a result the human generation, animals and crops are at risk of extinction due to mutations caused by the continuous exposure of bacteria to antibiotics. That said it is also important to give credit where it is due. Antibiotic are advantageous to crops, livestock, and people with proven results. In the human population, penicillin has used a pre and post medication on surgeries to prevent the growth of bacteria. Also, in crops there is the introduction of GMOs which substitute the organic food and have high nutritive value: for instance golden rice which is highly nutritive, disease and drought resistant. Similarly, in livestock antibiotics have been used to boost the nutritive value of feeds and boost the immune system. All things considered, it is possible to discern that antibiotic is of significant role in the society today despite the associated challenges. Moreover, there is a growing need for research to develop new antibiotics to combat the antibiotic resistant bacteria. 

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Significance role of antibiotics use

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