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Psychological Factors

Write about the Analysis of X Nursing Theory.

The works of Florence Nightingale on the book "What it is and what it is not" published in the year 1859 forms the basis of defining a nursing theory (Alligood, 2014). Nightingale was of the opinion that a nurse is a professional with the mandate to manipulate the situation and environment to promote recovery and wellbeing of the patient (Alligood, 2014). Subsequently, since then, several theorists have come into existence. For instance, Nancy Roper liaised with other theorists such as Alison J. Tierney and Winifred W. Logan to develop the model of "Roper-Logan-Tierney model of living." The model is a nursing theory that finds meaning in explaining the activities of daily living as factors underpinning the assessment of a patient's care (Williams, 2017). Further, the Roper-Logan-Tierney model for nursing relates to the works of Virginia Avernal Henderson who is of the opinion that nursing interventions are focused on helping an individual perform activities that will improve his or her health and largely help the patient to be independent (Arnold and Boggs, 2015). As such, the ideas in this article seek to illustrate the functionality of the Roper-Logan-Tierney model of nursing in promoting recovery and wellbeing within an acute health setting. Further, the paper will set a discussion on the different five factors that determine the patient's independence concerning daily activities. Finally, the paper will provide a succinct summary of the discussed ideas concerning the thesis statement as shown below.

In Australia, the theory is more prevalent and is used as an assessment tool for analyzing patients' care. Moreover, the model is reported to be of significant role when establishing interventions to determine the quality of life of an admitted patient or a patient in an outpatient unit. Notably, the works of Erci, 2015 stipulate that the Roper-Logan-Tierney model of nursing define living within an acute health setting: and goes beyond the little planning strategy to boost independence within patients. The theory categorizes finding of a patients' living as dependent and independent factors: where dependent factors are things that require a medical practitioner to intervene for the patient to perform them whereas independent factors are characterized by the patient's ability to perform certain roles without help and being monitored. What is more is that Roper posits that the model should not be viewed as a checklist instead, it is a framework for the evaluation of patient daily living activities.  The model assumes the theoretical aspect of note taking and establishes a patient-centered care plan to understand the physical, emotional, psychological aspect of the patient (Hill, 2015). Analysis of the changes in the patient's health provides the nurse with clues on whether the patient is improving or not hence allowing room for implementation of interventions relevant to the health condition presented with the patient.

Furthermore, the activities of daily living according to the Roper-Logan-Tierney model of nursing include but are not limited to sustaining a secure environment, efficient communication, controlling body temperature, eating habits, mobility, and sleeping patterns (Mason, 2014). Also, depending on the level of acuteness within the health setting, factors such as sexuality and death are considered. Another key thing to remember is that the integration and assessment of the five different factors make the nursing model all encompassing and efficient. The factors include psychological, sociocultural, biological, politico-economic, and environmental.

Sociocultural Factors

Psychological factors include the cognitive ability of the patient towards coping up with the disease. Additionally, psychological factors express the emotion and the religious beliefs of the patient. According to the model, Roper is of the opinion that psychological factors allow the clinician to relate with the patient and understand his or her feelings, beliefs, and thoughts (Michl et al., 2013).

According to Moon, 2013 sociocultural factor is the role played by the family and community at large and determines the dependency level of the patient. Strata characterize social factors where class and status is of significant value. Culturally, traditional beliefs are analyzed to understand how the condition is perceived within the community. Moreover, the values upheld by the patient are assessed depending on the ability to perform certain daily activities.

The biological aspect of the model attempts to explain the physiological activities of the patient. Notably, within an acute health setting, the nurses in charge assess the degree of severity of the illness. It is after analyzing the psychological and sociocultural factors that a nurse gets the past medical history and evaluates the biological factors with an aim to implement an intervention.

Politicoeconomic factors are described as the impact of government policies on the health care system. Additionally, the section analyzes the role played by political leaders in promoting or hindering access to quality health care. Importantly, the model finds meaning in evaluating the health care system in countries prone to conflict: by addressing issues related to policy making by the government officials and health managers. Moreover, it is to such evidence that the WHO report on the promotion of recovery and wellbeing within an acute mental health setting in the indigenous Australians (Parahoo, 2014). The works of W explains the term the "stolen generation" and indicates the side effects of eh regime to the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders: marginalization and the brutal force associated with sexual child abuse brought about by colonialism led to trauma amid the native Australians.

According to Roper's theory, environmental factors are categorized as external factors that influence the daily activities of a patient: acting as promoters or inhibitors to access of quality health care (Townsend, 2014). For instance, amid the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders being confined in schemes and kids abducted acted as a catalyst to promoting trauma. Further, the sexual abuse and their lands grabbed indicate the role of environmental factors in determining the dependence and independence level of a patient.

In the modern Australia, the federal government, state government, and the ministry of health are working together to promote recovery and wellbeing within acute mental health setting (Erci, 2015). Realization of the set goals calls for the establishment a medical platform that guides the nurses on how to help both indigenous and non-indigenous Australians. Therefore, adoption and implementation of the Roper's theory of nursing have seen the promotion of recovery amid the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders affected by trauma. For instance, the direct health care is an initiative by the Australian government aimed at reducing the gap regarding access to better health care, proper housing, and reduce unemployment ratio amid the native Australians (Masom, 2014). As such, several programs have been initiated to assess and improve the quality of life of the indigenous people of Australia. First, the "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Chronic Disease Fund" is a government initiative program that has paid attention to details regarding Roper's theory of nursing as a platform to engage nurses with patients.

Biological Factors

Secondly, the "Australian nurse family partnership program" is a nurse-based program implemented across the Australian region with the aim of guiding and counseling families undergoing physical or emotional problems (Arnold and Boggs, 2015). Finally, the "nationally framework for recovery-oriented mental health services" is a platform through which nurses in Australia get to implement the Roper's theory of nursing and promote recovery and well-being to the diversity of citizens (Hill, 2015). The research is of significant value as it seeks to make use of lived experiences to assess the daily activities of a patient and implement an intervention. Therefore, it is evident that the Roper's theory of nursing has positively influenced the Australian health care system through provision of alternative mechanisms for engaging patients and nurses: where factors beyond vital issues are assessed.

As a nursing student, one is expected to apply the theoretical aspect of nursing into practice. The main purpose is to describe several works of scholars about nursing theories. Moreover, in some instances, a nursing student will be expected to assess a patient in an acute health setting and make use of your learned skills from the Roper's theory of nursing to formulate an intervention. As such, the model prepares the nursing student for future work in a health setting. Additionally, the knowledge about roper's theory of nursing creates a platform for understanding of illness regarding its social, economic, political, and cultural value. Furthermore, implementation of the Roper's theory in nursing practice orientates an individual to pay attention to personal details that most physicians overlook. Again, as Roper asserts that the model is a national framework and it assumes the ethnic background of patients, a nursing student finds it relevant to address and treat illness regardless of the setting and the disease: the patients have the same needs.

Conclusion

To that end, it is possible to discern that adoption and implementation of Roper' theory of nursing allow engagement of nurses and patients with an aim to promote recovery and wellbeing. The five factors presented by the model ensure that a patient's needs are addressed in totality, and the best alternative is offered. Assessment of the daily living activities is a measure of the dependency and independence level. Therefore, there is a growing need for inclusion of practical lessons in the curriculum to support the implementation of nursing theory.

References 

Alligood, M. R. (2014). Nursing theorists and their work. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Arnold, E. C., & Boggs, K. U. (2015). Interpersonal relationships: Professional communication skills for nurses. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Erci, B. (2015). Nursing Theories and Models Applied to Vulnerable Populations: Examples from Turkey. Caring for the Vulnerable, 91.

Hill, R. (2015). Assessment, Planning, Implementation and Evaluation (APIE). Essentials of Nursing Practice, 197.

Mason, R. (2014). Incorporating injustice: immigrant vulnerability and Latin Americans in multicultural Australia. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 35(5), 549-562.

Michl, L. C., McLaughlin, K. A., Shepherd, K., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2013). Rumination as a mechanism linking stressful life events to symptoms of depression and anxiety: Longitudinal evidence in early adolescents and adults. Journal of abnormal psychology, 122(2), 339.

Moon, J. A. (2013). Reflection in learning and professional development: Theory and practice. Routledge.

Parahoo, K. (2014). Nursing research: principles, process and issues. Palgrave Macmillan.

Townsend, M. C. (2014). Psychiatric mental health nursing: Concepts of care in evidence-based practice. FA Davis.

Williams, B. C. (2017). The Roper-Logan-Tierney model of nursing. Nursing2017 Critical Care, 12(1), 17-20.

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