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Critique of the two designated online counselling sessions(that will draw on different modalities/approaches) is required. After viewing the two video sessions you will need to clearly, concisely and specifically focus on the following:

1. What commonalities and differences are evident between each session/approach?

2. Compare and contrast the therapist’s presence in each session/approach

3. If you were the client, which approach would you prefer and why?

4. If you were the therapist, what aspects of each approach would you find relatively easy or difficult to use and why?

5. Identify and comment for each session/approach on what aspects of the therapist’s presence makes it safe for the client to talk. You are required to include some specific quotations from the sessions in support of your comments.

Nature and complexities of the issues in each session

The essay brings about the discussion on the assignment of Counselling, which included two videos by the authors, Carl Rogers and Stephen Madigan. The assignment focuses on the aspects of human complexities and understanding throughout the life. The video by the first author discussed the client centred therapy, whereas the second one mentioned about the narrative therapy with the children. Counselling therapy refers to the aid to the communication and facilitating change in an intimate relationship (Greene, 2017). Counselling children and adults both differ in some or other ways, as their understanding level and the way of perceiving things is different. Here, the essay enlists the therapist role in understanding and discussing about the issues of the clients in both the videos. In the later part, it discusses about the comparison and contrasting features in both the sessions, and the role of any individual’s in these cases as a therapist and the client (Capuzzi and Stauffer, 2016).

The two videos/sessions, ‘Client-centred therapy’, and ‘Narrative therapy with children’, discussed about the issues of women in her married life, and the problems faced by the children in their early years. Carl Rogers demonstrated from the volunteers, Peter Ann, a woman who faced the situation of feeling guilt and sadness, after putting off her from being a mother, to become focused about her career. The case explains that the woman was suffering as she earlier had miscarriage of twins. Two years have been passed and she is unable to become pregnant in the future after being sufficiently healthy. The demonstration is followed by the interaction between the client, Carl Rogers (therapist), and the groups in the session. She faced the pressure from her family to must have a child, but she has no option to make any change or control the situation on her own (Carl Rogers, 1985).

The other session described about the narrative therapy with the children, wherein the author or therapist interviewed and discussed with Kristy (client), about the problems and impact of those problems in her early years. She stated about her eight classes’ basketball practices she had, which was 2 or 3 times a week. However, she exclaimed that earlier she was more efficient in managing things, at ease and now the efficiency has been reduced. The therapist in this session out of curiosity asked her several questions, knowing her behavioural patterns and the aspects of her problems and how she managed them at the age of 14 years  (Madigan, 2017).

Comparison and contrasting features of both sessions

1. The commonalities found in both the sessions, included about the nature of the therapist to understand and demonstrate the required changes, in respect to the client’s problems. They both depicted about the complexities of issues faced during different stages of life that affected their state of happiness, and wellbeing (Smith et al., 2015). Women in the first session, faced maternity issues or health problems related to her pregnancy loss, and the girl in the second session described fatigue, due to her hectic routine in everyday life (Williams, Priest and Anderson, 2016). Therefore, these issues in both the cases may lead to a long-term impact on their health causing mental health illness, which should be resolved timely. The other similarities in both the cases, was the outlook of both the clients on their problems, they were strong enough to deal with their issues. They had positive outlook towards life, and were supportive for their closed ones or family (Vincent, 2016).

Along with commonalities, there were some differences also; one of the major differences was the nature of problems faced by the clients. The women in the first session, described about her issue, as she has been unable to become pregnant again, after facing the loss of twins, i.e. miscarriage. The girl in the second session, by Stephen Madigan discussed about the positivity the girl has despite of her hectic schedule and chaotic life. The differences with these cases included about the therapist’s viewpoints about himself and the client. The author in the first session stated his inability to make any change for the Peter Ann, and the author in the next author was curious to know and explore more about the client’s story,  how a person as an individual do believe in themselves and practice self-recognition, throughout their life    (Jesse et al., 2015).

2. The presence of the therapist, Rogers and Madigan in their sessions respectively, it has been found that they contributed a lot in delivering a message to the audience or public about the complexities people face in life. Here, women as a wife, or an adult both faced some or other issues during their stage of life. To compare the presence of the therapist in both the sessions, as Carl Rogers, in the first session stated he wanted to be the relationship with the client to be safe, which can make the things expressed which could not be, and to experience the feelings. Steven Mulligan in the second case helped the client to understand the meaning of the life, going out of the way, and the small issues faced by her in daily life (Gu et al., 2015).

Presence and role of the therapist in each session

If the therapist were not present during both the sessions, it would be difficult to make them speak their heart out, and discuss their problems and seek answers to their questions in their minds. Women in the first case, was encouraged by the author to become confident, and realize her potential and experience her more positively (Wenzel, 2017). The audience through this interaction between the authors and the clients also gained an understanding about the complexities and the perceptions of an individual to set themselves free from such issues, and lead a normal life. Contrasting the presence of both the authors, in these cases it can be understood that, by the time the clients represented themselves being strong, enough to deal with the issues of pregnancy loss and the hectic life or fatigue affecting their health. Therefore, due to the absence of the therapists the client might not have an understanding about their perspective, and the strength and resistance they require dealing with the problems of life (Simpson, Lee and Lionel, 2015).

3. Discussing about the therapist role and the client’s issues, it has been analysed through the sessions that maintaining health and wellness is important to every individual to overcome the complexities of life. If I were the client, in these cases I would have used some effective approaches being more proactive and positive towards life. In the first case, I would have been attending the psychotherapy sessions, taken proper medications, and attaining sense of balance, through cognitive-behavioural therapy, as it is most helpful in treating patients with the pregnancy loss or issues of miscarriages (Sturnieks et al., 2018).

Discussing about the second case, it has been found that the anger outburst are most common and explosive features of the hectic and disturbing routine of adult’s life. Henceforth, being a client in the situation in the second case, I would practice effective time-management skills, to control my mood and anger due to the chaos in the activities of daily life. In addition, to the time-management skills, I would engage myself in spirituality or meditation and yoga to get relief from the stress of daily life. The therapies would also include interacting with the friends, family members, or any therapist who would understand these issues, and help to recover from their influence on the health of the individual. I would manage time enough to complete the homework on time, completing those eight classes and attending weekly games activity (Bjerrum, Pedersen and Larsen, 2017).

Preference of approach as a client and why

4. After discussing, the role of being a client, to any individual it is also important to discuss an individual’s role as a therapist. With respect to these two cases, or sessions if I were to be a therapist, I would apply the aspects of cognitive behavioural therapy to both the clients in their cases, which include combining the elements of cognition or cognitive behavioural therapy with the spiritual values and beliefs. Cognitive therapy to the adults experiencing issues of fatigue, tiredness, or restlessness due to the hectic daily schedule helps them to treat their physical, social, mental, and emotional state of wellbeing. I would suggest them to cope with the stress by practicing a positive and healthy life-style through maintaining a balanced and nutritious diet. In the second case or session, to describe and deal with the health problems of the woman maternity and physiological issues or health, it is essential to gain an understanding about the maternity and the pregnancy related aspects of the women (Silk et al., 2018).

As a therapist, I would involve in understanding and creatively determining methods to help the woman with the problems affecting her mental and emotional health. Understanding the client or the woman’s problems, or questions in her mind and then catering to her health needs would be appropriate to deal with such cases. The essential role of the therapist also involves making the person or individual realise about believing in self, and understanding the meaning and essence of life.    

5. To discuss the aspects of the session, or the interaction of clients with the therapists in both the cases, it has been understood that the clients felt safe to talk and discuss about the problems and their impacts on their health and daily life. It can be exemplified from the second case, when the author Steven Mulligan motivated and encouraged the girl and stated that she kept herself on a right track, and the way that she perceives things, and the problems of her life. In addition, in the first case, the author encouraged the women to believe her and accept the changes (Walter and McCoyd, 2015).

Carl Rogers in their interaction with the women or client has shown the signs of positive listener and understood keeping himself in her position, and described her to become positive towards handling these hurdles of life. He made her comfortable during the conversation in the session, and developed a mutual relationship with her to discuss the issues, which she was facing in the family. As she felt pressure from her family members, even though her relationship with her husband was stronger. Showing love and strength towards herself along with her family members was one of the aspects that were depicted through the session in the first video. These are some of the aspects of the two sessions were both the authors made easy for the clients to interact and discuss their issues safely (Jaffe, 2017).

Difficulty in utilizing the aspects of each approach as a therapist

To conclude the above discussion it has been analysed that every individual faces some of the issues related to the health and wellbeing in different stages of life. It has been depicted through the two videos or sessions by two authors who are therapists in their roles, and assume responsibilities towards contributing and healing such persons. Adults and the children both, experience problems in their daily life and encounter issue affecting their health in the longer-term. Therefore, therapist plays an integral role in understanding and guiding them to a right path, and exploring new ways to deal with such issues. There can be a greater effect of the personal recovery in such cases as the clients in such cases need to engage or involve themselves in healthy habits that may improve their lifestyle and strength to deal with the problems in an appropriate manner.

References

Bjerrum, M.B., Pedersen, P.U. and Larsen, P. (2017) Living with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adulthood: a systematic review of qualitative evidence. JBI database of systematic reviews and implementation reports, 15(4), pp.1080-1153.

Capuzzi, D. and Stauffer, M.D., 2016. Counselling and psychotherapy: Theories and interventions. John Wiley & Sons.

Carl Rogers (1985) Evolution of Pyscho-therapy. [online] Available from: https://search-alexanderstreet-com.ezproxy.uws.edu.au/view/work/bibliographic_entity%7Cvideo_work%7C1865902 [Accessed 19/10/18].

Greene, R.R. (2017) Carl Rogers and the person-centred approach. In Human behaviour theory and social work practice (pp. 119-138). United Kingdom: Routledge.

Gu, J., Strauss, C., Bond, R. and Cavanagh, K. (2015) How do mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction improve mental health and wellbeing? A systematic review and meta-analysis of mediation studies. Clinical psychology review, 37, pp.1-12.

Jaffe, J. (2017) Reproductive trauma: Psychotherapy for pregnancy loss and infertility clients from a reproductive story perspective. Psychotherapy, 54(4), p. 380.

Jesse, D.E., Gaynes, B.N., Feldhousen, E.B., Newton, E.R., Bunch, S. and Hollon, S.D. (2015) Performance of a culturally tailored cognitive?behavioral intervention integrated in a public health setting to reduce risk of antepartum depression: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of midwifery & women's health, 60(5), pp. 578-592.

Madigan, S. (2017) Narrative Therapy-Informed Relational Interviewing-Emotionally Preparing Conflicted Couple Relationships for Possible Re-unification, Separation, Mediation, and Family Courtrooms. Fokus på familien, 45(02), pp. 138-158.

Silk, J.S., Tan, P.Z., Ladouceur, C.D., Meller, S., Siegle, G.J., McMakin, D.L., Forbes, E.E., Dahl, R.E., Kendall, P.C., Mannarino, A. and Ryan, N.D. (2018) A randomized clinical trial comparing individual cognitive behavioural therapy and child-centred therapy for child anxiety disorders. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 47(4), pp. 542-554.

Simpson, C., Lee, P. and Lionel, J. (2015) The effect of bereavement counselling on women with psychological problems associated with late pregnancy loss. Journal of Asian Midwives (JAM), 2(2), pp. 5-20.

Smith, B., Tomasone, J.R., Latimer-Cheung, A.E. and Martin Ginis, K.A. (2015) Narrative as a knowledge translation tool for facilitating impact: Translating physical activity knowledge to disabled people and health professionals. Health psychology, 34(4), p. 303.

Stephen Madigan (2002) Child Therapy with experts. [online] Available from: https://search-alexanderstreet-com.ezproxy.uws.edu.au/view/work/bibliographic_entity%7Cvideo_work%7C1857649 [Accessed 19/10/18].

Sturnieks, D.L., Yak, S.L., Ratanapongleka, M., Lord, S.R. and Menant, J.C. (2018) A busy day has minimal effect on factors associated with falls in older people: An ecological randomised crossover trial. Experimental gerontology, 106, pp. 192-197.

Vincent, S. (2016) Being empathic: A companion for counsellors and therapists. United States: CRC Press.

Walter, C.A. and McCoyd, J.L. (2015) Grief and loss across the lifespan: A bio psychosocial perspective. Berlin: Springer.

Wenzel, A. (2017) Cognitive behavioural therapy for pregnancy loss. Psychotherapy, 54(4), p. 400.

Williams, D.R., Priest, N. and Anderson, N.B. (2016) Understanding associations among race, socioeconomic status, and health: Patterns and prospects. Health Psychology, 35(4), p. 407.

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