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Linear Communication Model

In a business organization one of the most important functions of management is Communication. Improper communication may disrupt any business entity or it may lead to shutting down of the company. Generally, communication helps in promoting   as well as encouraging individuals to develop an essence of cooperation within an organization. Thus, communication is considered as one of the important factors that helps management to perform efficiently (Economics Discussion, 2019). West and Tumer stated that there are three important models of communication in business that give information about how communication can be developed as well as highlight about different fragments of communication process.  Linear, Transactional and Interactional, are the three-communication model as discussed by him.

It was in the year 1948 Shannon and Weaver first proposed the Linear model that describe communication as a linear process. This model explains how a sender, also known as a speaker, sends a message to a receiver, also known as a listener. The sender, in this case, is the main source of message.  In a communication engagement, a message might be made up of sounds, words, or behavior. A channel which is generally a communication pathway or route is used for sending the message of the sender to the receiver who represent as a destination or target of the message (Pierce 2022).   In this communication engagement a message is usually passed from sender to the receiver of the message through the given channel. Liner model of communication which can also be called as a straight-line communication is commonly found in mass communication that includes radio, television, newspapers, etc. In this type of communication model, there is no way to get immediate feedback. In order to explain this a real-life example can be about how a radio message is delivered from a person in the studio to a person sitting in the car and listening. In this example a radio announcer act as a sender who encode a verbal message that get transmitted through a radio tower by using an electromagnetic wave that act as a medium of channel for communication and then this message gets decoded using an antenna and speakers when it reaches the receiver's ears. The radio announcer usually does not have any way of knowing whether or not the receiver had received their message, but if there is a proper working of the equipment and the channel used in the process of communication is also clear of static, then there is a high chance of delivering the message to the receiver successfully.

Interaction Model of Communication

The Interaction Model of communication defines communication as a process in which individuals switch roles as sender and receiver to build meaning by sending messages and getting feedback in physical and psychological situations. Instead of screening communication as a one-way, linear process, this model involves integration of feedback, this helps in making the communication more interactive and dual-way process. Feedback refers to the message sent as a reply to other messages. An example of feedback can be a patient response in the form of asking question in relation to the information given to them.

With an introduction of a feedback loop a more sophisticated understanding of the responsibilities of communication can encounter participants. Instead of a single sender, a single message, and a single receiver, this model has two sender-receivers who exchange messages. The Interaction Model of communication emphasizes more focus towards interaction. Both sources' message development is influenced by their "field of experience." 4 The field of experience refers to how a sender's surroundings, culture, experiences, and even heredity can impact how a message is constructed. In general, two forms of Interactional Communication Model exist: the Osgood-Schramm Model and the Westley and Maclean Model (Businesstopia, 2018).

The transactional communication model on the other hand is the most dynamic forms of communication model. One of the most prominent features of this approach is the shift from referring to persons as senders and receivers to communicators.

This means that communication happens when people send and receive messages. Communication is fundamentally observed as a transaction in this concept. Unlike in the linear model, which involve sending meaning from one person to another, or the interactional model, where feedback helps in understanding meaning, persons in the transactional model figure out shared meaning in a more energetic and dynamic process. This model also acknowledges that communications have an impact on the answers, or subsequent messages, created during the communication engagement. This gives a clear indication that messages are not independent, rather they are interconnected with various processes. In contrast to the Interaction Model, which argues that individual’s alternate position can be a sender and a receiver, the Transaction Model proposes that one can become both sender and a receiver simultaneously. A real-life example of meeting a client can be considered as a good example, suppose whenever a person meets a client, they send a verbal message by saying hello, asking who are they and why they are here. The client reacts nonverbally even before they finish their introduction. Person do not wait until they have finished transmitting their verbal message before beginning to receive and decode the client's nonverbal messages. Instead, they provide their verbal message and simultaneously receive the non-verbal messages of their client.

Transactional Communication Model

As the name implies, active listening refers to listening any messages in an manner, that is, giving whole focus towards understanding the messages while it is being conveyed rather than hearing the message of the speaker passively. It involve listening messages actively using all sense (, 2022).

  1. Paying attention properly

  • Before any meeting get started, listener should anticipate answers they might want to get
  • After the meetings get over listener should check their understanding with other individual
  • Always try to write important points discussed in the meeting.
  1. Making focus towards other speaker in a generous manner

  • Focus should be given on the substance of what the sender of the message or speaker is trying to say.
  • Don’t just Plan a negation, always evaluate what the speaker has said.
  • Try to learn something from every speaker
  1. Trying to evade making assumptions

  • Every instruction should be give due consideration even though it might seems unnecessary
  • Background and other individuals experience should also be considered.
  • Try to paraphrase what the speaker or the sender has conveyed
  1. Listeners should listen the messages of the speaker for feelings as well as to get knowledge about facts

  • Speaker should listen the messages consciously for feelings.
  • Try to pay attention towards the speaking tone of the speaker, facial expression and body language
  • Never assume that silence is the means of acceptance.
  • Since listener actively get involved with the speaker, they are more likely to remember explicit information. This is especially critical when the speaker is giving instructions, teaching about new technique, or presenting a message that must be shared with others. This helps them to resolve their problem effectively
  • Listening Actively to others will also assist in spotting out any issues or hindrances that other individuals are encountering, as well as flaws in the project.
  • It helps others individual to feel much more at ease when exchanging information with the person who is listening the message actively. It enables people to engage more with them on a daily basis if the listener shows their willingness to listen their message attentively. Thus, helping them to communicate with other and solve any problems easily.
  • It is often seen that Great workers are always ready to learn new abilities as well as desire to expand their experience. Thus, listening actively will help them to understand new subjects as well as enable them to retain knowledge they have learned so that it can be implemented in future for further development in the business (OptimistMinds, 2022).

Silence can be defined as one of the most powerful tools of communication. It may provide a positive meaning or a negative connotation. Whenever there exists a silence in the classroom, it provides an indication that students in the classroom are paying their due attention towards understanding the message of the speaker. In a similar way silence may be considered as an expression of lacking interest or failure to understand the message of the speaker clearly.  As an example, Silence, frequently implies that the individual who are getting instruction has not understood the action required to be performed or it may sometimes imply an indication of accepting any consent of the speaker.  

Distance is generally a form of communication that reflects the level of intimacy and acceptance of an individual. Distance is often known as proxemics, it is usually a means through which people make distinction between, intimate, personal, and societal spaces. We can define Proxemics as the study of distance or the amount of space that is often kept between others and ourselves when speaking. Proxemics is the study of how humans use space and how they react to the environment around them. It is a general human tendency to carry a personal bubble space with us. We may feel threatened if someone comes too close and invades our personal space.

  • Intimate zone – distance of up to a half-meter. This zone is used when we talk with our personal partners or with any other person with whom we share close chats or caresses. Used for personal partner or other close connection chats or caresses.
  • Personal zone — It defines a distance of half a meter to 1 meter. It assists in conversation without the need for physical contact.

The following are the three main types of interviews discussed below:

A personal or face-to-face interview is one in which all respondents are given the same set of questions in the same sequences using a standard organized questionnaire. An interview can be defined as a two-way conversation between an interviewer and a respondent in order to acquire information. The form of the interview is defined according to their wording, questions, and their sequencing. Such type of interview is usually conducted face-to-face.

This interview is performed to assess an individual's performance within an organization. It should ideally be set up as a two-way conversation, rather than just the interviewer reporting on the employee's performance. Rather, they should both talk about how they can work together to achieve certain goals.  The interviewer must avoid criticizing the employee. She or he must be extremely precise about the employee's strengths and weaknesses as well as assist the employee in finding the root causes of poor performance (, 2022).

Strategies for Active Listening

An exit interview is another type of interview conducted between management and someone who is leaving a company, either through his own will or due to termination. Such type of interview is usually prevailed in any educational, commercial, and government sectors. The main objective of this interview is to gather some useful feedback from the person leaving the company which can be utilized to make future improvement in future practice and for improving the recruitment and retention process (Wigmore, 2013)

Upon learning about the post of financial Administrator in ABC holdings website, I was very keen to contact the organization with interest. When I saw the job description, I was thrilled to see how well my experience matches with your organization requirement and position. After reading about your organization’s mission, vision and goals I feel that it suits me what I offer as a professional.

As a financial administrator, I have a good experience and skills in the field of finance since I have completed my bachelor degree in financial management, I have the capability to make daily reporting and analyzing target for the company. I have gained huge experience in finance since I had worked as a finance administrator in Zee holdings ltd. I learned how to manage monthly reporting, prepared budget as well as did forecasting of financial statement and manage accounting cycles. In addition to this I have excellent communication and typing skills and have the ability to complete my work independently. I have good computer skills and have the capability to work with different software since I am eager to learn new things around me.

I would be very delighted if you invite me for an interview so that I can have an interactive session with you for discussing my qualification and my skills. I am eager to welcome the above opportunity if you allow me. For your reference I am attaching my updated CV below kindly have a look. Thank you for considering my application

Financial Administrator with two years of solid expertise and a proved track record of accomplishment dealing with Financial Management, Administrative Management, Customer Service, and Program/Project concepts, office procedures and practices. I am knowledgeable in Microsoft Office applications such as, Excel, Word, Outlook Access, and PowerPoint, as well as projects, programs, quality assurance operations, and; training, and customer service.

  • Assist Project Manager(s) and project employees in the creation of financial information to be included in monthly reporting to customers.
  • Assist in providing essential financial status updates to Project Managers and Finance & Administration Lead.
  • Ability to Communicate with Project Managers/Directors on a regular basis about the status of financials.
  • Organize the timely generation of monthly invoices, including comprehensive line-item cost explanation.
  • Advanced knowledge of Microsoft Word, Excel including IF functions, VLOOKUP as well as pivot table, and Outlook.
  • Proven ability to work autonomously
  • Working understanding of fundamental financial operations and general accounting principles
  • Excellent skills of problem-solving, including the ability to independently assess situations, identify existing or potential problems, and offer solutions.
  • Have a Strong written and oral communication skills with high level of accuracy and discretion.
  • Worked as finance administrator in Zee holding Ltd
  • 2 years’ experience in the company.
  • Employed from 2/2019 to 11/2021


Anon, 2022. The evolution of human communication: From theory to practice. The Evolution of Human Communication From Theory to Practice. Available at: [Accessed March 28, 2022].

Businesstopia, 2018. Interactive model of Communication. Businesstopia. Available at:,examples%20of%20interactive%20communication%20model. [Accessed March 28, 2022].

Economics Discussion, 2019. Importance of communication in business. Economics Discussion. Available at: [Accessed March 28, 2022]., 2022. MSG Management Study Guide. Performance Appraisal Interview. Available at:,differences%20in%20perception%20or%20evaluation [Accessed March 28, 2022].

OptimistMinds, 2022. Benefits of active listening (A guide + PDF). OptimistMinds. Available at: [Accessed March 28, 2022]., 2022. Active listening. SkillsYouNeed. Available at: [Accessed March 28, 2022].

Wigmore, I., 2013. What is exit interview? - definition from Available at: [Accessed March 28, 2022].

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