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Question 1

Fill in the blank boxes to complete TWO rows of your choice in the following table, which summarises the name, location and function of a variety of cells throughout the body. The first line is completed as an example of the level of detail required. 

Cell name

Where would you usually expect to

What is its job? (or primary role)

find this cell type? (be specific)

Parietal cell

Gastric glands in the stomach.

Secrete intrinsic factor and HCl

Production of melanin to protect

underlying tissue from harmful UV

radiation.

Spontaneously depolarise to trigger

contraction of cardiac muscle.

Establishes the heart rate.

Osteocyte

Contains large quantities of

haemoglobin, enabling it to bind and

transport respiratory gases.

Chief cells

1

Complete each of these sentences with a word or phrase that best describes the outlined scenario. Write the word or phrase in the blank column.

The pressure driven movement of water and solutes from the glomerulus into the Bowman’s capsule is best-described

The movement of glucose into cells via glucose transporter proteins is an example

Cells lining the small intestine continue to absorb glucose, even when glucose concentrations are much higher in the cells compared to the intestinal contents. This is because the glucose is entering the cell via the process

When a micelle contacts the intestinal epithelium, the fatty acids move into the cells via

In the thick ascending limb of the nephron loop, Na+ and Cl- are removed from the tubular fluid via.

ADH facilitates the insertion of aquaporins into the apical plasma membranes of the distal convoluted tubules and collecting system. These channel proteins allow water to move out of the tubular fluid via.

The following paragraph refers to muscle contraction. Fill in each of the blanks to complete the paragraph using terms from the list provided. More words than necessary are provided, and terms may be used more

Na+

sarcoplasm

mitochondria

K+

sarcolemma

Golgi apparatus

Ca2+

sarcoplasmic reticulum

myofibril

Mg2+

sarcomere

myosin

actin

nucleus

myofilament

Which type of immunity is expressed in the following scenarios? Choose between:

  • Non-specific (first line defence)
  • Specific (antibody-mediated)
  • Specific (cell-mediated immunity)

Scenario

Type of immunity

Bacterial septicaemia (bacterial contamination in systemic circulation)

The pH of hydrochloric acid in the stomach acts to destroy ingested bacteria

A liver cell mutates and becomes cancerous

A virus multiplies inside the epithelial cells in your throat.

Antidiuretic hormone and aldosterone are both hormones that act to conserve water in the body. Fill in the following table for each of these hormones.

Antidiuretic hormone

Aldosterone

Where is this hormone synthesized?

Which gland secretes this hormone?

Facultative or obligatory reabsorption?

Mechanism of action how does it work?

The results of dipstick urinalysis of two urine samples are listed below.

Sample 1 belongs to a 16-year-old male ‘gamer’ who has locked himself in his room all weekend to play computer games (he didn’t really even come out to eat or drink).

Sample 2 belongs to a 22-year-old female triathlete who is careful with her diet, hydration, and almost exercises to excess.

Question 2

For each parameter, fill in the normal values. (Hint: Refer to the Week 10 laboratory activity to get you started).

Parameter

Normal values

Sample 1

Sample 2

Colour

Dark yellow

Reddish tinge

Glucose

-

-

Bilirubin

-

Ketones

++

-

Specific gravity

1.039

1.010

Blood

-

++

pH

5.5

6.0

Protein

-

++

Nitrite

-

-

Leukocytes

-

-

  1. What personal protective equipment should be worn when handling someone else’s urine? Explain. (1 mark)

Choose ONE of the samples above and answer the following Questions in the space below.

  1. Compare the normal and sample values. List any abnormalities you observe in the section below. Are they higher or lower than normal? 
  2. Give a situation in which you might expect to see these changes in an otherwise healthy 
  3. What might have been happening in the nephron to cause these abnormal results? Explain your observed abnormalities by linking them with the part of the nephron involved and the process involved (ie filtration, secretion or reabsorption). Ensure that any relationships between the abnormal readings are made clear in your response. 

Question 7

Why is injury to the medulla oblongata frequently fatal?

  1. Indicate which phase of haemostasis is depicted in each of the pictures below. 
  2. Provide a brief description of each phase, using the diagrams to help explain your answer.

Picture

Name of phase

Description of phase

  1. Write the name of each vessel type pictured in the table below in the corresponding box.
  2. For TWO of the vessels, complete the row to include:
  3. the key identifying feature of that vessel type
  4. the layer in which this key identifying feature is found
  5. indicate whether the key identifying feature is notable because it is present in large amounts OR present in small amounts OR absent
  6. how this key identifying feature relates to the function of that vessel. (0.5 marks for a-c and 1 mark for d; total 5 marks)

Picture

Vessel type?

(a) Identifying feature?

(b) Layer of vessel?

(c) Notable because…

(d) Relates to vessel function because…

Complete the table below to outline TWO feedback mechanisms (blood pressure and another of your choice). Your second mechanism must be one that is mediated by a hormone of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis; record both the mechanism and the hormone in the table below.

For both blood pressure and your chosen mechanism, you will need to (a) describe the main role of each feedback mechanism, (b) identify the receptor, control centre and effector and (c) specify whether this is a positive or negative feedback mechanism. Body temperature is provided as an example of the level of detail required. (0.5 marks each – 5 marks total)

Mechanism:

Body temperature

Blood pressure

Mechanism:

Hormone:

Role:

Maintaining body

temperature within

narrow, optimal limits

Receptor:

Thermoreceptor in skin

Control centre:

Brain (hypothalamus)

Effector:

Sweat glands and

arterioles near the skin.

(NB This is one of a

number of possible

answers.)

Positive or

Negative

negative

feedback?

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is recessive sex-linked disorder, which causes muscle degeneration and premature death. A couple is pregnant with a boy and neither have DMD. The father’s family has no history of DMD, but the mother is unsure of her genetic family history as she was adopted. The mother decides to take advantage of some of the new genomic screening tests and learns information about a large number of her genes. She finds that she is a carrier of the DMD affected allele. (3 marks total)

  1. What is the mother’s genotype? Explain your reasoning.
  2. What is the father’s genotype? Explain your reasoning.
  3. What is the likelihood of the male foetus having DMD? Use a punnet square to explain your answer.

Insert the correct term in the summary about digestion using the suggested labels below. Not all terms are suitable and may be used only once. 

o

Acidic

o

Cellulose

o

Lymphatic vessels

o

Neutral

o

Starch

o

Lipase

o

Alkaline

o

Dissacharides

o

Pepsin

o

Amylase

o

Monosaccharides

o

Peptidase

o

Carbonic anhydrase

o

Insulin

o

Bile salts

o

Permease

o

Hepatic portal vein

o

Bicarbonate

Describe the changes in volume and pressure inside the chest cavity during a normal exhalation. Explain why these changes are occurring, and the effect upon airflow. 

The figure below illustrates inspiration and expiration. Refer to this figure to answer the following Questions. 

Question

Answer

Contraction of which muscle/s produces the

movement labelled "1"?

Contraction of which muscle/s produces the

movement labelled “2”?

At label “3”, is pressure outside greater than or

less than pressure inside the lungs?

Is the pressure in the space labelled "4", higher or

lower compared to the atmospheric pressure?

At label “8”, is pressure outside greater than or

less than pressure inside the lungs?

Name any ONE muscle that contracts to cause the

extra movement required when you need to

expire forcefully (indicated by the arrows labelled

"6" and "7").

Regarding ventilation, which process is active - inhalation or exhalation? Explain your answer. 

A young child presents at the hospital with watery and explosive diarrhoea. Her father explains that they have just arrived home from India. Although the family were careful to consume well-cooked food and bottled water, the toddler was given an icy slushie at Delhi airport. Stool samples were collected and lab cultures were completed. The bacteria, Salmonella typhi was shown to be present. Consider this story in relation to microbiology principles, and complete the circle of infection by identifying the infectious agent, the reservoir, the mode of transmission and the portal of entry. (0.5 marks each - 2 marks total)

Relate tissue structure to function.

  1. Describe the type of epithelium you would expect to find in each of the locations listed below.
  2. How does the structure of this epithelium enable it to best perform its function (ie its ‘job’)? The first line is completed as an example. 

Location

Type of epithelium

Relate structure to function

Bladder

Transitional epithelium

Permits repeated cycles of stretching and recoiling.

This allows the bladder to cope with large changes

in volume (ie stretch as it fills with urine, and recoil

upon micturition).

Alveoli

Trachea

Jejunum

The paragraph below relates to this graph, which describes changes in membrane potential over time. Fill in each of the blanks to complete the paragraph using terms from the list provided. More words than necessary are provided, and terms may be used more than once.

Question 1

Cell name

Where would you usually expect to find these types if cells

Primary role

Parietal cell

Gastric glands in the stomach.

Secrete intrinsic factor and HCl

Melanocytes

Hair follicles and the epidermis

Production of melanin to protect underlying tissues from harmful UV rays.

Pacemaker cells

Sinoatrial node i.e within the wall of the atrium near opening of the superior venacava

-Atrioventicular node i.e between the right ventricles and right atrium within the atrial septum

-Along the interventricular septum

-In the inner ventricular walls of the heart , beneath the endocardium

Spontaneous depolarise to trigger contraction of cardiac muscles.

Establishes the heart rate

Osteocyte

Spaces of the vertebra bones

-Bone remodelling and repair.

- Controlling mineral balance or ion exchange.

Red blood cells/erythrocytes

Haemoglobin

Contains large quantities of haemoglobin, enabling it to bind plus transport respiratory gases

Chief cells

Deep mucosal  layer of the stomach lining

Responsible for secretion of pepsinogen and chymosin in ruminants

The pressure driven movement of water and solutes from the glomerulus into the Bowman’s capsule is best-described as tufts.

The movement of glucose into cells via glucose transporter proteins is an example of facilitated diffusion.

Cells lining the small intestine continue to absorb glucose, even when glucose concentrations are much higher in the cells compared to the intestinal contents. This is because the glucose is entering the cell via the process of facilitated diffusion or active transport

When a micelle contacts the intestinal epithelium, the fatty acids move into the cells via lymph.

In the thick ascending limb of the nephron loop, Na+ and Cl- are removed from the tubular fluid via co-transporter

ADH facilitates the insertion of aquaporins into the apical plasma membranes of the distal convoluted tubules and collecting system. These channel proteins allow water to move out of the tubular fluid via vasa recta

The action potential spreads along the sarcolemma , until it reaches a T-tubule. The action potential continues down the T-tubule where it triggers the release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. This exposes binding sites myosin heads bind to the exposed sites on myofilament to form cross-bridges.

scenario

Type of immunity

Bacterial septicaemia (bacterial contamination in systemic circulation

Specific (cell-mediated immunity)

The pH of hydrochloric acid in the stomach act to destroy ingested bacteria

Non-specific (first line defence)

A liver cell mutates and becomes cancerous              

Specific (antibody-mediated)

A virus multiplies inside the epithelial cells in your throat

Specific (cell mediated immunity)

ADH Hormone

Aldosterone

What is synthesised in this hormone?

Neurones in the supraoptic nucleus of hypothalamus

Zona glomerulosa in the adrenal gland

Gland that secretes this hormone

Posterior pituitary gland

Adrenal gland

Facultative or obligatory re-absorption?

Facultative re-absorption

Obligatory

 Mechanism of action

Controls the concentration of urine. Pituitary gland below the skin produces ADH which is released into the blood stream and travels into the blood to the kidneys

The hormones act in renal collection ducts to strike re-absorption of sodium ions and secretion of  potassium and hydrogen ions

Parameter

Normal values

Sample 1

Sample 2

Colour

Yellow

Dark yellow

Reddish tinge

Glucose

Negative

Positive

Negative

Bilirubin

Negative

Negative

Positive

Ketones

Negative

++

--

Specific gravity

1010-1030

1.039

1.010

Blood

Negative

--

++

PH

5-6

5.5

6.0

Protein

Negative or traces (<30mg/dl)

++

++

Nitrite

Negative

++

++

Leucocytes

Negative

++

++

  1. What personal protective equipment should be worn when handling someone else’s urine? Explain. (1 mark)

Gloves-when handling body fluids like urine or equipments containing body fluids or touching someone else’s mucous membrane or broken skin  as well as doing invasive procedures it is advisable to wear protective gloves to prevent  contraction of the fluids that may lead to infections or diseases.

  1. Compare the normal and sample values. List any abnormalities you observe in the section below. Are they higher or lower than normal?

The colour change in sample 2 changes from yellow to reddish tinge

  1. Give a situation in which you might expect to see these changes in an otherwise healthy A situation where a person uses drugs
  2. What might have been happening in the nephron to cause these abnormal results? Explain your observed abnormalities by linking them with the part of the nephron involved and the process involved (ie filtration, secretion or reabsorption). Ensure that any relationships between the abnormal readings are made clear in your response. It compromises kidney function by promoting liver disease.

Why is injury to the medulla oblongata frequently fatal?

The brain stem or medulla oblongata controls the autonomic functions of the brain such as breathing, digestions and heart rate to mention just a few. However, damaging it will disrupt these functions and since they are essential to living, the result will be death or life long hospitalization with life support for the patent or victim

Picture

Name of phase

Description of phase

a)

Vascular spasm phase

A cut blood vessel constricts due to inherent vascular response to injury as well as induced vasoconstriction. The constriction slows blood flow via the defect and then prevents blood loss. Since this measure alone cannot prevent further blood l, it minimizes blood flow via a break in the vessel until when the other homeostatic measure is able to plug up the defect.

b)

Platelet plug formation

Platelets join to form a plug at the cut vessel. They(platelets ) don’t stick to smooth endothelia surfaces of the blood vessel , however when the lining is damaged due to vessel injury, platelets becomes activated  by the exposed collagen  and immediately  sticks to the collagen to form a homeostatic plug at the cut site.

c)

Blood clotting

Blood clotting is due to a chain reaction involving plasma clotting factors. Clotting is transformation of blood from a liquid state into a solid gel.  The formation of clot on the platelet plug makes the plug stronger by reinforcing a seal over a cut in the vessel. Blood clotting in this phase helps prevent bleeding from any imminent defect.

Picture

Vessel type?

Identifying cause

Layer of vessel

Notable because

Relates to vessel

a)

Elastic artery

Have thick walls made of three layers

Tunica adventitia

Because it contains blood vessels and nerves

Acts as a supportive vessel

b)

Continuous capillary

Are small in size and the walls are single cell thick

Media and adventitia muscles

Have a continuous basal laminae

They convey blood between venules and arterioles

c)

venule

Narrow layer of smooth muscle cells

Three tunics

Presence of simple off-the –shelf tube

Allows  blood to return from the capillary beds to drain into the larger blood vessels,

d)

Muscular artery

Has three layers

tunica externa.

Because it contains blood vessels and nerves

Acts as a supportive vessel

Mechanism

Body temperature

Blood pressure

Mechanism: blood clotting

Hormone: Thrombin

Role

Maintaining body temperature within narrow, optimal limits

 Maintaining normal blood pressure in the body

Preventing excessive bleeding

Receptor

Thermoreceptor in skin

Baroreceptors in the heart

platelets

Control centre

Brain (hypothalamus

Brain

Blood vessels

Effector

Sweat glands and arterioles near the skin

Heart and blood vessels

Platelets and proteins in the plasma

Positive or negative feedback?

Negative

Negative

Positive

a)What is the mother’s genotype? Explain your reasoning.

Genotype is XDXd

Reason: Duchenne is carried on the x chromosome and since it is a recessive sex linked disorder.

  1. b) What is the father’s genotype? Explain your reasoning. 

Genotype is XD Y

Reason:  since the father has no duchenne alleles which are denoted by d.

  1. c)What is the likelihood of the male foetus having DMD? Use a punnet square to explain your answer. 
 

XD

Xd

Xd

X DXd

Xd Xd

             Y

XD Y

Xd Y

The likelihood of male foetus having DMD is 1:4

Proteins are digested by pepsin at a neutral pH in the stomach. Further protein digestion is achieved by pancreatic peptidase in the duodenum and completed at the microvilli by brush border enzymes to liberate bile salts for absorption. Digestion in the small intestine requires a pH that is alkaline. Intestinal pH is adjusted by secretion of bicarbonate produced by the liver and insulin produced by the pancreas. Pancreatic enzymes show specificity for their substrates. Pancreatic amylase digests carbohydrates to Disaccharides and disaccharides. Brush border enzymes complete carbohydrate digestion to Monosaccharide’s for absorption. Pancreatic lipase, together with bile salts acting as an emulsifying agent, digests fats to monoglycerides and free fatty acids. Monosaccharides and amino acids are absorbed into the intestinal capillaries. Monoglycerides and free fatty acids are absorbed into the Lymphatic vessels.

Describe the changes in volume and pressure inside the chest cavity during a normal exhalation. Explain why these changes are occurring, and the effect upon airflow. (2 marks)

Exhalation increases internal volume of the lungs thus decreasing the volume in thoracic cavity.  This is because decreased volume in thoracic cavity increases pressure that pushes lungs back to their normal shape hence allowing lungs to expel air during exhalation

Question

Answer

Contraction of which muscle/s produces the movement labelled 1?

Diaphragm muscles

Contraction of which muscle/s produces movement labelled 2

Thoracic cavity

At label “3”, is pressure outside greater than or less than pressure in the lungs

The pressure is lower

Is the pressure in the space labelled "4", higher or lower compared to atmospheric pressure

The pressure is lower

At label “8”, is pressure outside greater than or

Less than pressure inside the lungs

The pressure is greater

Name any ONE muscle that contracts to cause the extra movement required when you need to expire forcefully

External intercostals muscles

Regarding ventilation, which process is active - inhalation or exhalation? Explain your answer. (1 mark)

Inspiration is the most active process regarding ventilation. It involves contraction of the diaphragm where thoracic cavity increases in volume hence decreasing the intra-alveolar pressure such that air flows into the lungs

  1. Infectious agent: Salmonella typhi

Reservoir: contaminated food icy-slushie

Mode of transmission: contaminate food

Portal entry: mouth

Susceptible host: young child; immature immune system

Location

Type of epithelium

Relate structure to function

Bladder

Transitional epithelium

Permits repeated cycles of stretching and recoiling. This allows the bladder to cope with large changes in volume (ie stretch as it fills with urine, and recoil upon micturition

Alveoli

Squamous epithelium

Facilitates transfer of gases between the alveolar air as well as the blood. They also allow passage of materials via filtration plus simple diffusion in sites where protection is not necessary

Trachea

Presudostratified  squamous epithelium

Their mucous secretion and cilia aids in collection of foreign material so than they can be coughed or sneezed out

Jejunum

Simple Columnar epithelium

Lines organs of the digestive tract such as the small intestine , stomach and the large intestine

During resting membrane potential the inside of the cell is 70 mV more negative than the outside of the cell. When a stimulus is applied, the membrane potential must reach peak action potential in order for an Action Potential to be fired. At the start of an Action Potential, Na+ channels open and Na+ ion enter the cell. This phase is called depolarization. Which number indicates the point where a stimulus is applied 8? The action potential is the period of time in which the nerve membrane can start another action potential only if a much greater stimulus than usual is applied.

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