The key for any organizational effectiveness is to allow any kind of and adapt to different organizational change management. The discipline of any organization follows the patterns and rules, which aids in efficient and effective management (Clegg and Matos 2017). Therefore, the resources, which help in regulating and managing the practices of the organization and contribute to its development, may sometimes require the change or the amendments to be brought about in its state of affairs. The effectiveness of this change management that is incorporated within the organizational procedure is an integral part of the organizational culture.
The resources of the organization, which are involved in carrying out their respective functions, require a change in their process of management and working conditions. It aims to seek the efficacy with the transition brought about in the utility and responsibilities (Sims, Newkirk and Lynch2014). The requirement for the change is an organic factor and can take place for several factors. In fact, the orientation and discipline of an enterprise might cause a significant transformation in order to adapt to the new modern regulations and contemporary business strategies.
The change management is framework, which involves causing about a total change right from the approaches to make sustainable and productive use of the investment and the integration for changes in the type of operations that goes on in a place (Cameron and Green 2015). The contribution of John P. Kotter determining the models of organization change management is highly attributed because he developed an 8-rule model, which focuses mainly this concept of organizational transformation (Hornstein 2015). The Models, which the eminent author developed, are as follows:
- Create a sense of necessity
- Generate the maneuvering alliance
- Expand the mission statement and perspective
- Interact with the altered vision
- Authorize Employees with action, power and responsibility
- Developing short term goals
- Strengthen the goals and more fabrication
- Deliver and implement innovative approaches
Over the years, there have been a number of models that have been followed by several organizations. It states the root causes of the change and how can it serve the purpose in the best possible way. The situations that emerge due to the difference perspectives help in developing innovative and intriguing methods and procedures. This definitely leads to the success of the phenomenon of organizational change (Cameron and Green 2015).
The establishment and strategies of this change have managed to integrate the Best Practice policies that are inherent in the culture of the organization. In fact the review and assessment of the previous polices and its comparative analysis with the new phenomenon of the discipline of management are includes in the study of the organizational change management. The direction and analysis of the new purpose must be introduced to allow the necessary requirements and resources. The change in the organizational has severe impact over its strategies and performance, as it is a new aspect that is gradually visible in its operations rather than the real application in the form of written codes and policies (Sims, Newkirk and Lynch2014).
Element 1: Use of Complexity Theory
The discussion of complexity theory needs to be guided by the definition of the Complexity Theory.
The complexity theory is also known as the complexity strategy, is used for the study of complexity systems in an organization and the study lies with the strategic management (Hayes 2014). The Change management is a part of the strategic management of an organization to promote growth and development (Uhl-Bien 2015). The complexity theory is needed to support the change management process in appropriate ways. There are few key concepts in Complexity theory which are needed to be discusses.
Now, the emergent change is a matter to discuss to get a clear view about the role of complexity theory in it.
There are two types of Change in the Change Management theories, one of them are planned change and the other one is emergent change. The planned change methods depend on assumptions that an organization’s environment is known. An alternative way to see the change as essentially emerging is known as the emergent change (Bushe 2015). An emergent change can bring a meaningful change and a powerful shifts in the context of organizational culture. Emergent change is a continuous process of various experiments and adaptations for a multi-level chaotic change in an organization.
The emergent change needs to liberate the controlling behaviour of the management on the organization. The natural and originality is maintained throughout the processes. The effects of such emergent change cannot be predicted by anyone but approaches are made according to the present situations in every steps (Luiking et al. 2015). The emergent change can effect on the new understanding, cooperation and strengthening the employee team as united organizational structure.
Use of Complexity theory to implement Emergent change (How)
The emergent change proceeds to an ‘open’ complex system. Here the word ‘open’ means, the system obtains regular supply of information, energy and matters from the environment (Walton 2014). Here the complexity theory gets the applications to implement the originality of the change stages in an organization. The non-trivial system interaction is challenged by various internal constraints which lead to change the current behavior of individual components in the system (Luiking et al. 2015).
As the next stage, the system proceeds through a differentiation process to innovate and distinct among its parts which will take place to effect the entire system. The theories of complexity is needed when the system achieves a new state of coherence and becomes more organized than before (Luiking et al. 2015). The complexity theory helps in understanding the new orders of the self-organized system. However, the emergent change process is continuous as discussed before, the theory of complexity is needed to be applied in each and every stages of the change management process (Merali 2016).
In further stages, the changes system expresses new arrays of interaction and those are emerged as the new behavior of the system. The changes system exhibits various radical novelty such as coherence along with stable interaction. The dynamic wholeness of the process is always lie in changing stages and shapes the behavior of the elements of the system (Chandler et al. 2016).
Reaching the coherence at higher complexity level, the adaptation by the elements of the system set in to motion and flows across the upcoming generations along with evolving systems. The effects of the complexity theory in the emergent change management is irreversible and quantified in large scales (Bushe 2015).
Use of Complexity theory (Why)
The change agents should use the theories of complexity to understand the emergent change since the complexity theory helps in developing the appreciative roles and responsibility of the people of the organization along with the context of reality. The complexity theory helps in strengthening the indulgence of interactions among the people who participates in the change process (Luiking et al. 2015). The change agents can empower the individuals of an organization through the knowledge of the importance and implications of the change. Whereas knowledge management is also a part of the complexity theory.
An organization can be treated as Complex adaptive system as it reveals the emergence, interdependence and co-evolution as its essential codes (Uhl-Bien 2015). A change agent is the person who helps the company to transform itself by aiming on such matters as effectiveness of organizational objectives, improvement requirements and development stages (Uhl-Bien 2015).
A change agent focuses to give effort on changing the technological along with structural bases of the organization by performing strategic tasks on interpersonal relationships building among the members of the organization (Clegg, Kornberger and Pitsis 2015).
The environment of an organization can be regarded as a system with coevolution. The theory of complexity says, a change agent who is performing inside the environment can input better results in the process of change management (Norberg and Cumming 2013). The inputs of such change agent creates a dynamic equilibrium of coevolution with various measurements of changes along with extraordinary improvements.
Element 2: Political Behavior during Organizational Change
Organizational politics affects the entire processes of change management. The measurements of political impacts on an organization needed to be discussed to understand its effects on the change management.
The processes taken by the organizational to enhance the performance of the employees in the organization sometimes ended up with assigning extensive tasks and workload on them (Pettigrew 2014). Thus, the implication of the political behavior and similar activity in all processes rise up by affecting the life and work performances and interrelationships among the people of the organization. The political behavior can lie with negative as well as positive effects in the organization. This type of working environment may derive many detrimental threats on entire organization (March 2013).
The study of political behaviors in the organizations falls in three major streams. The first stream focuses on the perceptual context of the employees about the politics how shapes the workplace regarding the organizational outcomes (Riggio 2015). The second focus is on the role of the political actors in the organization who are proactively persuading these outcomes. The third stream focuses on the motivation, skills and personality traits and the effect of politics on them.
Negative Impacts of Political Behavior on Change Management
According to a journal, political behavior refers to an intentional act which influence various tactics, impression management and self-presentation to negotiate according to individual person (Harper 2015). The change management focuses on the improvement in the organizational processes and betterment of all the employees to achieve the organizational goals easily. However, the organizational politics implements various differences among the motivation level of the employees along with communication processes between various departments in an organization.
As per an article, the nature of the organizational structure gets influenced by the change processes. The knowledge distribution and the communication among the employees brings a great effort to develop a better work culture in the organization. However, the organizational politics ruins the knowledge distribution process and cooperation among the employees during the change management phases. The negative impacts can increasingly spoil the work life of the employees as well as the organizational goals.
Skills Required to Reduce the Impact
The change agent has the whole responsibility to encourage the employees to accept the change and further proceed for betterment in the organizational culture. In the previous discussion the negative impacts of the organizational politics has been assessed (Hesselbarth and Schaltegger 2014). The change agent needs to play a vital role with certain skills to reduce the negative impact of the politics on changes.
Skill 1: Selection of the Right Candidate for Certain Role
The change agent need to have an eye of a psychologists who can screen the best ones among all.
Skill 2: Transparency in Work
The agent needs to have excellent communication skills (Hayes 2014).
Skill 3: Positive Approaches
Positive approach should be a necessary skill for the agent to reduce the negative impacts due to organizational politics.
Why the change agent should reduce the effect of the political behaviour during organizational change
The political behaviors in the organization can hamper the change management process along with the various crucial works in the organization (Pullen and Rhodes 2014). The organizational politics use to damage most of the individuals along with their respective teams.
According to research, the organizational politics are pursued as personal interests of few individuals that results in backstage trade-offs along with backstabbing. Thus, the change agent needs to reduce the impact of such political behavior during the organizational change (Lee and Lawrence 2013).
The research on political behaviors says the nature of these behaviors impacts on the strategic decision making of the management people and along with the managerial out comes (Hayes 2014).
The change management process in an organization partially handled by the management people to get the desired out comes in every stages. However, in the emergent change management process does not get controlled under and management personnel. Though there are various factors and elements of the change management processes which get influenced by the workplace behaviors of the employees (Booth 2015). Thus, results in spoiling the organizational goals.
The organizational behavior theory states that, the personality traits and the motivational factors of an employee lies in the internal and the external environment of the organization. The theoretical frameworks supports the fact that, political behaviour in the organization can influence the motivational factors for the employees.
The change management process consists of motivation and skill development for the employees. However, the skill development process is a major part to carry the organization to the path of remarkable growth (Riggio 2015). However, the change management process get influenced by the individual’s motivational factors and deviation in performances. Thus, the change agent should focus on the reduction of the effect of political behavior during the change management in the organization (Lee and Lawrence 2013).
How the change agent should reduce the effect of the political behaviour during organizational change
The change management process consists of a team work whose members are eventually some of the employees from different departments of the organization. Thus, before the change management process starts, the change agent should hire the best people for the correct task by testing their motivational factors and their approaches towards the ambition or the career goals (Hayes 2014).
The change agent needs to keep transparency in his every work such as work distribution among the team members and also better communication with all the people which will lead him as clear for all the personnel in an organization (Hayes 2014).
According to various opinions of the researcher who works for the researches on organizational behaviour, the positive approach is the only tool to achieve remarkable success in every situation. The positive approaches can influence the perceptions of an individual about a particular situation or a person. The change agent needs to keep the positive approach whenever the situation in an organization leads to ruin the effort of the change management process (Hayes 2014).
Element 3: Organizational Development Techniques to Implement Change
The organizational development require various tasks to be performed by the managers. The tasks are as follows –
- Leadership development
- Structural development
- Team building
- Cultural development
- Process management
- Capabilities development
Change Management for Organizational Development (Why)
The change management also influences in the leadership development, cultural development, team building and process management in an organization. The change management process focuses on the betterment of the organization along with the development of strong and potential employees who can drive the future of the company (Henderson and Boje 2015). Apart from that, the personnel responsible for bringing development in the organization focuses on proper implementation of the changes. A continuous growth is desired by the managers to achieve the objectives of the organization. Henceforth, the managers needs to use organizational development techniques to implement required changes properly.
Along with that, the ADKAR model of change management discusses the importance of the organizational development techniques for the managers in an organization (Henderson and Boje 2015).
John Kotter has established the theories of ADKAR model for implementation of change in proper ways. The model states about various necessary facts for the change management in an organization (Shah 2014). The ADKAR model consists of 5 parameters such as –
- Awareness – Aware of the reason behind the change
- Desire – Desire of an individual for the change
- Knowledge – Knowledge regarding the stages and steps of change
- Ability – Ability to acquire new skills and behaviors
- Reinforcement – Reinforce the sustainability management for the success of the change
Why ADKAR model is needed
The awareness of the reason behind change need to be spread by the manager. This will grow transparency among the managers and the employees.
The transparency helps to build the team and also influence the desire of change among the employees (Shah 2014).
The knowledge of stages and steps for the employees help in building the perform work environment and ease the process of implementation of change in the organization (Shah 2014).
The Ability is a necessary for all to develop the origination for further path of success. For this purpose, the employees need to acquire new skills which is a part of change implementation.
The reinforcement of the sustainability strategies helps in developing the organizational structure along with the implementation of the change management processes (Shah 2014).
How ADKAR model can be implemented
The awareness, desire and the knowledge can be increased by various processes such as –
- Regularly monitoring each step of the change management process;
- Everyday performance should be analysis with strategic analytical tools;
- Regular meeting should be done with all the employees regarding the progress of the change management process along with the organizational development (Shah 2014);
- The cross department communication should be recorded for the transparency in the process and among the departments (Shah 2014).
Techniques of Organizational Development (How)
The organizational develop techniques for change management implementation are –
Leadership Building: Leadership building falls in new skills development which can also be associated with the change management process. The leadership skills influences a person’s ability to control over his actions in difficult situations along with the people around him. The leadership skills are not an inbuilt property for a person, it is needed to be developed. The leadership skills building among the employees is entirely depends on the manager. Thus, for successful implementation of change management the leadership building is necessary (Henderson and Boje 2015).
Process Management: The organizational processes need to be managed in strategic ways to get the perceived outcomes from the business. However, the process management is a responsibility of the manager which also lies with the change management processes (Henderson and Boje 2015).
Cultural development: The performance of the organization depends on the work culture among the employees. However, development of the organization get influenced by the motivation level, acceptance level and the dedication towards work of the employees. All these parameters are associated with the organizational culture and hence influence the change management process (Henderson and Boje 2015).
The report has gone through various theoretical frameworks to analyze various organizational queries and implication of change management. The report has discussed about the necessity of theoretical framework of complexity theory for the change management, the political behavior in the organization and the role of the change agent to reduce the negative effects along with the role of the managers in implementing sustainable development in the organization. The focus of this research was on various issues regarding the change management processes and the report concludes that proper work distribution, understanding of the responsibilities and the strategic way of thinking of management process can implement successful changes in the organization.
Arévalo, L.E.B. and Espinosa, A., 2015. Theoretical approaches to managing complexity in organizations: A comparative analysis. Estudios Gerenciales, 31(134), pp.20-29.
Booth, S.A., 2015. Crisis management strategy: Competition and change in modern enterprises. Routledge.
Bushe, G.R., 2015. Feature choice working with emergent change: Applying appreciative inquiry to adaptive challenges. AI Practitioner, 17(1), pp.6-13.
Cameron, E. and Green, M., 2015. Making sense of change management: a complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change. Kogan Page Publishers.
Cameron, E. and Green, M., 2015. Making sense of change management: a complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change. Kogan Page Publishers.
Chandler, J., Rycroft?Malone, J., Hawkes, C. and Noyes, J., 2016. Application of simplified complexity theory concepts for healthcare social systems to explain the implementation of evidence into practice. Journal of advanced nursing, 72(2), pp.461-480.
Clegg, S.R. and Matos, J., 2017. Sustainability and Organizational Change Management.
Clegg, S.R., Kornberger, M. and Pitsis, T., 2015. Managing and organizations: An introduction to theory and practice. Sage.
Harper, C., 2015. Organizations: Structures, processes and outcomes. Routledge.
Hayes, J., 2014. The theory and practice of change management. Palgrave Macmillan.
Henderson, T. and Boje, D.M., 2015. Organizational development and change theory: Managing fractal organizing processes (Vol. 11). Routledge.
Hesselbarth, C. and Schaltegger, S., 2014. Educating change agents for sustainability–learnings from the first sustainability management master of business administration. Journal of cleaner production, 62, pp.24-36.
Hornstein, H.A., 2015. The integration of project management and organizational change management is now a necessity. International Journal of Project Management, 33(2), pp.291-298.
Lee, R. and Lawrence, P., 2013. Organizational Behaviour (RLE: Organizations): Politics at Work (Vol. 18). Routledge.
Luiking, M.L., Aarts, L., Bras, L., Grypdonck, M. and van Linge, R., 2015. Planned change or emergent change implementation approach and nurses' professional clinical autonomy. Nursing in critical care.
March, J.G., 2013. Handbook of Organizations (RLE: Organizations) (Vol. 20). Routledge.
Merali, Y., 2016. Complexity and Information Systems: The Emergent Domain. In Enacting Research Methods in Information Systems (pp. 251-281). Springer International Publishing.
Norberg, J. and Cumming, G.S., 2013. Complexity theory for a sustainable future. Columbia University Press.
Pettigrew, A.M., 2014. The politics of organizational decision-making. Routledge.
Pullen, A. and Rhodes, C., 2014. Corporeal ethics and the politics of resistance in organizations. Organization, 21(6), pp.782-796.
Riggio, R., 2015. Introduction to industrial and organizational psychology. Routledge.
Shah, M.H., 2014. An Application of ADKAR Change Model for the Change Management Competencies of School Heads in Pakistan. Journal of Managerial Sciences, 8(1).
Sims, H.A., Newkirk, M.G. and Lynch, M., 2014. Organizational Change Management in Information Technology and Business Transformation Projects.
Uhl-Bien, M., 2015. Complexity leadership theory: An interactive perspective on leading in complex adaptive systems.
Walton, M., 2014. Applying complexity theory: A review to inform evaluation design. Evaluation and program planning, 45, pp.119-126.