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Discuss About The Conceptualizing Inclusive Research With People With Intellectual Disability.

What is needed to achieve?

Inclusive classroom as well as inclusive environment is a new thought in the education genre. This aspect of education believes in including a general form of teaching procedure and classroom development where students with or without the disabilities are seen to work and learn together (VanHees et al., 2015). It is quite different from the traditional through process where students with special needs were allocated separate classrooms and teaching processes with the belief that they require special attention and care. It is entirely different from the special education classroom where students will disabilities only learn with similar other students with disabilities (Messiou et al., 2017). This assignment will mainly be written in the form of a proposal where various important aspects about inclusion education would be highlighted to the higher authorities. It will depict the various benefits and procedures of developing such an inclusive environment so that both students with or without disabilities can grow up to be adults will full potential and strength to lead their successful lives in the society. Recommendations would be provided to the higher authority about ways by which such environment can be achieved in the schools.

Inclusive education will only take place when every student despite any challenges will be placed in the age-appropriate general education classes. This can be in their neighbourhood schools where they will receive high quality instructions as well as interventions and support from expert teachers which will ultimately help them in meeting success in the core curriculum (Faccolade et al., 2017).

  • The classroom and the school will be mainly operating in the premise that students who have special needs are fundamentally competent as students without special needs. In this manner, all students will consider themselves as full participants in the classrooms as well as in the local school community (Armstrong et al., 2016). It must be however kept in mind that this form of education should be always considered as a movement related to the legislation that all students will receive their education in the least restrictive environment.
  • Teachers require to take care that students with special needs should be working closely with their peers without such needs to the maximum degree possible with the general education being the first choice of all students. Researchers are of the opinion that successful inclusive education can happen primarily through the procedure of accepting, understanding as well as attending to the student differences as well as diversity which will eventually include the physical, cognitive, social, emotional as well as academic aspects (Carter et al., 2015). Therefore, teachers who would be participating in the project needs to be well trained with proper principles and ethics so that they can help the students to become successful part of the inclusive classroom.
  • It is necessary to be aware of the driving principle for the teacher who would be participating in the project. They need to make sure that all the students should feel welcomed, appropriately challenged as well as supported in their efforts. The school authority should need to also keep in mind that the environment should be such that the adults should also feel supported (Baran, 2014). This might include the regular education teacher as well as the special education teacher and even the staffs as well as the faculty who are the key stakeholders. This should importantly include parents as well.
  • This project will help both the students with or without the special needs to learn more. Over the last three decades studies have been conducted and they have found out that students with disabilities have higher achievements as well as improvement in their skills through the inclusive education strategies (Knight, 2015). These studies have also suggested that even students without such needs are equally benefitted as well.
  • Researchers have also found that for students who have special needs, inclusive education will also provide them academic gains in literacy such as reading as well as writing, in maths as well as in social studies. These would be both in grades as well as in standardised sheets. They will also have better communication skills and improved social skills with better capacity to make friends. Studies have indeed found out that more time in general classrooms results the students with special needs to be associated with lower number of absences and referrals for any kinds of disruptive behaviours. Studies which have observed attitudes of such children have also found out that such education results in higher self-concept (Demathews et al., 2014). They are seen to like school as well as their teachers even more. They are found to be more motivated for working and learning as well.
  • In case of students who do not have disabilities, they are also seen to be benefitted from such classrooms. They are also seen to show similar positive attitudes in the inclusive classrooms with greater academic gains in reading as well as in mathematics. Studies have also also shown that when students with special needs are present in the classrooms, students without special needs get new kind of learning opportunities (Katz, 2015). One of these is when they are seen to be serving as the peer coaches. Another benefit is also noticed. It is found that as teachers are seen to be making greater considerations of the diverse Students with special needs learns, they are seen to be providing instructions in a  much broader spectrum of learning modalities like that of kinaesthetic, visual as well as auditory fields. This helps in benefitting the regular students as well.
  • Previously researchers used to show concerns about potential pitfalls which make instructions less effective in the inclusion classrooms. However, recent researches have failed those beliefs. Findings have showed that neither instructional times not how much time students are engaged differs between non-inclusive and that of the non-inclusive classrooms. In place, there had been researches which have shown that regular students have either little or no awareness about students with disabilities are existing in their class.(Arishi et al., 2017). When they become aware, they are also seen to demonstrate more acceptance as well as tolerance for their peers with special needs when they experience inclusive education together.

It is very important for the higher authorities to be aware of the challenges that implementation of such projects might result. Therefore, this proposal is also summing up the challenges that might occur so that concerned authorities can device out effective planning to mitigate the challenges:

  • Attitudes: societal norms that had been often followed over the years might become a barrier as societies need time to accept any new medium in the systems. Stalwarts have suggested that old attitudes die hard and therefore many stakeholders might be seen to resist any form of accommodation of the students with disabilities and different learning issues and even those students who are coming from minority cultures. Prejudices might come up against those who have such differences and this can lead to discrimination. This might inhibit the education procedures.
  • Curriculum: a rigid curriculum which does not give opportunity to the teachers for experimentation as well as the use of different teaching methods can become one of the most impactful barriers to inclusive model of education. Study plans which are not supportive of the different styles of the learning can also hinder the schools experiences for all types of students even to those also who are not recognised as having nay mental as well as physical challenges (Bigby et al., 2014).
  • Teachers: the project must give to train teachers well. Studies suggest that teachers who are not trained or those who are unenthusiastic as well as unwilling about working with differently-abled children can prove to be drawbacks to the successful inclusion. Training can fall short of real effectiveness and these instructors who are fighting to survive under huge workplaces might also resent the additional duties of coming up with various approaches for the same lesson.
  • Funding: adequate amount of funding is extremely important for inclusion. Schools are often seen to lack adequate facilities as well as qualified and properly trained teachers as well as other staff members. They might also lack educational staff materials and general support. Lack of resources might come out to be one of the biggest barriers that might hamper the project midway and hence stakeholders need to consider this effectively.
  • Centralized education system: these are mostly seen to be rarely conducive for the positive changes as well as initiatives (Terras & Ramsay, 2015). Decisions are mainly seen to come from higher level authorities of the school system whose main focus remains on the employee compliance rather than quality learning. They might not have proper idea about the little or no idea about the realities that teachers might face; hence, they have to make known of all the facts and figures so that they can take proper decisions.
  • Effective policies and behaviours: often many policy makers are seen to be not supporter of the inclusive education and they can stonewall the efforts of the projects which are trying to make the school policies inclusive. These can exclude whole groups of learners preventing them to be a part of the mainstream educational system. These might prevent the children of special needs to enjoy same opportunities for education and employment that the general students enjoy.

Education for inclusion has been one of the highlighted topics among the researchers and it is slowing getting on the top priority list. Students with special or any form of special needs need to be placed in a class that has an inclusive learning environment (Sharma et al., 2013). Teachers who are categorized under the general educators with limited special education background might find this daunting or be triggered with anxiety when it comes to dealing with students who need special attention (Engelbrecht, 2013). Although there are special education teacher who are expertise in the field of inclusive education, there is an urgent need of general teachers to have a certain level of basic knowledge of dealing with the students who are in need of special attention. All students must be able have necessary resources in order to be successful. The aim is to make the students learn, grow and develop in their own way.

  1. Get to know the class and student’s IEPs/504s

Procedure

Teachers will know when there is a student who is entering the class with specific plan and it is important for the teacher to connect with that student’s case manager. One of the most common and helpful accommodation for students needing special needs is preferential seating. The concept does not say to make the student on the front row or beside the teacher (Lazaro, 2014). It is important to see if the student is comfortable seating in a place he has been provided. Often thinking too hard and making them sit next to the teacher’s desk can be daunting to them of may feel catastrophic. The student needing special need can be seated with the peers he or she feel comfortable with and may be helpful during class with studies. However, it is noted that seats that are away from distractions have been helpful for students who have issues with attention. The teacher should check and make sure about the student’s current documents. It is useful for the teacher to make chart of each student’s services and at what frequency they need the service. Teacher should be aware of the student’s next IEP meeting date and making folder for such activity is often helps in getting the job done in an easy manner.

  1. Implementation of UDL (UNIVERSAL DESIGN FOR LEARNING)

Universal Design has been one of the most circulating word in the field of education. It is an approach to make learning engaging and accessible through curriculum planning and mapping to a wider range of learners varying in their strength and needs. The Universal Design for Learning is based on theories of multiple intelligences by Howards Gardner. The system is to call for teaching to make use of multiple modalities and for students with various forms of assessment tools (Black, Weinberg & Brodwin, 2015). Educators who are familiar to the universal design for education are aware of the fact that everyone learn and express themselves in their own different way. Therefore to express each one should be allowed to use their strength while practicing their areas of need at the same time. General teachers can educate themselves by viewing numerous videos explaining UDL which they can implement as well as reflect on their own teaching practices (Katz, 2013).

  1. Assist with important life skills

‘Life skills’ are usually presumed as some of the sever skills that one need to save life or any dangerous event. However, it is not always same for every students and therefore often the life skills include the necessary skills one need in order to be a proactive and contributing member of society (Lipsky & Gartner, 2013). There are many general students who fail to perform the few of the simple tasks such as telling time from analog clock or writing letters. Therefore, teachers can plan a day to perform some of the tasks focusing on self-development and self-refection. One day in a week to clean backpack, organize the back pack, locker clean-up, sorting out routines and make the possible organizing activities. This simple activity often leads to many success stories where one develops the good habits of coming to school prepared and organized (Fallows & Steven, 2013). Teachers should also pay heed to their student’s essential and make them fill surveys that would force them to think about their skills that they perform best.

  1. Collaborative planning and teaching

Benefits that the project will bring out:

Teacher should be able to spend some quality time with their students which will give them better understanding of their students. Collaborative teaching should be encouraged among the teachers that would help them understand students with special needs. It is often advisable too to spend time with the parents as well. Teachers with no background of knowledge regarding students with special attention should find separate and collaborative time as per their understanding including student’s parents and special education teacher (Beveridge, 2013). This will help figuring out ways of improving student’s learning.

Conclusion:

From the above discussions it can be traced that when all students regardless of any challenges they might face are positioned in age-appropriate classes of general education that are present in their own neighborhood schools it is called an inclusive education. There are various innovative ways for creating an inclusive classroom and it only needs the appropriate approach. The very first method is getting to know student. Teacher needs to be aware of the student’s special needs and requirement. Implementation of universal design for learning that has been the one of the most helpful approach. Teaching life skills are another way of supporting students and help building inclusive class. Also, lastly the most helpful is collaborating with the parents and special education teacher. It is quite different from the traditional through process where students with special needs were allocated separate classrooms and teaching processes with the belief that they require special attention and care. In the above mention discussion, keeping the barriers in mind the measured should be paid attention. since the inclusive classroom are different there is a need for teachers to be aware of the special students to help them grow and develop along with other students.

Reference:

Arishi, A., Boyle, C., & Lauchlan, F. (2017, December). Inclusive education and the politics of difference: Considering the effectiveness of labelling in special education. British Psychological Society.

Armstrong, F., Armstrong, D., & Barton, L. (2016). Inclusive education: Policy, contexts and comparative perspectives. Routledge.

Baran, E. (2014). A review of research on mobile learning in teacher education. Journal of Educational psychology & Society, 17(4), 17.

Beveridge, S. (2013). Children, families and schools: Developing partnerships for inclusive education. Routledge.

Bigby, C., Frawley, P., & Ramcharan, P. (2014). Conceptualizing inclusive research with people with intellectual disability. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 27(1), 3-12.

Black, R. D., Weinberg, L. A., & Brodwin, M. G. (2015). Universal design for learning and instruction: Perspectives of students with disabilities in higher education. Exceptionality Education International, 25(2), 1-16.

Carter, E. W., Moss, C. K., Asmus, J., Fesperman, E., Cooney, M., Brock, M. E., ... & Vincent, L. B. (2015). Promoting inclusion, social connections, and learning through peer support arrangements. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 48(1), 9-18.

DeMatthews, D., & Mawhinney, H. (2014). Social justice leadership and inclusion: Exploring challenges in an urban district struggling to address inequities. Educational Administration Quarterly, 50(5), 844-881.

Engelbrecht, P. (2013). Teacher education for inclusion, international perspectives.

Fakolade, O. A., Adeniyi, S. O., & Tella, A. (2017). Attitude of teachers towards the inclusion of special needs children in general education classroom: the case of teachers in some selected schools in Nigeria. International Electronic Journal of elementary education, 1(3), 155-169.

Fallows, S., & Steven, C. (2013). Integrating key skills in higher education: employability, transferable skills and learning for life. Routledge.

Katz, J. (2013). The Three Block Model of Universal Design for Learning (UDL): Engaging students in inclusive education. Canadian Journal of Education, 36(1).

Katz, J. (2015). Implementing the Three Block Model of Universal Design for Learning: effects on teachers' self-efficacy, stress, and job satisfaction in inclusive classrooms K-12. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 19(1), 1-20.

Knight, J. (2015). Internationalization: A decade of changes and challenges. International Higher Education, (50).

Lazaro, D. L. S. (2014). Classroom Management Strategies for Students with Difficult Behaviors in the General Education/Inclusion Program: A Resource Website. Alliant International University.

Lipsky, D. K., & Gartner, A. (2013). 1. Inclusive education: a requirement of a democratic society. World Yearbook of Education 1999: Inclusive Education, 12.

Messiou, K. (2017). Research in the field of inclusive education: time for a rethink?. International journal of inclusive education, 21(2), 146-159.

Sharma, U., Forlin, C., Deppeler, J., & Yang, G. X. (2013). Reforming teacher education for inclusion in developing countries in the Asia Pacific region. Asian Journal of Inclusive Education, 1(1), 3-16.

Terras, M. M., & Ramsay, J. (2015). Massive open online courses (MOOCs): Insights and challenges from a psychology perspective. British Journal of Educational Technology, 46(3), 472-487.

Van Hees, V., Moyson, T., & Roeyers, H. (2015). Higher education experiences of students with autism spectrum disorder: Challenges, benefits and support needs. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 45(6), 1673-1688.

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