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Benefits and applications of engagement models

1. Describe the benefits and applications one of the engagement models below: 

  • The Zinger model
  • NEHRA’s model
  • The global employee
  • Employee owners

The benefits and application of the Zinger model are following;

  • The main benefit associated with the Zinger model is that it helps to design to foster a relationship to improve employee engagement in the organization. It helps the organization to accomplish the strategic objective, improve performance, build relationships, and foster recognition (Hult et al., 2011).
  • Employees engagement has helped the organization in improving the quality of performance and improvement of the sales and revenues performance
  • Engaging employees improve the roles and includes assigning roles and duties which reduce conflicts issues and create a positive work culture
  • Zinger model ensures authenticity for the manager and team leader helps them to improve the relationship and solve complex issues in better ways
  • An efficient employees engagement through the Zinger model attains higher employee satisfaction and improves customer services as employees work in the best possible manner to offer better services(Mainardes et al, 2012)
  • Zinger model application is to attain employee happiness, satisfied and happy workers are the most significant assets for the organization. They, therefore, become more productive in the business

2. Explain what the stakeholder engagement model is and describe the two types of program/project engagement models.

Stakeholder engagement is the method that systematically focused on the planning, identification, analysis, and implementation of activities designed to impact stakeholders. Stakeholders’ engagement helps the organization to improve the decision-making process and ensure that firm has higher clarity and a shared vision among key influencers (Mainardes et al, 2012).

Stakeholder’s engagement model               

Dedicated team: Dedicated team engagement model includes skilled, specialists and competent personnel included in business production. The key objective of this model is to improve the quality of performance and ensure higher customer satisfaction. The dedicated team size and hourly rate is associated with the pricing model (Jones et al., 2017).          

Technology partners: This model includes profound experience and an expert team from different technology areas and it is focused on the accomplishing quality performance through technology and digital solution(Crane & Ruebottom, 2011)

3. Explain the difference between program goals and program objectives.


Program goal

Program objective 


Program goals are establish to accomplish firm mission thus it is higher in order 

Program objectives are established to accomplish program goals therefore it is lower in order 


Considering program scope, intentions of program goal is to measure in quantifiable ways 

Program objective is explained in terms of specific jobs or tasks


Program goals can be non-measurable or intangible  

Tangible target is implemented in program to define objective


Program goal has long term time frame

Program objective has short term time frame(Andriof & Waddock, 2017) 


Program goals have generate statement of what is to be accomplished (Crane & Ruebottom, 2011) 

Program objectives have specific action considered to accomplish within specific timeframe

4. Select four forms or methods that can be used to keep stakeholders engaged in a program. When would you use each?

Four forms that can be implemented to keep stakeholders engaged in the program are following;

Communicate, communicate, and communicate: This is implemented in project meetings and in solving organizational problems. To accomplish the project objective project manager needs to incorporate a proper communication plan that helps them to reduce the problem and engage stakeholders in the project in proper ways (Andriof & Waddock, 2017). The project manager needs to implement face-to-face communication strategies with their stakeholders during the engagement process.       

Work with your team: An efficient project manager work with their stakeholders to break down the project into manageable tasks and deliverable and this aids everyone to have a better understanding of the project's needs and requirement (Kujala & Sachs, 2019).

Meet expectations: Establishment of goals and expectations in a regular manner and hard work with team members has helped to meet expectations in proper ways. Apart from that project manager needs to do a monthly review and monitor what was accomplished and what needs more effort to set new attainable goals help them to meet stakeholders' expectations in a better manner(Kujala & Sachs, 2019) 

5. Describe the four types of stakeholders below:

  1. Users
  2. Governance
  3. Influencers
  4. Providers

Type of stakeholders

Users are the person who consumes or uses an organization’s services, products, and program and are beneficial for organization outcomes. Users may be customers of the organization and are considered the key stakeholders. The customer has high internet and low influence on the organization (Jones et al., 2017).

Governance is another key stakeholder of the organization which has high impact and low interest. Changes in the government rules and regulations have significantly impacted the performance of the organization in either negative or positive ways. The main roles and responsibilities of the government include monitoring the project development and they provide guidance and advice (Hult et al., 2011).

Stakeholder engagement and its two program/project engagement models

Influencers are a person with the power to impact the decision-making process of the organization and it may include policymakers and governments                           

Providers are a person who mainly focused on the supply of raw materials. This may include a group of organization contractors, partners, and suppliers and so on. Suppliers have low internet and low influence on the organization

6. Explain the importance of having a communication policy and procedure within an organisation and list a few examples of or organisation policies and procedures that can impact program management.

A company must have internal and external communication policies in order to benefit the various business processes and also made for accessibility and communication for employees to perform better. The communication policies and procedures are necessary for explaining the different regulations which are necessary within the company and also providing knowledge about the organizational values and culture maintaining different compliance with the communication guidelines and creating a workplace where the employees can be heard and also have transparent communication (Shackleton et al., 2019). External forms of communication processes and policies are essential for providing employees different guidance about how to handle information and developing outgoing and incoming knowledge pertaining to the organization and the focus is on spreading better informative news and information with the customers, stakeholders and the public. The communication process is essential in order to reduce any form of liability issues and damaging situations for the brand and different external communication processes like direct mail, press release, financial record, newsletter, and annual reports are created in order to shape deputation and image of the brand for the future customers community and investors.

Different examples which are utilized for organizations for their policy and procedures include their code of conduct, recruitment policy, internet and email policy, mobile phone policy, smoking policy, drug and alcohol policy, health and safety policy, and discrimination harassment policies, grievance handling policy, discipline and termination policy and so on (Sterling et al., 2017).

7. Explain the following program objectives in relation to stakeholders:

  1. Financial objectives
  2. Quality objectives
  3. Technical objectives
  4. Compliance objectives
  5. Business objectives
  6. Performance objectives

Financial objectives are utilized in order to provide various types of vision and goals related to attending different key performance indicators related to the financial achievements by the organization. Program objectives for quality are essential for maintaining the quality enhancement and developing the overall standards and performance of the organization and the work achievement by the employees. Technical objectives in the program objective are essential for stakeholders to understand the different technology which are utilized by the organization and how this technology is compliant with developing competency and competitiveness in the market place. Compliance objectives are created in order to understand how the company directives and operations are compliant with the different guidelines, values, ethics, legacy pertaining to the compliance and guidelines related to government bodies (Andriof and Waddock, 2017). Business objective is created in order to develop interest from investors and shareholders in understanding achievements of the business in the long-term and achievements of the key performance indicators and the strategies utilised. The performance objectives are certain types of program objectives for the stakeholders in order to improve the invested attractiveness and maintaining the different performance which attained by the organization.

Difference between program goals and program objectives

8. List the 10 principles of the stakeholder engagement model.

The ten different principles of stakeholder engagement are essential for developing in the stakeholder engagement and management for successful project delivery. It is essential to develop these principles in order to improve responsiveness towards a project managers and responding towards better stakeholder management and engagement in order to develop the objectives of the organization. Firstly, understanding the different stakeholders is crucial for engaging and influencing the various stakeholders. Stakeholder mapping guide helps in understanding the different types of stakeholders. Communication is also another principle which is aimed at improving the objectives and developing teamwork and reducing risk. Consultation is the third principle which is done in order to develop relevant stakeholder management and develop the object is constraints success criteria key concerns and provide information to the different stakeholders. Understanding that stakeholders are also human, having reasonable, rational, consistent, predictable manner of operating with the Awareness of human feeling and potential (Shackleton et al., 2019). Planning is an essential principle that involves the stakeholders and encourages them for property investment through regular meetings. Sixth is developing relationship that helps in increasing trust and building the stakeholder management through minimising uncertainty, developing project environment, decision making and problem solving. Risk management is the seventh principle which is used in influencing different types of resources and developing opportunities within the project. Compromise is an essential step in developing the solutions better. Understanding the scope of success of the project,  and taking responsibility as a Project sponsor through accountability and responsibility is essential for stakeholder engagement as well.

9. Why is it important for program managers to seek continuous consultation with stakeholders? What does this ongoing consultation involve?

Stakeholder consultation is key to identifying and monitoring the different Trends, perceptions, and challenges that might arise with time with the specific group of stakeholders and helps in identifying and tracking the various Expectations and need identifying the different attitudes and perceptions providing different feedback on the planned development, evaluating the actions, implementation and establishing the overall value of the brand and positioning of the corporation. Consultation helps in specific development projects and ventures and ongoing consultation helps in monitoring and tracking the overall stakeholder perception building a broader operating environment (Sterling et al., 2017).

10. Describe the following methods of consultation:

  1. Targeted consultation
  2. Confidential consultation
  3. Post-decision consultation

Targeted consultation helps in understanding the suitability of the project and also appropriateness of different assessment by understanding the investor participation within the capital markets in comparison to different other economics.

Confidential consultation on the other hand is a private type of consultation between two or more parties whereby there are different terms of abeyance that needs to be held under confidential notice.

A post decision hearing or post decision consultation is a hearing given by adjudicating authority subsequent to making a decision or a choice (Andriof and Waddock, 2017).


 Andriof, J. and Waddock, S., 2017. Unfolding stakeholder engagement. In Unfolding stakeholder thinking (pp. 19-42). Routledge.

Crane, A., & Ruebottom, T. (2011). Stakeholder theory and social identity: Rethinking stakeholder identification. Journal of business ethics, 102(1), 77-87.

Hult, G. T. M., Mena, J. A., Ferrell, O. C., & Ferrell, L. (2011). Stakeholder marketing: a definition and conceptual framework. AMS review, 1(1), 44-65.

Jones, T. M., Wicks, A. C., & Freeman, R. E. (2017). Stakeholder theory: The state of the art. The Blackwell guide to business ethics, 17-37.

Kujala, J., & Sachs, S. (2019). The CHAPTER14 Practice of Stakeholder Engagement1. The Cambridge handbook of stakeholder theory, 227.         

Mainardes, E. W., Alves, H., & Raposo, M. (2012). A model for stakeholder classification and stakeholder relationships. Management decision.

Shackleton, R.T., Adriaens, T., Brundu, G., Dehnen-Schmutz, K., Estévez, R.A., Fried, J., Larson, B.M., Liu, S., Marchante, E., Marchante, H. and Moshobane, M.C., 2019. Stakeholder engagement in the study and management of invasive alien species. Journal of environmental management, 229, pp.88-101.

Sterling, E.J., Betley, E., Sigouin, A., Gomez, A., Toomey, A., Cullman, G., Malone, C., Pekor, A., Arengo, F., Blair, M. and Filardi, C., 2017. Assessing the evidence for stakeholder engagement in biodiversity conservation. Biological conservation, 209, pp.159-171.

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